ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)
Просеков Александр Юрьевич, главный редактор, доктор технических наук, профессор, член-корреспондент РАН
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Периодичность выхода:
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Индексация: Scopus, WOS, ВАК, РИНЦ, DOAJ

Журнал «Foods and Raw Materials»

Журнал «Foods and Raw Materials» – рецензируемый научный журнал на английском языке, освещающий широкий круг вопросов пищевой промышленности.

Приоритетной целью Журнала является распространение в мировом научном сообществе трудов ученых из России и зарубежных стран, усиление присутствия достижений представляемой ими науки на международной арене, освещение результатов перспективных направлений научно-исследовательской деятельности в пищевой промышленности и смежных отраслях.

Том 11, №1 (2023)

Pig adipose tissue of two different breeds and locations: morphology and Raman studies
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According to the recent data, there are 4–5-local pig breeds left in Russia by now. Livni is among them. This breed is characterized by high fat content. Back fat has been analyzed earlier. We aimed to assess fat morphometrics from other localizations in pigs.
Sacral, axillary, and perirenal fat samples from 6-month-old Duroc and Livni pig breeds were analyzed using morphological and Raman-based techniques.
Livni adipocytes were characterized by dense packing with a polyhedron-like structure. In Duroc fat, they were more rounded (spherical). A “two-phase” cell disperse was identified in all samples. Fat cells in Livni pigs were bigger than those in the Duroc breed: 70–102%; 15–18 and 26% for sacral, axillary, and perirenal locations. Differences in the intensity of the Raman signal between the samples were found: in the samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue, more intense peaks were observed, which are responsible for unsaturation; the samples of Livni axillary fat were characterized by greater unsaturation than sacral fat.
Livni and Duroc adipocytes differ from each other in form and size and the difference depends on location. Pork fat from local breeds is expected to have potentially more health protecting (for animals) and health promoting (for consumers) properties.
Bioaccumulation of trace elements in vegetables grown in various anthropogenic conditions
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Hazardous compounds accumulate in plants and animals as a result of anthropogenic impact. Trace elements, such as heavy metals, move up in the system of snow – soil – water – plant – animal. When contaminants accumulate in plants that serve as animal feed, they eventually accumulate in the animals that consume the feed because heavy metals usually enter living organisms via digestive tract, i.e., with food.
In 2003–2021, we studied fodder plants grown and harvested by urban zoological organizations, e.g., zoos, nature corners, etc. This research covered the Central Federal District represented by the cities of Moscow, Ivanovo, Yaroslavl, and Uglich. The empirical part of the study relied on a combination of modern ecological, biochemical, and statistical methods. A KVANT-2AT atomic absorption spectrometer was used to define the trace elements and their quantities.
Broccoli proved to be the most resistant feed vegetable to all the toxic elements in this study. Kohlrabi, sweet potato, and dill had low content of lead and cadmium, while garlic was highly resistant to cadmium and arsenic. Spinach, fennel, potatoes, beets, and bell peppers, which were used as fodder in metropolis conditions, exceeded the maximal permissible concentration of heavy metals. The samples obtained from the Moscow Zoo contained by 1.98 times more zinc, by 1.06 times more copper, and by 89.47 times more lead than average. The samples from Ivanovo accumulated the greatest extent of iron, which exceeded the average level by 3.26 times. The vegetables from Uglich and Ivanovo had the lowest concentration of zinc, which was by 67.86 and 62.70% below the average, respectively. The samples from Yaroslavl contained by 33.08% less copper. In 2003–2021, feed vegetables grown in the Central Federal District had an average increase in zinc, copper, and lead by 1.13, 1.45, and 2.80 times, respectively. The level of iron stayed almost the same throughout 2018–2021, while that of arsenic gradually decreased in concentration. The accumulation level of zinc, copper, iron, and arsenic in feed vegetables appeared to depend on the concentration of their water-soluble metal forms in the soil.
Therefore, forage agriculture in urban areas requires constant chemical and toxicological tests to prevent contaminated feed from entering animal diet.
Algerian date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit cultivars: HPLC fingerprinting and antibacterial activity
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The abusive use of antibiotics causes the destruction of intestinal flora and the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Date palm is used in traditional medicine in the Saharan regions due to its biological properties.
The study aimed to identify the phytochemical composition and assess the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extracts of three date cultivars from Algeria. Their total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol contents were measured spectrophotometrically. The phytochemical screening was conducted by HPLC fingerprinting using twenty-three pure phenolic compounds as standards. The antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial species was assessed using the disk diffusion method.
The colorimetric methods showed that the total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol contents ranged from 2.13 ± 0.09 to 2.67 ± 0.02 mg GAE/100 g DW, 1.33 ± 0.21 to 1.55 ± 0.13 mg CEQ/100 g DW, and 0.41 ± 0.23 to 0.47 ± 0.05 mg REQ/100 g DW, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting showed that the extracts of date cultivars served as an excellent source of bioactive compounds (gallic acid, tannic acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, caffeine, quercetin, luteolin, rutin, aspegenin, isorhamnetin, and hesperidin). They also exhibited an antibacterial potential with an inhibition zone diameter ranging from 8.40 to 12.50 mm.
The results clearly demonstrate the antibacterial potency of date palm fruits, which could be attributed to their considerable content of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, rutin, quercetin, and luteolin.
Embryogenesis induction of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in isolated microspore culture
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Haploid technologies are used to create homozygous lines for accelerated breeding. We aimed to optimize the technology for using the isolated microspore culture in vitro to obtain doubled haploids of the carrot (Daucus carota L.).
We studied two carrot varieties with different responsiveness to embryogenesis, Altajskaya lakomka and Breeding line 17. Carrot microspores were isolated from buds and cultivated in liquid nutrient media supplemented with an antibiotic and activated carbon in vitro. They were exposed to different thermal treatments.
The experiment showed the benefits of combining cold pre-treatment of buds (5°C for 1 day) with heat shock of isolated microspores in vitro (32°C for 2 days). The induction of embryogenesis on the NLN-13 medium was twice as high as on the MSm-13 medium. The use of 1% activated carbon in 0.5% agarose increased the yield of embryoids by more than 1.5 times. 100 mg/dm3 of ampicillin was found to be the most efficient concentration. After 30 days of cultivation under optimized conditions, the yield was 161.3 and 44.0 embryoids per Petri dish for the cultivar Altajskaya lakomka and Breeding line 17, respectively.
The induction of carrot embryogenesis is determined by the type and duration of thermal stress, the composition of the nutrient medium, the use of activated carbon as a sorbent, the addition of β-lactam antibiotics, and the type of explant exposed to thermal treatment. Our technology enabled us to obtain homozygous doubled haploid lines of carrots during a year, and these lines were included in the breeding process to create F1 hybrids.
Grain bran hydrolysates in the production of fruit distillates
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Currently, there is an urgent need for domestic fermentation activators based on low-cost secondary raw materials. We aimed to study the effect of microbial enzyme preparations with different action on the hydrolysis of proteins and phytin of grain bran to obtain fermentation activators that could become an alternative to imported ones.
We studied wheat and rye brans; microbial enzyme preparations with cytolytic, proteolytic, and phytase action; multi-enzyme compositions; and grain bran hydrolysates. Firstly, we determined the kinetic characteristics of enzyme preparations. Secondly, we evaluated their effectiveness in the hydrolysis of the brans. Thirdly, we developed multi-enzyme compositions. Finally, we determined the concentration of soluble forms of phosphorus and free amino acids in the hydrolysates.
We determined optimal temperature and pH values for the enzyme preparations. The multi-enzyme compositions contributed to a high accumulation of reducing substances, water-soluble protein, and phosphorus. The concentration of free amino acids in the hydrolysates obtained under the action of the bran’s own enzymes was about 20% higher in the wheat samples, compared to the rye samples. However, when using multi-enzyme compositions in addition to the bran’s own enzymes, the concentration of free amino acids was 1.5 times higher in the rye hydrolysates, compared to the wheat hydrolysates.
The use of multi-enzyme compositions under optimal conditions can double the content of phosphorus and free amino acids available for yeast, compared to the control. Our results can be used for further research into using grain bran hydrolysates as an alternative source of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition for yeast at the fermentation stage of fruit distillate production.
Assessment of trace elements in canned fish and health risk appraisal
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Trace elements are dangerous to human health and there is a rising concern about the quality of processed foods in some parts of the world, especially in Iraq.
The chemical composition (total sold, moisture, and ash) and concentrations of trace elements in canned fish (Skipjack tuna, Sardines, Tuna fish, Sardines, and Mackerel) from the Kalar market, Iraq were determined by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer.
The ranges obtained for the elements in mg/kg were as follows: Se (0.025–0.77), As (0.02–1.07), B (0.05–0.7), Ag (0.04–0.83), Ba (0.05–0.975), Mg (29.8–37.5), Mn (0.97–2.09), Cu (0.91–3.09), and Zn (5.12–11.7). The studied canned fishes pose no risk with respect to the estimated daily intake of Se, As, B, Ag, Ba, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn. The total target hazard quotients for the studied metals from individual fish species (except Fme, Fma, and Fsh) were more than one, which was responsible for noncarcinogenic risks. The target carcinogenic risk value for arsenic was also higher than the standard (10-4) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
It revealed that the consumption of canned fish causes a chronic cancer risk to humans.
White pitahaya as a natural additive: potential usage in cosmetic industry
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The awareness of some harmful side effects of the chemicals contained in synthetic cosmetics has increased the demand for herbal-based cosmetic products today.
White pitahaya fruit and peel methanol extracts were prepared to determine their usage potential in the cosmetic industry. Firstly, we investigated their antimicrobial activity against some test microorganisms using the disc diffusion assay. We also determined their minimal inhibition and minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentrations. Then, we assayed the antimicrobial activity of a commercial cream containing white pitahaya extracts and the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MA-7 strain against the test microorganisms. Finally, we measured the sun protection factors of the white pitahaya fruit and peel extracts and the cream with the extracts.
The white pitahaya fruit and peel extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms. The cream formulation containing a pitahaya fruit extract had the highest inhibition zone diameter of 11.25 mm against Escherichia coli O157:H7. The highest sun protection value among the extracts and cream with extracts was determined for peel extract as 6.66 and 23.34, respectively.
The results indicate that pitahaya fruit and peel extracts have effective antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as high sun protection factors, and therefore they could be used as natural preservatives in the cosmetic industry.
Preparation of sodium alginate films incorporated with hydroalcoholic extract of Macrocystis pyrifera
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Agroindustry needs novel materials to replace synthetic plastics. This article introduces sodium alginate films with antioxidant properties. The films, which were incorporated with hydroalcoholic extract of Macrocystis pyrifera, were tested on sliced Hass avocados.
The research featured sodium alginate films incorporated with hydroalcoholic extracts of M. pyrifera. Uncoated avocado halves served as control, while the experimental samples were covered with polymer film with or without hydroalcoholic extract. A set of experiments made it possible to evaluate the effect of the extracts on polymeric matrices, release kinetics, and sensory profile of halved Hass avocados.
A greater concentration of hydroalcoholic extracts increased the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. As a result, the bands in the carboxylate groups of sodium alginate became more intense. Crystallinity decreased, whereas opacity and mass loss percentage increased, and conglomerates appeared on the surface of the films. These processes fit the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model because they resulted from a combination of diffusion and swelling mechanisms in the films.
The films incorporated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. pyrifera proved to be an effective alternative to traditional fruit wrapping materials.
Volatile aroma compounds in Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausage formed in different types of casings
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Optimisation of a process for cocoa-based vermicelli
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
OBTAINING AND IDENTIFICATION OF INULIN FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS) TUBERS
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Influence of coronavirus crisis on food industry economy
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
Production of bioethanol from Robusta coffee pulp (Coffea robusta L.) in Vietnam
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Natural sweeteners: health benefits of stevia
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
Mechanically activated hydrolysis of plant-derived proteins in food industry
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A poor consumption of important nutrients triggered a public interest in functional foods that contain easy-to-digest proteins. The present research features fractionation, mechanical activation, and enzymatic hydrolysis of pea protein. According to modern chemical methods, the protein content in the original pea biomass was 24.3% and its molecular weight distribution (MWD) was 5–135 kDa. Fractionation, or protein displacement, resulted in four fractions of biopolymers with different chemical composition, i.e. a different content of protein and carbohydrate molecules. The paper introduces some data on the enzymatic transformations of the substrate. A set of experiments made it possible to define the optimal conditions for the mechanical activation of pea biomass with proteolytic enzymes. The enzymes were obtained from Protosubtilin G3x, a complex enzyme preparation. When the substrate and the enzymes were mechanically activated together, it produced mechanocomposite, an intermediate product with increased reactivity. It increased the specific surface area by 3.2 times and doubled the crystallinity of the substrate. As a result, the rate and yield of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis increased from 18% to 61%. The study determined the capacity of the substrate in relation to the enzyme preparation. Under optimal conditions, the pea hydrolysis destroyed protein molecules within two hours. After four hours of hydrolysis, no changes were detected. A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed non-hydrolysed protein molecules with MW ≈ 20 kDa. Presumably, they corresponded with legumin, which is resistant to neutral and alkaline proteases. The resulting hydrolysates were spray-dried to test their potential use as a food component. The product obtained by spray-drying had a monomodal distribution of particle sizes of spherical shape with adiameter of 5–20 μm.
Prospects for using pine nut products in the dairy industry
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
Effects of natural herbal extracts on hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) oil quality indicators
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Effect of sodium bicarbonate residue on some characteristics of processed meat products
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for 2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per 1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups (P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.