ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)
Alexander Yu. Prosekov, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Journal «Foods and Raw Materials»

Foods and Raw Materials is a peer-reviewed English-language scientific journal on a wide range of food industry issues.

Dear Authors,

Updated on 6 June 2024, Scopus CiteScore 2023 classifies Foods and Raw Materials as a world-class journal in Q1 (General Veterinary; Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)) and Q2 (Food Science). This is an indicator of the journal’s status and the level of its publications. For us, this recognition is a great responsibility. The contribution of our authors and reviewers cannot be overestimated.
However, we need to develop further and continue to create highly-cited international content. Therefore, we have updated our requirements for manuscripts and their reviewing, namely:
1. We shall only accept manuscripts in those fields of study which have been in the tag cloud of Scopus publications over the last three years.
2. A manuscript must contain at least 60,000 characters with spaces (excluding references) and at least 10 graphic objects (tables, graphs, diagrams).
3. The editorial board shall reject weak, carelessly written or otherwise unsuitable manuscripts before sending them for consideration and review; increase the number of reviewers to two external and one internal; use a cascading review system; and consider a possibility of public disclosure of information (publish comments made by reviewers together with the manuscript).
4. Priority shall be given to manuscripts of highly-cited authors that contain fundamentally new information.

Volume 13, Issue 1 (2025)

Acid curd (Karish) cheese supplemented with ashwagandha and/or probiotics: Modulatory efficiency on induced behavioral and neurochemical changes in rats
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Neurodegenerative disorder leads to a progressive memory loss that has only limited known medications. The use of ashwagandha, probiotics, or their combination may improve cholinergic activity, consequently providing therapeutic potency against amnesia and neuroplasticity disorders. We aimed to explore the modulatory benefits of ashwagandha extract and probiotics against induced behavioral and neurochemical retardations.
Acid curd (Karish) cheese samples were supplemented with ashwagandha extract and/or probiotics and subjected to chemical, microbiological, rheological, sensorial, and biological investigations by standard techniques.
The supplementation of Karish cheese with ashwagandha never deteriorated its chemical composition or rheological parameters. On the contrary, it exerted high antioxidant and phenolic potentials. Also, ashwagandha extract performed antimicrobial action against the tested pathogenic bacteria and showed better prebiotic effects with Lactobacillus plantarum. The biological study revealed that treating dementia-modeled rats with Karish cheese supplemented with ashwagandha and/or probiotics resulted in a detectable improvement in the behavioral and neurochemical measurements. However, the cheese supplemented with a formula of ashwagandha and probiotics had the greatest regenerating effect.
The supplementation of Karish cheese with ashwagandha and/or probiotics exhibited a modulatory efficiency against experimentally induced behavioral and neurochemical disorders.
Encapsulated polyphenols in functional food production
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Polyphenols are present as nutrient components in many functional food formulations. However, their bioavailability is quite low, and they tend to degrade under extreme technological conditions, e.g., heating, pH, etc. Moreover, polyphenols are known for their specific bitter taste. As a result, a large amount of polyphenols spoils the sensory properties of the finished product. Encapsulation seems a prospective solution to this problem. This article provides a comprehensive review of scientific publications on various methods of polyphenol encapsulation.
The review covered publications registered in PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Elsevier, eLIBRARY.RU, and Cyberleninka in 2002–2023 with a focus on original research articles published after 2012. The search involved such keywords as polyphenols, encapsulation, flavonoids, delivery systems, and functional products.
Encapsulating materials are made of organic or inorganic substances, as well as of their combinations. Mineral salts delay the contact between polyphenols and taste buds. However, they are not resistant enough to gastric juice. In this respect, organic matrices are more effective. Carbohydrates protect active molecules from degradation in the stomach. Liposomes increase the bioavailability of polyphenols. Milk or whey proteins also proved quite effective for a number of reasons. First, they mask the astringent taste, which makes it possible to include more polyphenols in functional food formulations. Second, the resulting product is fortified with valuable proteins and essential amino acids. Third, high concentrations of polyphenols possess enough antioxidant properties to increase the shelf-life.
Polyphenol encapsulation is an effective method of functional product design, especially in the sphere of foods made for dietary nutrition, sports, preventive diets, etc.
Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of Olea europaea L. leaves: An experimental study in vivo, in vitro and in silico
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Hyperlipidemia is an enduring metabolic ailment that affects glucose and lipid processing.
The research objective was to measure the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents in Olea europaea L. leaves and to to identify their antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic potential. The study included an in silico model of interaction for hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and xanthine dehydrogenase. The in vivo experiment involved rabbits that received olive leaves (150 mg/kg) and 10 mL of egg yolk as a high-fat diet. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were tested for lipid profile, and tissue specimens were used for liver histology.
The total phenolic content was 119.84 ± 3.86 mg GAE/g, the total flavonoid content was 2.22 ± 0.07 mg CE/g, and the total tannin content was 21.25 ± 1.24 mg REQ/g dry weight. According to DPPH and FRAP analyses, the antioxidant capacities were 0.34 ± 0.06 μg/mL and 6.35 ± 0.52 μmol Fe(II)/g dry weight, respectively. In the experimental animals, O. europaea leaves reduced such parameters as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, total triglycerides, total cholesterol vs. high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein vs. high-density lipoprotein. The histopathological liver assay showed no signs of tissue damage while the samples obtained from the control group demonstrated steatosis deposits and cellular necrosis. Based on the energy and RMSD results, hydroxytyrosol proved an effective xanthine dehydrogenase inhibition.
These findings constitute a good scientific basis for the complementary future research on the potential of O. europaea leaves as ingredients of functional foods or medical drugs.
Immunomodulatory effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal) and its impact on COVID-19
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Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L. Dunal) is an Ayurvedic medicinal herb that has been known for its therapeutic properties for millennia. Ashwagandha contains several bioactive compounds, including withanolides, alkaloids, and saponins. They make ashwagandha a potent adaptogen and a versatile herb that can maintain optimal health and overall well-being. Ashwagandha reduces stress and anxiety, as well as boosts the immune system. Its anti-inflammatory properties treat arthritis, asthma, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Ashwagandha produces an immunomodulatory effect on natural killer cells, lymphocytes, and leukemia cells. It enhances the activity of natural killer cells, increases lymphocyte function, and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells. However, its mechanism of action still remains understudied.
Ashwagandha has an impact on COVID-19: phytochemical withanone blocks or weakens the interaction between S-protein and Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Withanoside V and somniferine inhibit viral transcription and replication caused by SARSCoV-2 Mpro.
This review explores the potential utilization of ashwagandha in the food industry, i.e., its safety and toxicity, as well as the mechanism behind its immunomodulatory effect.
Fruit phytochemicals: antioxidant activity and health-promoting properties
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Synthesized in plants, polyphenols are powerful antioxidants and protect against stressful conditions. We aimed to identify different kinds of phytochemicals in fruits and provide detailed information on the roles they play in promoting good health in the human body. We also discussed the biological activities of phytochemicals found in several fruits.
Google Scholar and PubMed databases were used to search for relevant information that could assist in answering our research questions. We selected and reviewed both research and review articles related to the purpose of our study.
Fruits contain numerous antioxidants which neutralize the negative impact of free radicals on the body. Free radicals are destructive species that can be produced during normal body metabolism or come from exogenous sources such as smoking or exposure to radiation. Due to their unstable nature, they can cause damage to cellular macromolecules, resulting in the development of degenerative diseases. Phytochemicals are diverse groups of bioactive compounds found in fruits that have potent antioxidant activity and exhibit several health-promoting properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. There are two major groups of antioxidants: natural (or dietary) antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants. Natural antioxidants have gained much popularity in recent times because of the safety concerns surrounding the use of synthetic antioxidants.
The consumption of fruits plays a critical role in disease prevention, especially diseases resulting from oxidative damage to cells. The inclusion of fruits in one’s daily diet helps improve their overall wellbeing.
Microencapsulation by coacervation: Physicochemical and sensory properties of food flavorings
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Coacervation is a low-energy method that is ideal for encapsulating heat-sensitive materials, e.g., limonene, citral, linalool, and isoamyl acetate.
This research used a simple coacervation method to prepare flavoring beads with alginate and Tween 80. The methods of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy made it possible to study the morphology and structure of the flavoring beads. After the extraction, the flavor retention and structure were described using the method of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
The microcapsules demonstrated a retention rate of 99.07–99.73% while the encapsulation efficiency remained as high as 96.40–97.07%. The microcapsules had a mononuclear structure and ranged from spherical to elongated ellipsoids; they were sealed without agglomeration. The particle size was below 1000 µm. The GC-MS chromatograms detected neither structural changes nor any new compounds. The FTIR spectra were similar to the control but demonstrated slight shifts, which suggested fundamental structural changes caused by the coacervation. We also fortified sponge cake and jelly with flavoring beads. The sensory analysis of the sponge cake samples revealed no significant differences compared to the control. All the fortified jelly samples had higher scores for smell, taste, texture, and overall preference than the control.
The coacervation method proved to be an excellent solution for the problem of heat-sensitive flavorings that often lose quality or sensory attributes in food products that undergo extensive thermal treatment.
Phylogenetic identification of microbes from fermented botanicals used in gluten-free composite flour mixes
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Phylogenetic information on microbial communities involved in fermenting botanicals has important implications for the food industry since it can provide a valuable perspective on the diversity, composition, and techno-functional properties and characteristics of the final product. Microbial phylogenetic analysis illustrates the evolutionary history of microbes through visual representational graphs (phylogenetic trees) showing the beginning and advancement of their assemblage.
In this study, we used molecular methods to determine the phylogenetic identities of microbes occurring in spontaneously fermented sweet potato, maize, and pigeon pea samples after a 72-hourly evaluation every 12 h. The sequences obtained were edited using the bioinformatics algorithm against similar sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database using BLASTN and aligned using ClustalX. The neighbor-joining technique was applied to extrapolate the chronicle of the isolates evolution.
Molecular identification from the BLASTN results showed the following bacterial isolates: Lysinibacillus macrolides, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactococcus lactis, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter cloacae, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Staphylococcus edaphicus, and Bacillus flexus, as well as the following fungal isolates: Trichosporon asahii, Mucor irregularis, Cladosporium tenuissimum, and Aspergillus niger. The sequences obtained from the isolates produced an exact match with the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide (nr/nt) database. L. lactis had the highest percentage occurrence for bacteria (38.46%), while T. asahii and A. niger showed the highest occurrence for fungi (37.50%).
Identifying and characterizing the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process would allow optimizing fermentation conditions to enhance the quality and nutritional value of the final products.
Sustainable fish oil extraction from catfish visceral biomass: A comparative study between high-shear homogenization and high-frequency ultrasound on wet rendering process
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Traditional wet rendering leads to the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil. Therefore, we combined this method with high-shear homogenization and high-frequency ultrasound to extract oil from Clarias magur visceral biomass. This way, we aimed to achieve higher oil yield, shorter extraction times, and a better preservation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
High-shear homogenization and high-frequency ultrasound increased the oil yields by 9.17 and 10.55%, respectively, compared to traditional wet rendering. The oil quality was also improved, with lower acid and peroxide values. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed enhanced cell disruption for increasing the oil extraction efficiency. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy also proved the efficacy of homogenization and ultrasound pretreatment in enhancing the extraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids from C. magur visceral biomass. Their content showed a significant variation among different extraction methods. Specifically, the high-frequency ultrasound method resulted in a notable 15.1% increase, while the high-shear homogenization method demonstrated a significant 13.3% increase, compared to the wet rendering method (control). The oil extracted by the high-frequency ultrasound method demonstrated a 7.5% increase in eicosatetraenoic acid and a 11.7% increase in docosahexaenoic acid, as compared to the oil obtained from the control method. High-shear homogenization and high-frequency ultrasound shortened the extraction time and reduced the temperature requirements for oil extraction from wet biomass.
These techniques have potential for efficient fish oil extraction, valuable in the healthcare and food industries.
Digital transformation metamodel in smart farming: Crop classification prediction based on recurrent neural network
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Agriculture 4.0 is an opportunity for farmers to meet the current challenges in food production. It has become necessary to adopt a set of agricultural practices based on advanced technologies. Agriculture 4.0 enables farms to create added value by combining innovative technologies, such as precision agriculture, information and communication technology, robotics, and Big Data.
As an enterprise, a connected farm is highly sensitive to strategic changes in organizational structures, objectives, modified variety, new business objects, processes, etc. To control the farm’s information system strategically, we proposed a metamodel based on the ISO/IS 19440 standard, where we added some new constructs relating to advanced digital technologies for smart and connected agriculture.
We applied the proposed metamodel to the crop classification prediction process. This involved using machine learning methods such as recurrent neural networks to predict the type of crop being grown in a given agricultural area.
Our research bridges farming with modern technology through our metamodel for a connected farm, promoting sustainability and efficiency. Furthermore, our crop classification study demonstrates the power of advanced machine learning, guided by our metamodel, in accurately predicting crop conditions, emphasizing its potential for crop management and food security. In essence, our work advances the transformative role of digital agriculture in modern farming.
Oil emulsion stability in electrolyzed water solutions
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Metastable electrochemically-activated water solutions possess unique properties that make it possible to modify food emulsions. This comparative analysis featured the stability of model oil-in-water emulsions with anolyte or catholyte as a dispersion medium, as well as the physical and morphometric profile of the emulsion system.
The research involved emulsions based on anolyte and catholyte. They consisted of refined sunflower oil, emulsifier (lecithin), and stabilizers, which were represented by sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, pectins, and agar. The study also covered such parameters as aggregative stability, viscosity, morphometry, oil particle size, and zeta potential.
Anolyte and catholyte affected the process of separation in the model emulsions. The samples stabilized with alginate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose proved to be the most stable emulsions while agar triggered gelation. The effect of substituting tap water with metastable electrolyzed water solutions depended on the oil proportion in the emulsion. Catholyte destabilized the samples with 20% of oil and liquified gel in the samples stabilized with agar. Anolyte was more aggressive in destabilizing emulsions with 30% of oil. The effective viscosity of these emulsions correlated with the stable phase fraction. The anolytebased samples had low effective viscosity. The opposite results for emulsions with different oil fractions may have been caused by interface changes, i.e., surface tension, adsorption, coalescence, etc. In the emulsions with 46% of oil and animal origin emulsifier, neither anolyte nor catholyte had any significant effect on the aggregative stability of the system.
The revealed patterns can be used to control the properties of emulsion products with oil phase ≤ 30%, e.g., low-fat mayonnaises, sauces, emulsion drinks, etc. Metastable electrolyzed water solutions may provide a reagent-free control of properties and patterns of finished or semi-finished foods and biological raw materials.
Bibliometric analysis of scientific research on Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst.
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Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. is an African wild tree found in many countries across the continent. Its leaves, bark, root, and fruits are used in food, cosmetics, and traditional medicine. However, no systematic bibliometric review on S. birrea have been performed so far.
This study covered publications made in 1986–2022 and investigated such bibliometric indicators as knowledge dynamics, links and structure, relevant journals, productive organizations, renowned authors, authoring patterns, national and international collaboration levels, etc. The bibliometric data on a total of 369 publications were downloaded from Scopus database and analyzed using the MS-Excel and VOSViewer software.
The Scopus publications on S. birrea showed a versatile range in the interdisciplinary areas of research, with agricultural and biological sciences predominating. The Republic of South Africa was responsible for the largest number of citations. All in all, 63 countries published research on S. birrea in the specified time period, and the share of African countries was 65.43% of the total global research. Co-authorship and international collaboration were registered for six clusters. A total of 1114 researchers and 160 institutions actively contributed to S. birrea studies, with 37 having a minimum of five publications. Mapping of knowledge structure using the keyword co-occurrence revealed the related research areas. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology took the lead in terms of average citation.
The co-citation analysis revealed some remarkable dynamics in S. birrea research. This bibliometric study provides a complete insight into S. birrea research development and publication patterns over the last 36 years.
Formulating edible films with red pitahaya extract and probiotic
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Preventing food spoilage and prolonging its shelf life are of great importance to meet the increasing food demand. Dietary fibers in red pitahaya are known to help maintain food freshness. Lactic acid bacteria have probiotic properties and can be a good alternative to additives in food production. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential use of gum-based edible films containing red pitahaya extract and probiotic as a coating material in the food industry.
Firstly, we determined the antimicrobial activity of red pitahaya peel and flesh extracts against pathogenic microorganisms and probiotic strains. Then, we employed the well diffusion method to determine the antimicrobial activity of the edible films containing red pitahaya extracts and Limosilactobacillus fermentum MA-7 used as a probiotic strain.
The largest inhibition zone diameters of peel and flesh extracts were 12.97 and 13.32 mm, respectively, against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The inhibition of the growth of lactic acid bacteria was lower as the extract concentration decreased. The gum-based films with flesh extract and probiotic had the largest inhibition zone diameters of 21.63 and 21.52 mm, respectively, against Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC19570 and C. albicans ATCC 10231.
The edible films containing red pitahaya extract and L. fermentum MA-7 may have the potential to prevent spoilage caused by microorganisms in the food industry and to extend the shelf life of foods.
Pomegranate leaves, buds, and flowers: phytochemical, antioxidant, and comparative solvent analyzes
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Punica granatum L. possesses significant nutritional and medicinal potential. Its pharmacological activities have been investigated, but no comparative evaluation has been reported regarding the effect of different extraction solvents on the phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of its leaf, bud, and flower extracts.
This research involved seven various solvents, namely methanol, ethanol, water, acidified methanol, acidified ethanol, acidified water, and hexane. A set of experiments made it possible to define the effect of each of these solvents on the contents of phenolics, flavonoids, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins, and tannins, as well as on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate leaf, bud and flower tissues. The research objective was to identify the optimal solvent for the most effective extraction of the abovementioned functional compounds. The antioxidant activity tests involved DPPH free radical scavenging, metal chelating, iron (III) reducing power, and CUPRAC assays.
The aqueous extract of P. granatum leaves demonstrated the highest total phenolic content (192.57 mg GAE/g extract) while the greatest flavonoid content belonged to the acidified methanol extract of P. granatum buds (73.93 mg RE/g extract). The HPLC analysis detected such significant phenolic compounds as punicalagin in buds and flowers, as well as gallic acid in leaves. All the extracts showed good antioxidant activity; however, the bud extracts had a better antioxidant profile than the extracts from leaves and flowers.
The pomegranate leaf, bud, and flower extracts demonstrated excellent phytochemical and antioxidant properties, which makes it possible to recommend these plant tissues as raw materials to be used in pharmaceutical, food, nutraceutical, and cosmetic industries.
Oral tobacco-free nicotine products: Quality and safety during storage
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Oral non-tobacco nicotine products have gained enormous popularity in recent years. The countries of the Eurasian Economic Union also produce and sell this type of innovative but poorly studied goods. As a result, the safety profile and quality of such products as nicotine poaches require urgent comprehensive research. This study featured the changes in quality of nicotine poaches during storage, i.e. nicotine content, water activity, and microbiological index.
The research featured nicotine poaches of several popular brands. The authors used standard research methods; the experiments were performed in the laboratory for chemistry and quality control, Institute of Tobacco, Makhorka, and Tobacco Products, Krasnodar, and at the Department of Bioorganic Chemistry and Technical Microbiology, Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar.
The water activity was 0.8911–0.9502 Aw at the initial stage and remained stable in most samples even after six months of storage. Velo Freeze was the only brand to show significant variations in water activity. The nicotine content was 10.115–12.950 mg/g at the initial stage. Only four samples maintained the initial values after six months of storage. The fluctuations of nicotine content were also mentioned by the manufacturer. The microbiological profile remained stable during the six months of storage and met the requirements for similar products, i.e., chewing gum and unglazed caramel.
The project needs further research because the qualitative characteristics of nicotine poaches provided rather unambiguous results. Our study will help develop state standards for oral nicotine products. The results obtained will be used to formulate proposals to the organizations responsible for the future Technical Regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union for nicotine products.
The impact of lead, cadmium, and mercury on the reproduction of mountain hares (Lepus timidus L., 1758) in the north of Krasnoyarsk Krai
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Reproduction is key to the survival and development of a species. Anthropogenic activities release significant amounts of toxic pollutants into the environment. In this study, we aimed to determine effects of heavy metals on some reproductive parameters of the mountain hare.
Female mountain hares (n = 41) were hunted in the reference and industrially polluted areas of Krasnoyarsk Krai during four seasons. Their skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys were subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry to determine concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury.
The contents of lead, cadmium, and mercury were significantly higher in the hares from the contaminated areas compared to the reference sites. According to the results, the exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury had an impact on the reproductive potential of the female mountain hares. In particular, we established correlations between numbers of embryos and corpora lutea and contents of lead in the kidneys and liver, as well as cadmium in the kidneys. The number of corpora lutea and embryonic losses in the female hares from the contaminated areas were higher than those in the hared from reference areas. However, the numbers of embryos did not differ significantly between the compared areas.
Our study showed that about 40% of the liver samples and 100% of the muscle tissue samples obtained from the hares in the impact zone contained high concentrations of lead and cadmium. Therefore, hunting in these industrially polluted areas may pose a toxic hazard to the indigenous peoples living there. Further research is needed to assess potential and actual fertility, offspring survival, and other important parameters of mountain hare populations exposed to different levels of chemical pollution.
Quercetin isolated from Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb. as a preventer of metabolic diseases
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Diseases associated with metabolic disorders seem to affect more and more people worldwide. Biologically active supplements may prevent or relieve metabolic disorders. Quercetin is known for its potential to inhibit metabolic syndrome. This paper introduces an in vivo experiment on rodents. It featured hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and hepatotoxic properties of quercetin.
Quercetin was obtained from the hairy root extract of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb. Two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg) were used to evaluate its hypoglycemic potential. Rats with induced diabetes were tested for body weight, glucose, and cholesterol while mice with induced hypercholesterolemia were checked for blood cholesterol changes. Potential biochemical and pathological changes in the liver were also studied on rats.
Quercetin treatment caused neither significant health problems nor death in the model animals. It had no effect on body weight, even in the animals with induced diabetes. In addition, quercetin did not increase glucose and cholesterol in the blood and triggered no pathological changes in the liver.
Quercetin isolated from H. neglectum hairy root extract demonstrated no hepatotoxicity. Unfortunately, it showed no beneficial effect on cholesterol and glucose levels and had no efficacy against metabolic syndrome. Further research is needed to assess the effect of quercetin on other metabolic markers, e.g., genes associated with the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, etc.
Iranian grape syrup used as a prebiotic and its effect on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt
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Yogurt is known as a suitable carrier of probiotics. Its supplementation with Iranian grape syrup used as a prebiotic can enhance its sensory and physicochemical properties, as well as improve the viability and growth of probiotics. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Iranian grape syrup on stirred probiotic yogurt’s rheological, physicochemical, and microbial properties.
Probiotic yogurt samples were fortified with 3, 6, and 9% of Iranian grape syrup and evaluated in terms of pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, as well as probiotic bacterial counts during 21 days of storage in a refrigerator at 4°C.
The results revealed that increasing concentrations of grape syrup inversely affected the yogurt’s pH, so the lowest and highest pH levels were recorded in the samples with the highest syrup concentration and the control (without syrup), respectively. No general trend was observed in acidity despite significant differences in acidity among the syrup-supplemented yogurts and the control (p ≤ 0.05). Syneresis demonstrated an inverse correlation, while viscosity exhibited a direct relationship, with a grape syrup concentration. Monitoring microbial changes in the samples throughout storage revealed a better growth in microbial colonies in the yogurts with higher grape syrup concentrations.
According to consumer preferences and physicochemical qualities, the optimal concentration of Iranian grape syrup was found to be 9%. Supplementing yogurt with grape syrup enhances its probiotic viability and metabolic activity. Considering its positive impact on both consumer preferences and product properties, Iranian grape syrup can be utilized as a prebiotic in future research to develop functional and symbiotic yogurts.
Intensification of thermal and rheological processes in a scraped-surface apparatus
The operation parameters of a special heat exchange scraped-surface apparatus ware studied and mathematically described in the article. The feature of the apparatus was the use of perforated cleaning devices in order to increase the turbulence of a product. The developed device can be used in the dairy, meat, and fat and oil industry to cool cream, animal fats, margarine emulsions, cooking fats, and other viscous food products. The increase in the productivity of the apparatus was achieved as a result of the more intensive mixing of the cleaned wall layers with the bulk of the cooled product due to the presence of cylindrical holes in the slats with a diameter of at least 0.05–0.1 of the diameter of the working cylinder. As a result of processing experimental data on heat exchange taking into account energy dissipation, a calculated criterial heat exchange equation for the nonisothermal motion of products and their different flows – laminar and transient – was obtained explicitly. In addition, the article considers the effect of starting modes on the operation of apparatus with mixing devices. These data can make it possible to take into account the possible deviations of parameters caused by nonsteady operating modes. On the basis of the data obtained, we have proposed assumptions about the degree of impact of viscosity and inertia in the considered range of parameters on a starting mode. The results of the study are relevant since they allow us to intensify the thermal processes in this type of common apparatus by 10–12%.
Volatile aroma compounds in Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausage formed in different types of casings
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The paper presents a study of Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausages formed in various artificial casings: fibrous (cellulose), collagen, and polyamide. An oxygen permeability oxygen permeability of the casings was above 40 cm3 and below 30 cm3/m2∙24 h∙bar. The study involved a sensory evaluation and instrumental tests using a VOCmeter multi-sensor system (‘electronic nose’) and a 7890A gas chromatograph with a 5975C VLMSD mass-selective detector (Agilent Technologies). We obtained original data on the qualitative composition and the quantitative content of substances that form the aroma of cooked smoked sausages in various types of casings. We found that the samples contained two groups of compounds with the chemical formulas of CiHkOl and CiHkOlNm. They had a ratio of (12–33):1 and were, apparently, the most significant aromatic substances. The main class of identified compounds was carboxylic acid esters, accounting for 76.61–81.60% of the total substances. We established a correlation between the aroma intensity and the concentration of chlorine-containing and nitrogen-containing compounds (except amines, amides, nitriles, and hydrazides) in the gas phase. The results did not confirm our hypothesis about the influence of the casing type and its permeability on the development of oxidative processes in the production of cooked smoked sausages. The practical significance of the study lies in creating a database of over 200 aromatic compounds that allows for a deeper understanding of aroma formation processes in cooked smoked sausages. The database can be used to exert a purposeful technological influence on the quality indicators and create various flavour compositions to adjust the sensory properties of the product.
Optimisation of a process for cocoa-based vermicelli
Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
Natural sweeteners: health benefits of stevia
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
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The growing demand of the Russian population for healthy food dictates the need in functional ingredients production increase. Inulin, the polysaccharide of natural origin, has a wide range of functional activity. This article grounds the expedience of inulin obtaining from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and considers effective technological methods of ensuring high yield and quality of the target product. It was demonstrated that application of vibration with frequency 24 Hz for 60 min at temperature 30–35°C intensifies the extraction process, and fractionation of the extract on membranes with pore diameter 2, 3 and 5 kDa allows to obtain inulin with certain physicochemical properties. The membrane separation results in three inulin fractions: low molecular (DP = 2-10), medium molecular (DP = 11-18) and high molecular (DP = 19-35) fraction. The medium molecular fraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic and fat substitute in food technology, was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and 1H-13C NMR spectrometry. The obtained spectral characteristics have led to a conclusion that the investigated sample of inulin is highly competitive with the best world analogues. The authors thoroughly describe the method of determining the degree of polymerization and average molecular weight of the investigated polysaccharide using 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. It has been established that inulin obtained by improved technology has the degree of polymerization DP = 13–14 and molecular weight 2124–2286 Da. The results of this work have practical value for production of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and theoretical value for the chemistry of natural compounds.
Influence of coronavirus crisis on food industry economy
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
Production of bioethanol from Robusta coffee pulp (Coffea robusta L.) in Vietnam
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Coffee pulp is the first waste product obtained during the wet processing of coffee beans. Coffee pulp makes up nearly 40% of the total weight of the coffee cherry. Coffee pulp contains 25.88% of cellulose, 3.6% of hemicel- luloses, and 20.07% of lignin. Coffee pulp is considered as an ideal substrate of lignocellulose biomass for micro- bial fermentation to produce such value-added products as ethanol. In this study, we used alkaline pre-treatment of the coffee pulp with NaOH (0.2 g/g biomass) in a microwave system at 120°C during 20 min. This method gave the best results: 71.25% of cellulose remained, and 46.11% of hemicellulose and 76.63% of lignin were removed. After that, the pre-treated biomass was hydrolyzed by Viscozyme Cassava C (enzyme loading was 19.27 FPU/g) at 50°C for 72 hours. The results showed that the highest reducing sugars and glucose concentration after hydrolysis were 38.21 g/l and 30.36 g/l, respectively. Then, the hydrolysis solution was fermented by S. cerevisiae (3.108 cells/ml) at 30°C for 72 hours. The highest concentration of ethanol obtained was 11.28 g/l. The result illustrated that, available and non- edible as it is, coffee pulp could be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production in Vietnam.
Mechanically activated hydrolysis of plant-derived proteins in food industry
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A poor consumption of important nutrients triggered a public interest in functional foods that contain easy-to-digest proteins. The present research features fractionation, mechanical activation, and enzymatic hydrolysis of pea protein. According to modern chemical methods, the protein content in the original pea biomass was 24.3% and its molecular weight distribution (MWD) was 5–135 kDa. Fractionation, or protein displacement, resulted in four fractions of biopolymers with different chemical composition, i.e. a different content of protein and carbohydrate molecules. The paper introduces some data on the enzymatic transformations of the substrate. A set of experiments made it possible to define the optimal conditions for the mechanical activation of pea biomass with proteolytic enzymes. The enzymes were obtained from Protosubtilin G3x, a complex enzyme preparation. When the substrate and the enzymes were mechanically activated together, it produced mechanocomposite, an intermediate product with increased reactivity. It increased the specific surface area by 3.2 times and doubled the crystallinity of the substrate. As a result, the rate and yield of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis increased from 18% to 61%. The study determined the capacity of the substrate in relation to the enzyme preparation. Under optimal conditions, the pea hydrolysis destroyed protein molecules within two hours. After four hours of hydrolysis, no changes were detected. A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed non-hydrolysed protein molecules with MW ≈ 20 kDa. Presumably, they corresponded with legumin, which is resistant to neutral and alkaline proteases. The resulting hydrolysates were spray-dried to test their potential use as a food component. The product obtained by spray-drying had a monomodal distribution of particle sizes of spherical shape with adiameter of 5–20 μm.
Genetic identification of bovine leukaemia virus
Molecular genetic research methods make it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and are the most informative approaches to its genetic identification. Molecular genetic research methods work well for the phylogenetic analysis of sequenced nucleotide DNA sequences of the provirus, as well as for the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) according to the phylogenetic classification of the pathogen. The purpose of the research was to study the scientific and methodological approaches to the genetic identification of bovine leukemia virus, integrated into the molecular monitoring of infection of cattle with BLV genotypes. The authors used PCR-RFLP-genotyping and comparative phylogenetic analysis of aligned nucleotide sequences of the env gene fragment of the BLV provirus isolates to detect the genotypic affiliation of the cattle from twenty-one livestock farms of the Republic of Tatarstan. As a result, isolates of four out of ten BLV genotypes were found in the Tatarstani cattle, namely genotypes 1, 4, 7, and 8. The research involved a comparative analysis of 505 nucleotide sequences of a fragment of the BLV env gene, including those deposited in GenBank NCBI. The analysis confirms the inconsistency of several earlier PCR-RFLP typing strategies with the current approach in assessing the genotypic diversity by phylogenetic analysis. The improved strategy of PCR-RFLP genotyping of BLV corresponds with its modern phylogenetic classification. The strategy makes it possible to identify all the known genotypes of the viral pathogen. Its validity has been proved by in silico modelling of restrictogrammes and a phylogenetic analysis of the env gene fragment of 57 reference isolates of ten BLV genotypes that generate 57 genotype-associated combinations of diagnostically significant PCR-RFLP profiles.
Prospects for using pine nut products in the dairy industry
Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.