ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Volume 10, Issue 2, 2022

Cadastral and geodetic land works are expensive, which makes aerial photography extremely valuable for land traceability and inventory. The present research objective was to develop a new digital survey technology for registration of agricultural lands. We assessed the accuracy of the new method and evaluated its decision support options. The study featured the case of the Kemerovo Region (Kuzbass), Russia. The aerial survey took place in 2021 and involved 17 municipalities of the Kemerovo Region. The software and hardware complex included an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a module for aerial photography. Photogrammetric, cartometric, and satellite methods were used to define the coordinates of feature points. We developed new software (Sovhoz.avi) to perform the land inventory. The photogrammetric and cartographic methods proved efficient in determining the feature points and boundaries of land plots. They also appeared accurate enough for land inventory and decision support. The study updated the available land inventory data. About 30% of all land plots were recorded incorrectly; some plots marked as agricultural appeared to belong to the local forest reserves or urban territories. Incorrect data (1.64%) were excluded from the official inventory. The survey covered a total area of 41 000 ha and revealed 1700 illegally used land plots. The updated inventory of unused lands included 3825 new plots (163 400 ha), which can attract prospective investors. The results can be used by the local authorities to make land management decisions and identify illegal land use.
Rhamnus alaternus L. is a Rhamnaceae shrub and a popular traditional medicine in Algeria. The present research objective was to investigate the antioxidant, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic properties of R. alaternus methanolic leaf extract. Antiradical scavenging activity was tested by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching method. DNA damage and repair were measured by the Allium cepa test with sodium azide as a mutagenic agent. Mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations were calculated by microscopy of meristem roots stained with 2% carmine acetic. The methanolic extract of R. alaternus leaves inhibited the free radical DPPH (IC50 = 0.74 ± 0.3 mg/mL) and prevented the oxidation of β-carotene (50.71 ± 4.17%). The root phenotyping showed that sodium azide changed their color and shape, decreased their stiffness, and significantly reduced their length. The roots treated with both R. alaternus leaf extract and sodium azide demonstrated a better root growth. The roots treated with the methanolic extract were much longer than the control roots (P < 0.001). The microscopy images of root meristem treated with the sodium azide mitodepressant agent showed significant chromosomal aberrations, which indicated a disruption of the cell cycle. The R. alaternus leaf extract appeared to have a beneficial effect on cytotoxicity. The antioxidant properties of R. alaternus L. makes this plant an excellent genoportector.
Food processing is an important operation in the food industry that converts fresh foods into final products with desirable characteristics for consumption and storage. Ohmic heating is an emerging technique for food processing that seems to be a suitable alternative to conventional heat treatment. Recently, there has been a lot of research into ohmic heating applications in processing various foods. This review highlights the findings of studies conducted in 2018–2022 on the impact of ohmic heating on the physical, chemical, and sensory properties of foodstuffs during processing. We found that this technology provides more reliable process control compared to the traditional technique, namely conventional heating. Although ohmic heating has a positive effect on the quality of foods, its efficiency is limited by certain food components, including acid and fat, that markedly affect the electrochemical attributes of foods. Therefore, to achieve optimal results, ohmic heating conditions should be set in accordance with the properties of food materials. There is a need for further in-depth studies on the performance of ohmic heating in food processing on a large, rather than a lab scale.
Nutraceuticals are food-based drugs that are used as dietary supplements to minimize chronic diseases. Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases all over the world. Recently, herbal nutraceuticals have taken a promising role in treating diabetes. We aimed to develop herbal nutraceutical tablets and evaluate its anti-diabetic activity using ob/ob mice. Five plant species were collected by field survey methods based on oral interviews with traditional healers of Tripura. The wet granulation method was applied to formulate the herbal nutraceutical tablet. Water- and fat-soluble vitamins were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Trace elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the herbal tablets, we determined serum hemoglobin, glycosylated serum protein, and oral glucose tolerance. The newly formulated herbal nutraceutical tablets provided the optimal energy level. It contained sufficient amounts of essential minerals, such as iron (74.6 ± 2.7 mg/g), sodium (4.4 ± 0.4 mg/g), potassium (5.3 ± 0.7 mg/g), calcium (163.1 ± 2.2 mg/g), magnesium (39.2 ± 1.7 mg/g), and phosphorus (14.6 ± 2.1 mg/g). We also found optimal quantities of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C (27.2 ± 4.3 mg/g), vitamin B1 (0.6 ± 0 mg/g), vitamin B3 (0.6 ± 0.2 mg/g), vitamin B6 (1.1 ± 0.2 mg/g), vitamin B12 (0.6 ± 0.2 mcg/g), and folic acid (82.6 ± 7.6 mcg/g), as well as fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A (287.4 ± 6.3 mcg/g), vitamin D3 (2.6 ± 0.6 mcg/g), and vitamin E (0.7 ± 0 ng/g). Finally, the herbal nutraceutical tablet (200 mg/kg) significantly improved the anti-hyperglycemic effect on ob/ob mice (type 2 diabetes), compared to the standard drug, metformin (200 mg/kg). The results suggest that the newly formulated herbal tablet may be recommended as an anti-diabetic nutraceutical drug.
This review features different powdered fruits with optimal storage stability and physiochemical parameters. Spray-drying parameters, such as temperatures and flow rate, can affect the physical properties of powders. Carrier agents provide powders with various favorable qualities, e.g. good flow rate. Commercial spray-drying of fruit juice knows different carrier agents. The review involved scientific and methodological publications, conference papers, patents, regulatory papers, and Internet resources. They were subjected to grouping, categorization, comparative analysis, and consolidation. Inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration, and air flow rate of spray-drying increased the powder yield but decreased the moisture content. Inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration, and feed flow rate affected the solubility. Effects of atomization rate, air flow rate and free flow rate were assessed in terms of yield, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and solubility. The article introduces the fundamentals of spray-drying and describes the effect of each spray-drying parameter on the powder quality. The list of parameters included inlet air temperature, atomization rate, air flow, and feed flow rate. We also evaluated the impacts of various carrier agents on the powder quality. The article contributed to a better understanding of how variable parameters affect the quality of food powders. The results provide the food industry with better choice options to adopt certain parameters for specific production needs.