ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Том 10, №2, 2022

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Cadastral and geodetic land works are expensive, which makes aerial photography extremely valuable for land traceability and inventory. The present research objective was to develop a new digital survey technology for registration of agricultural lands. We assessed the accuracy of the new method and evaluated its decision support options. The study featured the case of the Kemerovo Region (Kuzbass), Russia.
The aerial survey took place in 2021 and involved 17 municipalities of the Kemerovo Region. The software and hardware complex included an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a module for aerial photography. Photogrammetric, cartometric, and satellite methods were used to define the coordinates of feature points. We developed new software (Sovhoz.avi) to perform the land inventory.
The photogrammetric and cartographic methods proved efficient in determining the feature points and boundaries of land plots. They also appeared accurate enough for land inventory and decision support. The study updated the available land inventory data. About 30% of all land plots were recorded incorrectly; some plots marked as agricultural appeared to belong to the local forest reserves or urban territories. Incorrect data (1.64%) were excluded from the official inventory. The survey covered a total area of 41 000 ha and revealed 1700 illegally used land plots. The updated inventory of unused lands included 3825 new plots (163 400 ha), which can attract prospective investors.
The results can be used by the local authorities to make land management decisions and identify illegal land use.
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Rhamnus alaternus L. is a Rhamnaceae shrub and a popular traditional medicine in Algeria. The present research objective was to investigate the antioxidant, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic properties of R. alaternus methanolic leaf extract.
Antiradical scavenging activity was tested by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching method. DNA damage and repair were measured by the Allium cepa test with sodium azide as a mutagenic agent. Mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations were calculated by microscopy of meristem roots stained with 2% carmine acetic.
The methanolic extract of R. alaternus leaves inhibited the free radical DPPH (IC50 = 0.74 ± 0.30 mg/mL) and prevented the oxidation of β-carotene (50.71 ± 4.17%). The root phenotyping showed that sodium azide changed their color and shape, decreased their stiffness, and significantly reduced their length. The roots treated with both R. alaternus leaf extract and sodium azide demonstrated a better root growth. The roots treated with the methanolic extract were much longer than the control roots (P < 0.001). The microscopy images of root meristem treated with the sodium azide mitodepressant agent showed significant chromosomal aberrations, which indicated a disruption of the cell cycle.
The R. alaternus leaf extract appeared to have a beneficial effect on cytotoxicity. The antioxidant properties of R. alaternus L. makes this plant an excellent genoportector.
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Food processing is an important operation in the food industry that converts fresh foods into final products with desirable characteristics for consumption and storage. Ohmic heating is an emerging technique for food processing that seems to be a suitable alternative to conventional heat treatment. Recently, there has been a lot of research into ohmic heating applications in processing various foods.
This review highlights the findings of studies conducted in 2018–2022 on the impact of ohmic heating on the physical, chemical, and sensory properties of foodstuffs during processing. We found that this technology provides more reliable process control compared to the traditional technique, namely conventional heating. Although ohmic heating has a positive effect on the quality of foods, its efficiency is limited by certain food components, including acid and fat, that markedly affect the electrochemical attributes of foods.
Therefore, to achieve optimal results, ohmic heating conditions should be set in accordance with the properties of food materials. There is a need for further in-depth studies on the performance of ohmic heating in food processing on a large, rather than a lab scale.
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Nutraceuticals are food-based drugs that are used as dietary supplements to minimize chronic diseases. Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases all over the world. Recently, herbal nutraceuticals have taken a promising role in treating diabetes.
We aimed to develop herbal nutraceutical tablets and evaluate its anti-diabetic activity using ob/ob mice. Five plant species were collected by field survey methods based on oral interviews with traditional healers of Tripura. The wet granulation method was applied to formulate the herbal nutraceutical tablet. Water- and fat-soluble vitamins were determined by reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography. Trace elements were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the herbal tablets, we determined serum hemoglobin, glycosylated serum protein, and oral glucose tolerance.
The newly formulated herbal nutraceutical tablets provided the optimal energy level. It contained sufficient amounts of essential minerals, such as iron (74.6 ± 2.7 mg/g), sodium (4.4 ± 0.4 mg/g), potassium (5.3 ± 0.7 mg/g), calcium (163.1 ± 2.2 mg/g), magnesium (39.2 ± 1.7 mg/g), and phosphorus (14.6 ± 2.1 mg/g). We also found optimal quantities of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C (27.2 ± 4.3 mg/g), vitamin B1 (0.6 ± 0 mg/g), vitamin B3 (0.6 ± 0.2 mg/g), vitamin B6 (1.1 ± 0.2 mg/g), vitamin B12 (0.6 ± 0.2 μg/g), and folic acid (82.6 ± 7.6 μg/g), as well as fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A (287.4 ± 6.3 μg/g), vitamin D3 (2.6 ± 0.6 μg/g), and vitamin E (0.7 ± 0 ng/g). Finally, the herbal nutraceutical tablet (200 mg/kg) significantly improved the antihyperglycemic effect on ob/ob mice (type 2 diabetes), compared to the standard drug, metformin (200 mg/kg).
The results suggest that the newly formulated herbal tablet may be recommended as an anti-diabetic nutraceutical drug.
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This review features different powdered fruits with optimal storage stability and physiochemical parameters. Spray-drying parameters, such as temperatures and flow rate, can affect the physical properties of powders. Carrier agents provide powders with various favorable qualities, e.g. good flow rate. Commercial spray-drying of fruit juice knows different carrier agents.
The review involved scientific and methodological publications, conference papers, patents, regulatory papers, and Internet resources. They were subjected to grouping, categorization, comparative analysis, and consolidation.
Inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration, and air flow rate of spray-drying increased the powder yield but decreased the moisture content. Inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration, and feed flow rate affected the solubility. Effects of atomization rate, air flow rate and free flow rate were assessed in terms of yield, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and solubility.
The article introduces the fundamentals of spray-drying and describes the effect of each spray-drying parameter on the powder quality. The list of parameters included inlet air temperature, atomization rate, air flow, and feed flow rate. We also evaluated the impacts of various carrier agents on the powder quality. The article contributed to a better understanding of how variable parameters affect the quality of food powders. The results provide the food industry with better choice options to adopt certain parameters for specific production needs.
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Gelatin is a natural amphiphilic biopolymer that is widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. We studied the effect of spray and freeze drying on the solubility and amphiphilicity of gelatin samples.
The control sample was a commercially produced edible gelatin. The experimental samples were spray- and freeze-dried gelatins obtained by enzymatic-acid hydrolysis of cattle bone. Amino acid sequences were determined by matrix-activated laser desorption/ionization. Solubility was assessed visually. Bloom strength of the gelatin gels was measured by a texture analyzer. The ProtScale online service was used to predict the amphiphilic topology of gelatin proteins. Molecular weight distribution of proteins was carried out by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate.
Spray drying reduced protein degradation and retained more α-chains, while freeze drying increased gelatin’s hydrophobicity and decreased its solubility. The predicted topology of protein hydrophobicity based on the amino acid sequences was in line with our results on solubility. The freeze-dried gelatin had a 18% larger amount of low-molecular weight peptides, compared to the control and the spray-dried samples. This was probably caused by the cleavage of peptides during the drying process. Thus, freeze drying can lead to maximum degradation of gelatin components, which may be associated with a longer heat treatment, compared to spray drying.
Thus, spray drying is more suitable for gelatin, since this method improves the stability of its outer and inner structure, ensuring high hydrophilic properties.
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Jelly is a popular confectionery product but it has a high content of easily digestible sugars, namely 70–85%. Therefore, modern confectioners are trying to develop new formulations of jelly with reduced sweetness and sugar content. One of the ways to achieve that is to use starch syrup instead of white sugar. Another benefit of starch syrup is that it can slow down the drying and staling of jelly.
We studied three types of starch syrup (low-conversion, confectionery, high-conversion), glucose-fructose syrup, and sugar-free jelly samples based on them. Jelly based on sugar and confectionery syrup was used as the control sample. The main quality indicators were analyzed against standard values; the sensory parameters were determined by the descriptor-profile analysis; and water activity was measured by using a HygroPalm Rotronic hygrometer. The microbiological safety of the experimental jelly samples was assessed after 12 weeks of their storage in plastic containers.
The sample based on confectionery syrup had the most optimal profile, with moderate sweetness and taste richness, good jelly-like texture, viscoelasticity, plasticity, a color similar to that of the control, and no effect of wetting or stickiness. The samples based on starch syrup had a 1.4–2.4-fold decrease in easily digestible sugars and a 1.9–3.4-fold increase in polysaccharides, compared to the control. During storage, the samples based on high-conversion starch syrup and glucose-fructose syrup were less likely to dry out than the others, with their water activity decreasing to a greater extent. The microbiological analysis after storage showed the absence of pathogenic microorganisms and coliform bacteria in three out of the four jelly samples.
Using various types of starch syrup and glucose-fructose syrup instead of white sugar allows for a greater range of jelly types with different carbohydrate profiles and a longer shelf life.
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Fermented drinks are regarded as healthy food due to their probiotic nature. Vegan consumers who choose sustainable diet and people allergic to dairy products demand alternatives for dairy products. We aimed to develop a non-dairy plant-based yogurt from peanut, oats, and coconut milk.
Yogurt was formulated with addition of sugar, corn starch, pectin, and xanthan gum. Simplex-lattice mixture design was applied to optimize the composition of the yogurt and achieve the desired rheological properties, sensory attributes, and syneresis rate.
Our results revealed that the formulation containing 7.13 mL of peanut milk, 10 mL of oats milk, and 7.86 mL of coconut milk showed low syneresis rate, desired viscosity and flow behavior, as well as high overall acceptability. We found that increased amounts of peanut and oats milk improved the product’s viscosity due to high protein contents. However, coconut milk enhanced the taste and flavor of the yogurt. Flow behavior depended on viscosity and stabilizers used in accordance with the power law model. Syneresis rate was influenced by the viscosity of the yogurt. The utilization of corn starch, pectin, and xanthan gum not only improved the texture but also helped achieve the desired viscosity and flow behavior.
The nutrient composition, physicochemical properties, and high sensory characteristics of the yogurt based on peanut, oats, and coconut milk allow using it as a cow milk alterative in the diet of people with lactose intolerance.
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Microgreens are immature edible leafy greens with a higher concentration of phytonutrients than in mature leaves, which makes them a novel functional food. This research featured antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and antidiabetic properties of coriander microgreens.
Aqueous and ethanolic extractions of coriander microgreens and mature leaves underwent a phytochemical analysis of antioxidant potential using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free radical method and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analysis of antidiabetic and anticarcinogenic properties included the method of α-amylase enzyme inhibition and the MTT colorimetric assay.
The screening test inferred the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, carbohydrates, and proteins in both microgreens and mature leaves. The quantitative analysis showed that the ethanolic extract of the microgreen sample exhibited higher total phenols. Total flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, and proteins were higher both in microgreen extracts, if compared with those of mature leaves. Ascorbic acid, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotenoids demonstrated a more substantial presence in mature leaves. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of coriander microgreens revealed such bioactive compounds as thienopyrimidines, phenolic amide, imidazo pyridazine, phenolic constituents, and essential oil. Mature leaves were rich in phenolic compounds, steroids, terpenoids, essential oils, and fatty acid esters. All these substances are known for their therapeutic antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticarcinogenic properties. The microgreen samples exhibited greater ferric reducing antioxidant power, α-amylase enzyme inhibition, and cytotoxicity activity at a lower concentration of extract than mature leaves.
Coriander microgreens proved to have a promising antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and antidiabetic potential and can be used in daily food additives.
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Wet chemistry methods are traditionally used to evaluate the quality of a coffee beverage and its chemical characteristics. These old methods need to be replaced with more rapid, objective, and simple analytical methods for routine analysis. Near-infrared spectroscopy is an increasingly popular technique for nondestructive quality evaluation called a green technology.
Our study aimed to apply near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the quality of coffee samples of different origin (Brazil, Guatemala, Peru, and Kongo). Particularly, we analyzed the roasting time and its effect on the quality of coffee. The colorimetric method determined a relation between the coffee color and the time of roasting. Partial least squares regression analysis assessed a possibility of predicting the roasting conditions from the near-infrared spectra.
The regression results confirmed the possibility of applying near-infrared spectra to estimate the roasting conditions. The correlation between the spectra and the roasting time had R2 values of 0.96 and 0.95 for calibration and validation, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction were low – 0.92 and 1.05 for calibration and validation, respectively. We also found a linear relation between the spectra and the roasting power. The quality of the models differed depending on the coffee origin and sub-region. All the coffee samples showed a good correlation between the spectra and the brightness (L* parameter), with R2 values of 0.96 and 0.95 for the calibration and validation curves, respectively.
According to the results, near-infrared spectroscopy can be used together with the chemometric analysis as a green technology to assess the quality of coffee.
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Sucrose crystallization depends on various thermal phenomena, which makes them an important scientific issue for the sugar industry. However, the rationale and theory of sucrose crystallization still remain understudied. Among the least described problems is the effect of time and temperature on the condensation rate of sucrose molecules on crystallization nuclei in a supersaturated sugar solution. This article introduces a physical and mathematical heat transfer model for this process, as well as its numerical analysis.
The research featured a supersaturated sugar solution during sucrose crystallization and focused on the condensation of sucrose molecules on crystallization nuclei. The study involved the method of physical and mathematical modeling of molecular mass transfer, which was subjected to a numerical analysis.
While crystallizing in a vacuum boiling pan, a metastable solution went through an exothermal reaction. In a supersaturated solution, this reaction triggered a transient crystallization of solid phase molecules and a thermal release from the crystallization nuclei into the liquid phase. This exogenous heat reached 39.24 kJ/kg and affected the mass transfer kinetics. As a result, the temperature rose sharply from 80 to 86 °C.
The research revealed the effect of temperature and time on the condensation of solids dissolved during crystalline sugar production. The model involved the endogenous heat factor. The numerical experiment proved that the model reflected the actual process of sucrose crystallization. The obtained correlations can solve a number of problems that the modern sugar industry faces.
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The research featured the effect of a diet fortified with essential microelements on the ruminal microbiota of young rams. Ruminal microbiota is largely responsible for feed digestibility and body functioning of cattle.
The study involved the contents of the rumens and jejuna of seven-month-old rams of the Edilbaev breed, which were subjected to a biofortified diet. The diet included the Russian feed additives Yoddar-Zn and DAFS-25 represent a protein-carbohydrate complex with plant silicon. The microflora of the digestive tract was tested using the molecular genetic method of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) sequestration. The microstructural studies of the jejunum samples exploited light microscopy.
The feed additives increased the population of cellulolytic and lactate-fermenting bacteria, as well as the Prevotella sp. microbiome and bifidobacteria in the rumen samples. The data obtained revealed the effect of essential microelements on the taxonomic pattern of microorganisms and the microflora profile. The research revealed the ratio of normal, opportunistic, pathogenic, nonculturable, and transit microflora. The jejunum wall samples obtained from the experimental group that fed on Yoddar-Zn and DAFS-25 had a more distinct micropicture of mucous membrane. Their rumen microflora balance had fewer pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, which was also confirmed by the jejunum morphology.
The feed additives DAFS-25 and Yoddar-Zn proved beneficial for ram diet and inhibited the negative effect of pathogenic treponemas on the rumen. The additives improved digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food nutrients, as well as increased the livestock yield.
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The present article introduces the problem of determining the general structure of beer as a complex system of related biomolecules. The objective was to establish the correlation of various quantities of organic compounds in beer formulation.
The research featured samples of filtered pasteurized beer obtained from a retail chain shop in Moscow (Russia). The experiment relied on standard research methods, including instrumental methods of analysis, e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained experimental data underwent a statistical analysis using the Statistica software (StatSoft, 2016).
The research established the correlation between the type of grain (barley or wheat malt) and the content of organic compounds, e.g., β-glucan, polyphenols, soluble nitrogen, etc. The research also revealed some patterns in the distribution of proteins, which served as a framework for the system of organic compounds. The distribution of thiol proteins proved to depend on the dissolution degree of the grain and was different in barley light, barley dark, and wheat malt samples. The fraction distribution of β-glucan depended on the color of the malt. In light beer samples, it concentrated in high- and medium-molecular fractions of nitrogenous substances, in dark beer – in low-molecular fractions (≤ 63%). Initial wort density and alcohol content affected the amount of catechins and total polyphenols. Nitrogenous compounds depended on the color, initial extract, and alcohol content.
The nitrogenous structure and other organic compounds of beer proved to depend on protein substances. The research also revealed a number of factors that affected the fraction distribution of biomolecules in different beer sorts.
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Formulating high-quality pasta from wheat-free materials is a technological challenge. We aimed to make gluten-free pasta with carboxymethyl cellulose and psyllium husk and evaluate their effect on the quality of the final product.
Gluten-free pasta was produced from rice flour, white corn flour, potato starch, soy protein isolate, and carboxymethyl cellulose or psyllium husk used as binding agents. Then, we evaluated the effect of these hydrocolloids on the color, texture, cooking quality, and sensory characteristics of the product.
The uncooked gluten-free pasta containing psyllium husk showed significantly higher values of hardness compared to the samples with carboxymethyl cellulose, while the cooked pasta with psyllium husk had a significantly lower nitrogen loss. Also, psyllium husk improved the texture of the cooked gluten-free pasta, providing the highest values of resilience, springiness, and chewiness. Generally, the psyllium husk samples received higher quality values for texture, cooking quality, and sensory parameters, compared to the pasta with carboxymethyl cellulose.
Psyllium husk showed a better ability to bind gluten-free pasta than carboxymethyl cellulose. Consequently, psyllium husk could become a feasible alternative to wheat gluten in producing high-quality gluten-free pasta.
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Medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants. Acting as reducing agents, these substances protect the human body against oxidative stress and slow down the aging process. We aimed to study the effects of bioactive substances isolated from medicinal plants on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans L. used as a model organism.
High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to isolate bioactive substances from the extracts of callus, suspension, and root cultures of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.), Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis L.), red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), alfalfa (Medicágo sativa L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Their effect on the lifespan of C. elegans nematodes was determined by counting live nematodes treated with their concentrations of 10, 50, 100, and 200 µmol/L after 61 days of the experiment. The results were recorded using IR spectrometry.
The isolated bioactive substances were at least 95% pure. We found that the studied concentrations of trans-cinnamic acid, baicalin, rutin, ursolic acid, and magniferin did not significantly increase the lifespan of the nematodes. Naringenin increased their lifespan by an average of 27.3% during days 8–26. Chlorogenic acid at a concentration of 100 µmol/L increased the lifespan of C. elegans by 27.7%. Ginkgo-based kaempferol and quercetin, as well as red clover-based biochanin A at the concentrations of 200, 10, and 100 µmol/L, respectively, increased the lifespan of the nematodes by 30.6, 41.9, and 45.2%, respectively.
The bioactive substances produced from callus, root, and suspension cultures of the above medicinal plants had a positive effect on the lifespan of C. elegans nematodes. This confirms their geroprotective properties and allows them to be used as anti-aging agents.
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The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is a legume produced and consumed all over Africa and especially in Nigeria. These beans are a major source of protein in the region. The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus L.) is a major pest that affects cowpea seeds. Therefore, cowpea farmers need effective non-toxic pesticides to replace synthetic chemicals. The present research tested the effect of Balanites aegyptiaca L. essential oil on cowpea weevils.
This research quantified weevil proliferation and cowpea seed qualities. The samples were treated with 5, 10, and 15 mL of B. aegyptiaca essential oil diluted in 1 mL of acetone and stored in five storage materials, i.e., jute bags, polythene bags, sacks, plastic containers, and glass bottles. The study featured a completely randomized design with three replications of each treatment: treatment time – 90 days, storage temperature – 30 ± 5°C, check – 0.125 g of aluminum phosphide, control – acetone.
B. aegyptiaca essential oil proved to be an effective insecticide against cowpea weevils. The treatment achieved 100% mortality rate at 10 and 15 mL of B. aegyptiaca essential oil after 72 h of exposure in glass bottles, plastic containers, and jute bags. In addition, B. aegyptiaca essential oil demonstrated a potent activity against oviposition and survival of immature cowpea weevils. Cowpea seeds packaged in glass bottles, plastics containers, and jute bags showed significantly less damage than those stored in sacks and polythene bags. Glass bottles were the best storage material in terms of safety and shelf stability, followed by plastic containers and jute bags.
B. aegeptica essential oil has potent insecticidal properties and can be used as pest control during grain storage.
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Synbiotic compositions have a great potential for curing microbial intestinal infections. Novel targeted synbiotics are a promising field of the modern functional food industry. The present research assessed the effect of various fructan fractions, initial probiotic counts, and test strains on the antagonistic properties of synbiotics.
The research involved powdered roots of Arctium lappa L. and strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella enterica. The experiment was based on the central composite rotatable design. A water extract of A. lappa roots was purified and concentrated. Fructan fractions were precipitated at various concentrations of ethanol, dried, and sub jected to carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectrometry. The bifidobacteria and the test strains were co-cultivated in the same medium that contained one of the fractions. Co-cultivation lasted during 10 h under the same conditions. The acid concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography to define the synbiotic factor.
The obtained fructans were closer to commercial oligofructose in terms of the number and location of NMR peaks. However, they were between oligofructose and inulin in terms of signal intensity. The response surface analysis for bacilli showed that the minimal synbiotic factor value corresponded to the initial probiotic count of 7.69 log(CFU/mL) and the fructan fraction precipitated by 20% ethanol. The metabolites produced by the bacilli also affected their growth. The synbiotic factor response surface for the experiments with Salmonella transformed from parabolic to saddle shape as the initial test strain count increased. The minimal synbiotic factor value corresponded to the lowest precipitant concentration and the highest probiotic count.
The research established a quantitative relationship between the fractional composition of fructans and the antagonistic activity of the synbiotic composition with bifidobacteria. It also revealed how the ratio of probiotic and pathogen counts affects the antagonism. The proposed approach can be extrapolated on other prebiotics and microbial strains in vivo.
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Recently, the number of people suffering from allergy to caw’s milk has increased. Lupine, a plant rich in protein, can be a good alternative product for non-dairy products production. We aimed to obtain a yogurt-like product based on lupine milk and evaluate its properties.
Lupine milk was obtained from lupine seeds, egg white protein powder, disaccharides, and starter cultures were added to the milk to obtain yogurt-like products: samples with maltose, samples with lactose, and samples without sugars. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the products were determined by the standard techniques. Sensory attributes were evaluated by trained panelists.
In the study, the effects of egg white protein powder and disaccharides on the activities of starter cultures and the properties of the yogurt-like products obtained were investigated. The relationship between the addition of sugar and the growth of starter cultures was found to be significant (p < 0.05). In terms of physico-chemical, rheological, and microbiological properties, the yogurt-like products obtained from lupine milk with disaccharides demonstrated good results, especially the sample with maltose. Sensory analysis revealed high sensory properties of the yogurt-like products.
Yogurt-like products from lupine milk can be used as an alternative to cow’s milk fermented products, but more detailed studies should be conducted on their formulations.