ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Том 11, №1, 2023

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According to the recent data, there are 4–5-local pig breeds left in Russia by now. Livni is among them. This breed is characterized by high fat content. Back fat has been analyzed earlier. We aimed to assess fat morphometrics from other localizations in pigs.
Sacral, axillary, and perirenal fat samples from 6-month-old Duroc and Livni pig breeds were analyzed using morphological and Raman-based techniques.
Livni adipocytes were characterized by dense packing with a polyhedron-like structure. In Duroc fat, they were more rounded (spherical). A “two-phase” cell disperse was identified in all samples. Fat cells in Livni pigs were bigger than those in the Duroc breed: 70–102, 15–18, and 26% for sacral, axillary, and perirenal locations. Differences in the intensity of the Raman signal between the samples were found: in the samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue, more intense peaks were observed, which are responsible for unsaturation; the samples of Livni axillary fat were characterized by greater unsaturation than sacral fat.
Livni and Duroc adipocytes differ from each other in form and size and the difference depends on location. Pork fat from local breeds is expected to have potentially more health protecting (for animals) and health promoting (for consumers) properties.
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Hazardous compounds accumulate in plants and animals as a result of anthropogenic impact. Trace elements, such as heavy metals, move up in the system of snow – soil – water – plant – animal. When contaminants accumulate in plants that serve as animal feed, they eventually accumulate in the animals that consume the feed because heavy metals usually enter living organisms via digestive tract, i.e., with food.
In 2003–2021, we studied fodder plants grown and harvested by urban zoological organizations, e.g., zoos, nature corners, etc. This research covered the Central Federal District represented by the cities of Moscow, Ivanovo, Yaroslavl, and Uglich. The empirical part of the study relied on a combination of modern ecological, biochemical, and statistical methods. A KVANT-2AT atomic absorption spectrometer was used to define the trace elements and their quantities.
Broccoli proved to be the most resistant feed vegetable to all the toxic elements in this study. Kohlrabi, sweet potato, and dill had low content of lead and cadmium, while garlic was highly resistant to cadmium and arsenic. Spinach, fennel, potatoes, beets, and bell peppers, which were used as fodder in metropolis conditions, exceeded the maximal permissible concentration of heavy metals. The samples obtained from the Moscow Zoo contained by 1.98 times more zinc, by 1.06 times more copper, and by 89.47 times more lead than average. The samples from Ivanovo accumulated the greatest extent of iron, which exceeded the average level by 3.26 times. The vegetables from Uglich and Ivanovo had the lowest concentration of zinc, which was by 67.86 and 62.70% below the average, respectively. The samples from Yaroslavl contained by 33.08% less copper. In 2003–2021, feed vegetables grown in the Central Federal District had an average increase in zinc, copper, and lead by 1.13, 1.45, and 2.80 times, respectively. The level of iron stayed almost the same throughout 2018–2021, while that of arsenic gradually decreased in concentration. The accumulation level of zinc, copper, iron, and arsenic in feed vegetables appeared to depend on the concentration of their water-soluble metal forms in the soil.
Therefore, forage agriculture in urban areas requires constant chemical and toxicological tests to prevent contaminated feed from entering animal diet.
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The abusive use of antibiotics causes the destruction of intestinal flora and the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Date palm is used in traditional medicine in the Saharan regions due to its biological properties.
The study aimed to identify the phytochemical composition and assess the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extracts of three date cultivars from Algeria. Their total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol contents were measured spectrophotometrically. The phytochemical screening was conducted by HPLC fingerprinting using twenty-three pure phenolic compounds as standards. The antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial species was assessed using the disk diffusion method.
The colorimetric methods showed that the total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavonol contents ranged from 2.13 ± 0.09 to 2.67 ± 0.02 mg GAE/100 g DW, 1.33 ± 0.21 to 1.55 ± 0.13 mg CEQ/100 g DW, and 0.41 ± 0.23 to 0.47 ± 0.05 mg REQ/100 g DW, respectively. HPLC fingerprinting showed that the extracts of date cultivars served as an excellent source of bioactive compounds (gallic acid, tannic acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, caffeine, quercetin, luteolin, rutin, aspegenin, isorhamnetin, and hesperidin). They also exhibited an antibacterial potential with an inhibition zone diameter ranging from 8.40 to 12.50 mm.
The results clearly demonstrate the antibacterial potency of date palm fruits, which could be attributed to their considerable content of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, rutin, quercetin, and luteolin.
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Haploid technologies are used to create homozygous lines for accelerated breeding. We aimed to optimize the technology for using the isolated microspore culture in vitro to obtain doubled haploids of the carrot (Daucus carota L.).
We studied two carrot varieties with different responsiveness to embryogenesis, Altajskaya lakomka and Breeding line 17. Carrot microspores were isolated from buds and cultivated in liquid nutrient media supplemented with an antibiotic and activated carbon in vitro. They were exposed to different thermal treatments.
The experiment showed the benefits of combining cold pre-treatment of buds (5°C for 1 day) with heat shock of isolated microspores in vitro (32°C for 2 days). The induction of embryogenesis on the NLN-13 medium was twice as high as on the MSm-13 medium. The use of 1% activated carbon in 0.5% agarose increased the yield of embryoids by more than 1.5 times. 100 mg/L of ampicillin was found to be the most efficient concentration. After 30 days of cultivation under optimized conditions, the yield was 161.3 and 44.0 embryoids per Petri dish for the cultivar Altajskaya lakomka and Breeding line 17, respectively.
The induction of carrot embryogenesis is determined by the type and duration of thermal stress, the composition of the nutrient medium, the use of activated carbon as a sorbent, the addition of β-lactam antibiotics, and the type of explant exposed to thermal treatment. Our technology enabled us to obtain homozygous doubled haploid lines of carrots during a year, and these lines were included in the breeding process to create F1 hybrids.
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Currently, there is an urgent need for domestic fermentation activators based on low-cost secondary raw materials. We aimed to study the effect of microbial enzyme preparations with different action on the hydrolysis of proteins and phytin of grain bran to obtain fermentation activators that could become an alternative to imported ones.
We studied wheat and rye brans; microbial enzyme preparations with cytolytic, proteolytic, and phytase action; multi-enzyme compositions; and grain bran hydrolysates. Firstly, we determined the kinetic characteristics of enzyme preparations. Secondly, we evaluated their effectiveness in the hydrolysis of the brans. Thirdly, we developed multi-enzyme compositions. Finally, we determined the concentration of soluble forms of phosphorus and free amino acids in the hydrolysates.
We determined optimal temperature and pH values for the enzyme preparations. The multi-enzyme compositions contributed to a high accumulation of reducing substances, water-soluble protein, and phosphorus. The concentration of free amino acids in the hydrolysates obtained under the action of the bran’s own enzymes was about 20% higher in the wheat samples, compared to the rye samples. However, when using multi-enzyme compositions in addition to the bran’s own enzymes, the concentration of free amino acids was 1.5 times higher in the rye hydrolysates, compared to the wheat hydrolysates.
The use of multi-enzyme compositions under optimal conditions can double the content of phosphorus and free amino acids available for yeast, compared to the control. Our results can be used for further research into using grain bran hydrolysates as an alternative source of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition for yeast at the fermentation stage of fruit distillate production.
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Trace elements are dangerous to human health and there is a rising concern about the quality of processed foods in some parts of the world, especially in Iraq.
The chemical composition (total sold, moisture, and ash) and concentrations of trace elements in canned fish (Skipjack tuna, Sardines, Tuna fish, Sardines, and Mackerel) from the Kalar market, Iraq were determined by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer.
The ranges obtained for the elements in mg/kg were as follows: Se (0.025–0.77), As (0.02–1.07), B (0.05–0.7), Ag (0.04–0.83), Ba (0.05–0.975), Mg (29.8–37.5), Mn (0.97–2.09), Cu (0.91–3.09), and Zn (5.12–11.7). The studied canned fishes pose no risk with respect to the estimated daily intake of Se, As, B, Ag, Ba, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn. The total target hazard quotients for the studied metals from individual fish species (except Fme, Fma, and Fsh) were more than one, which was responsible for noncarcinogenic risks. The target carcinogenic risk value for arsenic was also higher than the standard (10-4) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
It revealed that the consumption of canned fish causes a chronic cancer risk to humans.
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The awareness of some harmful side effects of the chemicals contained in synthetic cosmetics has increased the demand for herbal-based cosmetic products today.
White pitahaya fruit and peel methanol extracts were prepared to determine their usage potential in the cosmetic industry. Firstly, we investigated their antimicrobial activity against some test microorganisms using the disc diffusion assay. We also determined their minimal inhibition and minimal bactericidal or fungicidal concentrations. Then, we assayed the antimicrobial activity of a commercial cream containing white pitahaya extracts and the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MA-7 strain against the test microorganisms. Finally, we measured the sun protection factors of the white pitahaya fruit and peel extracts and the cream with the extracts.
The white pitahaya fruit and peel extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms. The cream formulation containing a pitahaya fruit extract had the highest inhibition zone diameter of 11.25 mm against Escherichia coli O157:H7. The highest sun protection value among the extracts and cream with extracts was determined for peel extract as 6.66 and 23.34, respectively.
The results indicate that pitahaya fruit and peel extracts have effective antibacterial and antifungal properties, as well as high sun protection factors, and therefore they could be used as natural preservatives in the cosmetic industry.
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Agroindustry needs novel materials to replace synthetic plastics. This article introduces sodium alginate films with antioxidant properties. The films, which were incorporated with hydroalcoholic extract of Macrocystis pyrifera L., were tested on sliced Hass avocados.
The research featured sodium alginate films incorporated with hydroalcoholic extracts of M. pyrifera. Uncoated avocado halves served as control, while the experimental samples were covered with polymer film with or without hydroalcoholic extract. A set of experiments made it possible to evaluate the effect of the extracts on polymeric matrices, release kinetics, and sensory profile of halved Hass avocados.
A greater concentration of hydroalcoholic extracts increased the content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. As a result, the bands in the carboxylate groups of sodium alginate became more intense. Crystallinity decreased, whereas opacity and mass loss percentage increased, and conglomerates appeared on the surface of the films. These processes fit the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model because they resulted from a combination of diffusion and swelling mechanisms in the films.
The films incorporated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. pyrifera proved to be an effective alternative to traditional fruit wrapping materials.
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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an erect herbaceous annual plant with flat seeds. It is one of the oldest cultivated oilseed plants in the world, especially popular in Africa and Asia.
The present research objective was to describe a sesame protein isolate, i.e., its amino acid profile, functional and physicochemical properties, zeta potential, and hydrodynamic diameter. The surface charge and hydrodynamic diameter in aqueous solutions were obtained for standard sesame seeds, defatted sesame seeds, and the sesame protein isolate.
Defatted sesame seeds yielded the following optimal parameters: salt concentration – 0.6 M, pH – 7, iso-electric point (pI) – 4. The sesame protein isolate was rich in methionine content, which is rare in other plant proteins, but its lysine content was lower than in other isolates. The sesame protein isolate displayed almost identical zeta potential profiles with its pH. The decreasing pH increased the zeta values gradually from the lowest negative value to the highest positive value. The zeta potentials of standard and defatted sesame seeds at pH 7 were –23.53 and –17.30, respectively. The hydrodynamic diameter of the sesame protein isolate (0.33 μm) was smaller than that of sesame seeds (2.64 μm) and defatted sesame seeds (3.02 μm). The sesame protein isolate had a water holding capacity of 1.26 g/g and an oil holding capacity of 3.40 g/g. Its emulsifying properties looked as follows: emulsion capacity – 51.32%, emulsion stability – 49.50%, emulsion activity index – 12.86 m2/g, and emulsion stability index – 44.96 min, respectively. These values are suitable for the sesame protein isolate and are consistent with the literature.
The sesame protein isolate was a good source of protein (88.98%). Using sesame proteins as functional components can be an important basis for better knowledge of the relationship between electrical charge interactions in food matrices and the structure, stability, shelf life, texture, structural and functional properties of food. Research prospects include the effects of sesame protein isolates on various food systems.
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The olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important plants grown in many Mediterranean countries that has a high economic value. Olives, which are specific to each region, have different bioactive components. In this study, we investigated the phenolic/flavonoid contents, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antithrombotic activities of the fruit, leaf, and seed extracts obtained from the Halhalı olive grown in Arsuz district of Hatay, Turkey.
Antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds found in the olive fruit, seed, and leaf extracts were determined by employing established in vitro systems. Total phenolics were determined as gallic acid equivalents, while total flavonoids were determined as quercetin equivalents. Also, we evaluated a possible interaction between oleuropein and aggregation-related glycoproteins of the platelet surface via docking studies.
The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity. The seed extract had the highest phenolic content of 317.24 μg GAE, while the fruit extract had the highest flavonoid content of 4.43 μg. The highest potential for metal chelating activity was found in the leaf extract, with an IC50 value of 13.33 mg/mL. Also, the leaf extract showed higher levels of antioxidant, antithrombotic, and antimicrobial activity, compared to the fruit and seed extracts. The docking scores of oleuropein against the target molecules GPVI, α2β1, and GPIbα were calculated as –3.798, –4.315, and –6.464 kcal/mol, respectively.
The olive fruit, leaf, and seed extracts used as experimental material in our study have remarkable antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antithrombotic potential.
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Dorogov’s antiseptic stimulators (fractions 2 and 3) are products of meat and bone meal pyrolysis that are used to treat farm animals. However, there is a lack of detailed information about their chemical composition. We aimed to study individual compositions of organic substances in the water- and oil-soluble condensates of these preparations.
Dorogov’s antiseptic stimulators ASD-2F and ASD-3F (Agrovetzashchita, Russia) were used as samples of the water- and oil-soluble condensates of meat and bone meal pyrolysis. Volatile substances were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, while amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
The initial water-soluble condensate contained ammonium salts, amides of carboxylic acids, N-heterocyclic compounds, hydantoins, amino acids, and dipeptides, with a total content of 8% of the condensate’s weight. Its dehydrated concentrate had almost no ammonium salts and amides of carboxylic acids, but its contents of hydantoins, amino acids, dipeptides, and lowvolatile nitrogen-containing heterocycles were 10–15 times as high as those in the initial condensate. The condensate contained 13 dipeptides and 19 amino acids with a total content of 2.5%. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the oilsoluble condensate contained over 30% of nitriles; 7–10% of higher and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and amides (with esters); and 1–3% of N-heterocyclic compounds, naphthalenes, pyridines, and dipeptides. The nitrogen-containing heterocycles, as well as dipeptides, were similar to those in the water-soluble condensate.
We identified 80% of individual organic substances in the water-soluble pyrolytic condensate. Together with its concentrate, they contained more than 220 organic substances divided into 10 main groups. The oil-soluble condensate consisted of over 350 individual organic compounds. The full composition of the preparations can be further identified by three-quadrupole liquid mass spectrometry.
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New barley products can be developed by modifying the content of bioactive components in the grain through breeding, as well as improving its quality at lower fertilizer costs. We aimed to study the effects of the genotype, growth conditions, and top-dressing application of nitrogen and organo-mineral fertilizers on the chemical composition of barley grain.
The barley varieties Novichok, Rodnik Prikamya, and Pamyaty Rodinoy were grown under normal (2020) and dry (2021) field conditions. The plants were top-dressed with mineral (CAS; SpetsKhimAgro, Kirovo-Chepetsk, Russia) or organo-mineral (Amino Start and Alfastim; Polydon® Agro, Moscow, Russia) fertilizers in the tillering or heading phases. The contents of protein, starch, fat, and crude fiber in the grain were analyzed with an INFRAMATIC 8620 instrument (Perten Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden).
The CAS fertilizer reduced protein, fat, and fiber by 4.5–8.3% (Novichok) during the drought and increased starch by 2.1% (Novichok), fiber by 14.2% (Rodnik Prikamya), and fat by 18.9% (Pamyaty Rodinoy) under normal humidity. Amino Start applied under normal conditions increased starch by 2.9% and reduced protein and fat by 7.8–8.9% in Rodnik Prikamya, as well as increased protein and fat by 14.4 and 6.3%, respectively, but reduced starch by 5.1% in Pamyaty Rodinoy. Alfastim applied under normal conditions reduced the content of protein by 10.7% (Rodnik Prikamya), but increased it by 3.6–7.2% in the other cultivars. It also increased fiber by 22.8% in Rodnik Prikamya, but decreased it by 18.6% in Pamyaty Rodinoy. Finally, this fertilizer decreased fat by 12.7% in Rodnik Prikamya, but increased it by 9.8% in Pamyaty Rodinoy. In the drought, the fertilizers Alfastim and Amino Start increased the protein content by 5.2–12.2% in Rodnik Prikamya and Pamyaty Rodinoy.
Top-dressing barley plants with mineral or organo-mineral fertilizers can modify the grain composition (up to 10.4% of fiber, 3.6% of starch, and 7.5% of protein and fat), depending on the consumer’s requirements.
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The food cold chain is an effective tool that allows food markets to maintain food quality and reduce losses. Poor logistics may result in foodborne disease outbreaks and greenhouse gas emissions caused by organic matter decay. The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 makes it necessary to study the chances of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions in food products.
This study reviews cold chain logistics as a handy tool for avoiding food safety risks, including COVID-19.
The cold chain of perishables and its proper management make it possible to maintain quality and safety at any stage of the food supply chain. The technology covers each link of the food chain to prevent microbial spoilage caused by temperature fluctuations and the contamination with SARS-CoV-2 associated with perishable foods. Given the lack of knowledge in this field in Latin America, the region needs new research to determine the impact of the cold chain on perishable foodstuffs.
The perishable cold chain is only as strong as its weakest link, and the national and international markets require new traceability protocols to minimize the effect of COVID-19.
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No agriculture is possible without soil. This article reviews available data on the soils of the Baksan Gorge located in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia. The research objective was to collect and analyze information on the soil composition and crop yields in this region of the Central Caucasus.
The review covered the last five years of scientific publications cited in Scopus, Web of Science, and Elibrary. It also featured contemporary and archival documents on the soil composition and periglacial agriculture in the Baksan Gorge.
The agriculture and cattle breeding started in the Central Caucasus in the first millennium BC when the local peoples began to develop these lands as highland pastures and, subsequently, for agricultural farming. During the second millennium BC, crop production became one of the most important economic sectors in the Central Caucasus. Corn, barley, wheat, and millet were the main agricultural crops in the Baksan Gorge. Millet has always been a traditional Kabardian crop, and millet farming occupied the largest flatland areas. Barley was the staple crop in the highlands. Currently, the list of local staple crops includes corn, wheat, and sunflower. Barley, oats, peas, potatoes, vegetables, berries, nuts, grapes, and annual herbs are also popular. The past fifteen years have seen an extensive development of intensive horticulture in the Baksan Gorge.
Agricultural ecology and production problems depend on the localization of agriculture in the Central Caucasus. This research reviewed data on the effect of soil composition on the yield and value of agricultural crops in the Baksan Gorge of the Central Caucasus.
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Kashk is a perishable fermented dairy product. Since chemical preservatives are harmful for human health, we aimed to study lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) as a natural preservative.
First, we assessed the phytochemical properties of lemongrass extract. Then, we added lemongrass extract and microencapsulated lemongrass extract to kashk samples. Finally, we analyzed their physicochemical and sensorial properties during 60 days of storage.
Catechin (419.04 ± 0.07 mg/L), gallic acid (319.67 ± 0.03 mg/L), and chloregenic acid (4.190 ± 0.002 mg/L) were found to be the predominant phenolic constituents in lemongrass. Total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity (IC50) values of the lemongrass extract were 26.73 mg GA/g, 8.06 mg Quercetin/g, and 2751.331 mg/L, respectively. The beads were spherical in shape with a 35.03-nm average particle diameter and 47.81% microencapsulation efficiency. The pH of the supplemented kashks decreased during the storage time. They showed lower acid degree values than the control at the end of storage. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid values of the sample fortified with microencapsulated lemongrass extract were 6.15, 4.76, and 44.12%, respectively, being the lowest among the samples. This kashk sample had the highest hardness (570.62 ± 21.87 g), adhesiveness (18.10 ± 4.36 mJ), and cohesiveness (0.56 ± 0.25) but the lowest chewiness (72.66 ± 3.08 mJ) among the samples. It also had a better sensory profile than the control samples.
Our results indicated that microencapsulated lemongrass extract could be incorporated into kashk to ensure suitable sensorial and textural properties. Furthermore, it may delay fat oxidation and lipolysis during storage.
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Tea fungus (Medusomyces gisevii L.) is a natural symbiotic consortium of yeast-like fungi and bacteria. Scientific literature provides a lot of information about the consortium, but it is largely fragmentary. We aimed to review and systematize the information on the research topic.
We studied scientific publications, conference proceedings, intellectual property, regulatory documents, and Internet resources on the M. gisevii consortium using Scopus, Web of Science, e.LIBRARY.RU, and Google Academy. The methods applied included registration, grouping, classification, comparative analysis, and generalization.
We described the origin and composition of tea fungus, specifying the microorganisms that make up its symbiotic community depending on the place of origin. Then, we reviewed the stages of fermentation and cultivation conditions in various nutrient media and presented the composition of the culture liquid. Finally, we analyzed the antimicrobial effect of M. gisevii on a number of microorganisms and delineated some practical uses of the fungus.
The data presented in this article can be used to analyze or develop new methods for the cultivation and application of M. gisevii. We specified some possibilities for using not only the culture liquid but also the fruit body of the fungus in various industries.
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Abiotic and biotic stresses have a major impact on crop growth. Stress affects the root system and decreases the amount of nutrients in fruits. Modern agricultural technologies help replace mineral fertilizers with new generation biopreparation. Unlike chemical fertilizers, biofertilizers reduce the risk of adverse environmental impacts. Of special interest are extremophilic microorganisms able to survive in extreme conditions. We aimed to study the phytostimulating ability of extremophilic bacteria isolated from disturbed lands in the coal-mining region.
We isolated microorganisms from disturbed lands and studied their cultural, morphological, and biochemical properties. Then, we determined their ability to synthesize indole-3-acetic acids. The extremophilic bacteria were identified and subjected to biocompatibility testing by co-cultivation. Next, we created consortia of pure cultures and analyzed biomass growth. Finally, the biopreparation was experimentally tested on Trifolium prantense L. seeds.
We isolated 10 strains of microorganisms that synthesized 4.39 to 16.32 mg/mL of indole-3-acetic acid. The largest amounts of the acid were produced by Pantoea spp., Enterococcus faecium, Leclercia spp., Rothia endophytica, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A consortium of Pantoea spp., E. faecium, and R. endophytica at a ratio of 1:1:1 produced the largest amount of indole-3-acetic acid (15.59 mg/mL) and accumulated maximum biomass. The addition of 0.2% L-tryptophan to the nutrient medium increased the amount of indole-3-acetic acid to 18.45 mg/mL. When the T. prantense L. seeds were soaked in the biopreparation (consortium’s culture fluid) at a concentration of 2.5, the sprouts were 1.4 times longer on the 10th day of growth, compared to the control.
The consortium of Pantoea spp., E. faecium, and R. endophytica (1:1:1) stimulated the growth of T. prantense L. seeds. Our findings can be further used to develop biofertilizers for agriculture.
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Plant cells and tissue cultures are sources of secondary plant metabolites. Substances produced by callus cultures can expand the raw material base in pharmacy and food production. However, isolating biologically active substances from medicinal plants is a labor- and time-consuming process. As a result, new and efficient technological processes adapted for extraction from callus cultures are in high demand, and new algorithms of isolation and purification of biologically active substances remain a relevant task.
This research featured callus cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis L. The procedures for phytochemical analysis and isolation of biologically active substances involved such physicochemical research methods as high-performance chromatography (HPLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), UV spectrometry, and IR spectrometry.
The high performance liquid chromatography confirmed the presence of flavonoids represented by baicalein (5,6,7-trioxyflavone), baicalin (baicalein 7-O-glucuronide), scutellarein (5,6,7,4-tetraoxyflavone), scutellarin (7-O-glucuronide scutellarein), vagonin, and oroxylin. The spectral analyses also detected skutebaicalin. The highest total content of diterpene belonged to the samples extracted with 70% ethanol at 70°C. The content of diterpene was 0.09 mg/cm3 in terms of betulin. The biologically active substances were isolated from the callus extracts of S. baicalensis with a recovery rate of ≥ 80%. The purification scheme made it possible to obtain highly-pure individual biologically active compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, baicalin, and oroxylin A had a purity of ≥ 95%; baicalein had a purity of ≥ 97%; scutellarin and luteolin reached ≥ 96%.
The new technological extraction method made it possible to obtain extracts from S. baicalensis callus cultures, which were tested for the component composition. The developed isolation algorithm and purification scheme yielded biologically active substances with a purification degree of ≥ 95%.