Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014
Selenium is an indispensable biologically active trace element; being part of the most important enzymes and hormones, it participates in most metabolic processes and has antioxidant properties. The Kuznetsk Basin (Kemerovo oblast) is a region where selenium deficiency is associated with adverse environmental conditions in addition to natural factors; as a result, the population experiences a severe shortage of this trace element. Fortified foods of mass consumption can be a major source of selenium, especially for socially disadvantaged strata. This paper shows the possibility of obtaining wheat with high selenium content in grain in the regional context. It is proved that the most significant factors that ensure wheat with good technological properties are the method, the phase, the amount and multiplicity of selenium application, and the simultaneous introduction of enriching supplements and complex mineral additives. The threshold quantities of selenium supplements are established.
Both theoretical and applied studies on microstructure of cheese immediately after a technological cycle and dry cheese obtained by vacuum drying are described. The aim of the microstructure studies is a more comprehensive evaluation of the product quality. Images of cheese upon high- and low-temperature secondary heating at different magnification were studied. The effect of drying on cheese microstructure was investigated. Analysis and identification of various components in the cheese mass using microstructure studies were performed. Calcium phosphate depositions were detected with electron microscopy. Calcium lactate was detected in mature cheese.
A country that owns high-performance computing facilities and mathematical modeling algorithms is able to provide its competitiveness in all the sectors of economy. The application of mathematical modeling is environmentally safe and cost effective and increases the technical and general culture of production. First of all, this concerns the development of new technologies. That is why the creation of new products in both the pharmaceutical and food industries is already impossible without the use of mathematical modeling. Today this is a necessity, the fulfilment of which has already been specified in relevant technical regulations. The simultaneous use of both mathematical methods and experiment provides not only the reduction of time, energy, and financial expenditures, but also the acquisition of additional information and the establishment of a direction of studies. This considerably reduces the time between the generation of an idea and its implementation in the form of a product. The technologies of the use of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase for the achievement of certain objectives in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture, and food industry have been developed by now. The insufficient application of algorithmic and mathematical approaches by researchers for development and analysis can be considered as a factor limiting the active use of biotechnological methods in the production of this enzyme. The description of microbial biosynthesis mechanisms by classical mathematical methods encounter some difficulties due to the combined effect of numerous chemical, physical, biological, engineering, and other factors. Another important thing is the more profound study of the kinetics of microbiological synthesis susceptible to both internal and external effects. The batch cultivation of pigmented yeast has been studied by probabilistic methods. A stochastic model providing the system study of the biosynthesis of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by pigmented yeast has been formulated. The cultivation of microorganisms is described by the birth-and-death process. The mathematical expectation and dispersion of the number of population members are proposed as efficiency characteristics. The dependence between the amount of synthesized enzyme and the birth and death rates of a cultivated population is derived through the concentration of cultivated microorganism biomass and the birth and death rates of its members.
The information available on high technology in food industry is systematized. Different approaches to the development and integration of scientific knowledge are discussed. According to the European Institute for Food Processing (EU-IFP), there are three possible areas where a breakthrough in food science can occur: biotechnology (BIOTECH), nanotechnology (NANO), and information and communication technology (ICT). A transition is expected of high technology in food industry to convergent technologies in a combination with cognitive science (COGNITIVE). The four components of high technology are analyzed using food industry examples. We believe that the transfer of scientific knowledge into food industry can facilitate the technological development of the Russian agroindustrial complex.
Protein hydrolysates have a high biological and nutritional value and are widely used in various sectors of the food, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. This article deals with the chemical hydrolysis of the milk protein casein in the presence of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and reports the hydrolysis parameters minimizing the loss of amino acids. In casein hydrolysis, peptide bonds of protein molecules break to form di- and tripeptides and free amino acids, enhancing protein absorption by the body. Inadequate intake of digestible forms of protein leads to disruption of growth processes and impairs the immune resilience of the human body. To avoid the decomposition of labile amino acids, hydrolysis was performed with triply distilled 6 M hydrochloric or sulfuric acid in a vacuum in sealed ampoules for 4, 8, or 24 (±0.05) h at a temperature of 110 ± 5°C and a substrate-to-acid ratio of 1 : 15, 1 : 20, or 1 : 25. The compositions of the casein hydrolysates obtained at various hydrolysis times are presented. For a more detailed evaluation of the properties of the casein hydrolysates, the hydrolysis time effect on the molecular weight distribution of proteins and peptides has been investigated. The problem of obtaining protein hydrolysates with the desired composition and properties remains topical.
Effects of Humidity and the Content of Sprouted and Spoiled Buckwheat Grains on the Changes of Acid Number of Fat and Grain Acidity
The connection between buckwheat grain quality and the changes of the acid number of fat (AN) and grain acidity after eight months of storage has been investigated. Parameters of buckwheat with different content of moisture, germinated grains, and spoiled grains were determined. The studies performed have shown that oxidative damage to buckwheat grain increases concomitantly to the increase of humidity and content of germinated and spoiled seeds. All three defects of grain (increased humidity and increased content of germinated and spoiled seeds) accelerate the hydrolysis of grain lipids, and this leads to an increase of the acid number of fat. AN can be considered an indicator of grain freshness and should be introduced as an indicator of buckwheat quality for inward inspection of grain.
Assessment of Proteolysis and Lipolysis Intensity in Pechersky Cheese Ripening in the Presence of Penicillium Camemberti and Penicillium Roqueforti Molds
High intensity of proteolysis and lipolysis in the curd due to the activity of mold enzymes is characteristic of mold-ripened cheeses. The intensity of proteolysis and lipolysis in cheese curd during the ripening process of Pechersky cheese containing two types of mold has been investigated in order to delineate the optimal production parameters. The results showed that the intensity of enzymatic processes in Pechersky cheese was higher than in Roquefort and Camembert cheeses. This is due to the bidirectional ripening of Pechersky cheese, with mold Penicillium roqueforti mediating the ripening starting from the center of the block and the mold Penicillium camemberti mediating the ripening starting from the surface of the block. The data obtained allow for a reduction of the ripening time of Pechersky cheese to 21 days.
Composition and Microstructure Investigation for the Modeling and Classification of Dietary Fiber Derived From Plants
Investigation of the composition and microstructure of dietary fiber derived from plants showed that the stabilizers investigated differ with regard to size and shape of the particles and the density of particle distribution. The composition and microstructure of dietary fiber derived from plants have been studied using electron microscopy. Spectrometric profiles of chemical composition have been obtained, and the content of the predominant chemical elements in food microstructure stabilizers has been determined. Some similarity concerning the content of certain chemical elements and the ratio of the contents of different elements has been detected upon the analysis of food structure stabilizers of the same type (carboxymethylcellulose, gum, and sodium pyrophosphate). Mathematical processing of photomicrographs of structure stabilizer samples has been performed, and masks for the assessment of the content of microcavities in the particles of the structure stabilizers investigated have been created.
Development of Technological Parameters for the Hydrotermal Processing of Sprouted Wheat Grain Powder
The present work is devoted to the development of technological parameters for the hydrothermal processing of powdered sprouted wheat and justification of use of the powder produced as a food additive. Introduction of sprouts into the diet stimulates metabolism and hematopoiesis, boosts immunity, compensates for vitamin and mineral deficiency, normalizes the acid-alkaline balance, promotes the elimination of toxins from the body, stimulates digestion, and slows the aging process. The use of sprouted wheat grains in public catering is very limited due to the short shelf-life of this product. Storage of dried grains provides a solution for this problem; however, it necessitates the development of a technology for the use of dried sprouted wheat grain. The present study was a part of research on the powder produced from sprouted wheat and centered on the process of hydrothermal treatment of dry sprouted wheat powder. Conventional methods were used in the present work for the analysis of physical and chemical parameters. A range of factors, including the protein content of the powder, the degree of mechanical damage of the starch granules, and the pH value of the solution, affects the water absorption capacity of the powder produced from sprouted wheat. Treatment time, temperature, and mash ratio at pH 4.5 and pH 7.0 were varied in experiments performed to determine the optimum operating parameters of the hydrothermal processing. As a result of the study, an energy-efficient technology has been developed for the hydrothermal processing of powdered sprouted wheat grains. The following process parameters were selected: an optimum swelling temperature of 45°C, hydrothermal treatment duration of 60 min at pH 4.5, and an optimum mash ratio of 1:1.25.
Aromatic plants are a valuable source of biologically active substances. The use of aromatic plant processing products in the pharmaceutical, perfume and cosmetic, and food industries is of great interest. The search for new plant sources of biologically active substances and the study of their composition and properties are still topical. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a promising aromatic raw material containing a number of biologically active substances. Until now, essential oils were obtained only from fennel fruits and, less frequently, from whole plants. However, fennel raw materials contain microelements and macroelements, organic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, tannins, polysaccharides, amino acids, coumarins, and flavonoids, which make the processing of whole plants reasonable. A rich spectrum of valuable fennel components requires the search for methods of their exhaustive recovery from plant raw materials, and this can be provided only with a complex processing technology. For this reason, the objective of our work was to develop a technology for the processing of fennel, a promising plant, on the basis of the steam distillation of raw materials and the aqueous alcoholic extraction of waste solid residues remaining after the recovery of essential oil with the purpose of obtaining aqueous alcoholic extracts, to study the other types of wastes formed in the course of processing, and to determine the field of their application. A promising trend in the processing of fennel was scientifically substantiated. Some regularities in the change of the yield of fennel essential oil components and their distribution between the plant organs depending on plant vegetation stages and weather in the submountain Crimea were established. The technical maturity of plants for industrial processing was defined. Waste residues after the extraction of essential oil were studied, and some new natural biologically active products were obtained.
A technology and a formulation for the production of meringue of increased nutritional value have been developed. Stepwise introduction of components of a complex additive including puffed barley (6%) and eggshell powder (2%) has been implemented in the new technology. The effect of the above named additive on heat treatment of meringues has been investigated; for this, test samples of pastry were baked at a temperature of 100°C until the content of solids reached 96%. Changes of temperature in the surface layer, central part, and bottom of the sample were monitored during baking. The process of baking of the samples can be arbitrarily divided into three stages, namely, warming, baking, and drying. Dynamics of changes in the surface temperature of the test sample was comparable to that registered for the control sample; the surface was thoroughly heated and moisture evaporated almost completely during 12–15 minutes after the beginning of treatment. The duration of warming for the center of the test samples decreased by 15.4%, and the duration of baking decreased by 6.8%.The additive also had a marked effect on the dynamics of temperature distribution in the bottom of the samples during baking; however, the duration of warming for the test sample was comparable to that for the control sample due to additional heating of the system upon contact with the metallic baking sheet. Introduction of the additive resulted in a decrease of baking time due to the increase of heat conductance of the foam mass containing the additive. Introduction of a complex additive combining components of plant and animal origin to the technology of meringue production contributes to increased production intensity and decreased energy consumption.
Modern methods of slime waste disposal utilized by wastewater treatment plants were analyzed. Domestic and foreign experience in the application of silver clusters in reducing pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms inhabiting the waste sludge was studied. The main mechanisms of bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects silver clusters are capable of exerting on microorganisms were considered. Strains of microorganisms with the ability to recycle organic and inorganic substances present in the waste sludge into ecologically pure humus fertilizer in the course of their vital activity were selected. The effects of different concentrations of silver clusters on growth and development of the microorganisms decomposing organic compounds (Microbacterium terregens BSB-570, Streptococcus termophilus St5, Lactobacillus sp. 501 (2A4), Rhodococcus erythropolis, Bacillus fastidiosus, Arthrobacter sp. (Arthrobacter paraffineus) ATCC 15591, etc.), as well as on the Escherichia coli bacteria chosen as a model organism, were studied. For the first time, decomposers modified with silver clusters, i.e. resistant to high concentrations of silver clusters, able not only to grow, but also to reproduce normally and, consequently, to recycle the waste sludge, were obtained. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations of silver clusters with respect to decomposers and optimal concentration, at which the useful microorganisms are able to grow and reproduce actively and the pathogenic Escherichia coli die, were determined.
Mixtures for Vertebroplasty: the Flowability of Their Components and a New Production Technology Using a Centrifugal Mixer
The article deals with the production of bone cement, which is used in various fields of medicine. A new technology for producing medical cement mixtures is presented. Particular attention is paid to use of bone cement in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures associated with osteoporosis. The incidence rate of osteoporosis and its clinical manifestations is expected to increase four times in the next half-century due to the growth of population and the increase in life expectancy. Problems of contemporary medicine that are associated with obtaining granular mixtures of preset quality and composition are discussed. Information about the flowability of the components of cement mixtures is presented. The concept of a criterion of flowability is introduced for the first time for rationally choosing a mixing method according to the flowability of the components for preparing quality cement mixtures. Flowability data for cement mixture components have been obtained to optimize the mixing process. A dimensionless equation is set up to calculate the power requirement for the mixing process. The quality of the resulting granular compositions depends primarily on the physicomechanical properties of the materials being mixed. A continuous, centrifugal, bone cement mixing unit is described, and the principle of its operation is considered. The performance of continuous mixers has been evaluated in terms of output capacity, specific energy consumption, and heterogeneity coefficient. The new, centrifugal mixer has been demonstrated to be more efficient in bone cement production than the pulsating mixer.
This paper presents the results of the theoretical and experimental studies of newly designed devices, namely, the VRSh-1 ball rheometer and the Sgustok-1S dual-range rotary viscometer, for the continuous automatic monitoring of structure formation processes in milk–protein blobs. Each type of rheometers is studied to substantiate and select their geometric and kinematic parameters and the shape of measuring elements. It has been shown that the mechanical actions on the structure of milk–protein blobs during the rheometric monitoring of their formation must be minimal to obtain reliable data on their readiness. It has been proven that the monitoring of the formation of blobs by the method of the low-amplitude dynamic oscillations of a ball does not necessitate the measurement of the phase shift of its oscillations, and the total force of the resistance of a strengthening clot to the displacements of a ball inside it should be selected as a control parameter, which is in direct proportion to the amplitude of linear displacements of a ball in a viscoelastic medium (blob). Such a solution simplifies the design of a rheometer and makes it possible to obtain a similar rheogram, which precisely and reliably describes the coagulation of a milk mixture. The possibility of switching the rigidity ranges of force indicators without stopping the electrical drive, the design of which prevents a formed blob from dynamic impacts, thus providing the precision of monitoring and the preservation of the structure of a blob, has been designed for the method a cylinder rotating in a formed blob. The algorithm of the computer approximation of rheometric monitoring results for the formation of milk–protein blobs with the possibility of correcting its consistence at the terminal stage of coagulation is described.
Recipes of multicomponent mixtures of cereals with proteins of high biological value were developed. In experiments, 35 adult male Wistar rats were used. Prior to the experiment, all animals were fed with powdered milk, grain or grain waste, germinated oats, and comprehensive multivitamin preparations, in addition to the standard balanced diet. Against this background, blood was collected from the animals for biochemical studies (control group, n = 20). Blood collection from tail vein was performed under general anesthesia, according to the recommendations of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Working Group. Animals were fed with viscous-texture porridge made from ternary mixtures (rice, peas, and buckwheat; rice, barley, and maize) and the five-component cereals (rice, barley, maize, buckwheat, and peas) for 30 days. The control group received a standard vivarium diet. Postprandial glycemic curves in all groups were compared with the response to administration of glucose in the amount corresponding to the diet carbohydrates content. Postprandial glycemia was significantly lower in all groups of animals receiving the experimental diets than in the group of animals who received aqueous solution of glucose directly in the stomach by gavage at the rate of 0.03 g/g total weight (glucose tolerance test, GTT). Baudouin hyperglycemic factor was 1.52 for the control group, and in the range of 1.07–1.10, for the experimental groups. The glycemic index was 76.2 and 53.6–55.9, respectively. The results evidence that the products prepared from multicomponent mixtures of cereals belong to the products with low glycemic index
Enthalpy of Phase Transition and Prediction of Phase Equilibria in Systems of Glycols and Glycol Ethers
The PCEAS model was used to study the liquid–solid and liquid–vapor phase transitions at constant pressure in systems containing glycols and glycol ethers. This method is based on minimizing the excess Gibbs energy over the solvation parameter, which takes into account the processes of association of molecules in various phases. To compute the diagrams, the data on enthalpy and phase transition temperatures of pure components are required, while the information about the interactions in the binary system is not necessary. We present analytical expressions for the enthalpy of vaporization and enthalpy of melting of glycols and glycol ethers obtained with the theory of similarity using molecular weight, critical temperature, temperature of the triple point, and the number of carbon atoms in the molecule as the parameters. In the absence of information about the critical temperature, the enthalpy of vaporization may be calculated using the boiling point value. It is shown that the prediction of the enthalpy of melting and enthalpy of vaporization allows us to calculate of the phase diagram, as well as the azeotropic and eutectic parameters in water–glycol ether and glycol ether–alkane systems.
The Main Labor-Forming Factors and the Assessment of Labor Efficiency in Agriculture (By the Example of Kemerovo Oblast)
A system of factors that affect the formation of labor resources is considered. At present, quite unrelated indicators that reflect individual aspects of the labor potential are used to characterize labor efficiency. In new economic environment, it is necessary to elaborate a system of indicators that would more fully reflect the use of labor.