Copyright ©Evdokimov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
The studies show that there is an increased interest in the market for the production of protein-fortified products due to the clearly observed trend of general decline in the protein intake by the population. The purpose of this work is to develop the new types of dairy products with increased protein content using the principle of products gradation for protein content, and to assess their functional and textural characteristics. The applied methods included an assessment of the rheological and textural characteristics, an optical microscopy, and the characteristic of color parameters of the products developed. It has been shown that the protein performs various functions in dairy products, such as changes in structural properties of the dairy products, reduction of fat level, and fortification of the products with the rich source of the branched-chain essential amino acids. The assessment of the textural properties of the developed products, which includes the measurements of the viscosity versus shear rate relationship, of the functional and technological properties of foam (fold and stability), and of the texture parameters (hardness and adhesion), has showed the acceptability of the developed technological solutions. The inclusion of the desired level of protein into the dairy products has not significantly affected their textural characteristics. An analysis of the viscosity-shear rate relationship has demonstrated the similar trends in the rheological properties for all the products studied. The texture of the new products was analyzed instrumentally pointing to their similarity with the commercial versions of the products containing half as much of the complete protein. The results of the study indicate the similar values of the color attributes of the developed products. The studies of the biological value of the new products has showed an increased content of the essential amino acids to an average of up to 76.9%, 80%, and 80.7% in cream, drinks, and desserts, respectively, as compared to their commercial counterparts. The amount of leucine, which is an amino acid that plays a fundamental role in the muscle protein synthesis, increased up to 61.9%, as compared to the commercial variants. This study can lay the foundation for the further development of a wide range of the structured food products with increased protein content.
, foam properties
, biological value
- Valeriol A., Antona G. and Nisoli E. Branched-chain amino acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, and health span: an evolutionary perspective. Aging, 2011, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 464–478.
- Burton L.A. and Sumukadas D. Optimal management of sarcopenia. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2010, no. 5, pp. 217–228.
- Loenneke J.P. and Pujol T.J. Sarcopenia: an emphasis on occlusion training and dietary protein. Hippokratia, 2010, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 132–137.
- Bannikova A.V. and Evdokimov I.A. Dairy products fortified with whey proteins. Technological aspects of production. Dairy Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 46–48. (In Russian).
- Rom O., Kaisari S., Aizenbud D. and Reznick A.Z. Lifestyle and sarcopenia – etiology, prevention, and treatment. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, 2012. vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1–12.
- Katsanos C. S., Kobayashi H., Sheffield-Moore M., Aarsland A. and Wolfe R. R. A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2006, vol. 291, no. 2, pp. 381–387.
- Abou-Samra R. and Keersmaekers L. Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starter. Nutrition Journal, 2011, vol. 10, pp. 139–145.
- Aguilera J.M. and Rademacher B. Protein gels. In: Proteins in food processing (R. Yada (Ed.)). Cambridge: Woodhead Publication, 2004, pp. 468–482.
- Remeuf F., Mohammed S., Sodini I. and Tissier J.P. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification and heating on microstructure and physical properties of stirred yogurt. International Dairy Journal, 2003, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 773–782.
- Fujita S. and Volpi E. Amino acids and muscle loss with aging. The Journal of Nutrition, 2006, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 277–280.
- Ostroumova T.L. and Prosekov A.Yu. The effect of protein substances on the foaming properties of milk. Transactions of Higher Educational Institutions, Food Technology, 2007, no. 2, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
- Balerin C., Aymard P., Ducept F., Vaslin S. and Cuvelier G. Effect of formulation and processing factors on the properties of liquid food foams. Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 802–809.
- Jafarpour A., Sherkat F., Leonard B. and Gorczyca E.M. Colour improvement of common carp (cyprinus carpio) fillets by hydrogen peroxide for surimi production. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2008, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1602–1609.
- Iserliyska D., Chinnan M.S. and Resurreccion A.V.A. Physicochemical and sensory properties of a peanut drink. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 2012, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 49–56.
- Bayoumi H.M., Mohamed A.G., Sheikh M.M.E., Farrag A.F. and Eissa H.A. Effect of ultrafiltration permeates on the quality of chocolate milk. Journal of American Science, 2011, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 609–615.
- Newton J.P., Yemm R., Abel R.W. and Menhinick S. Changes in human jaw muscles with age and dental state. Gerodontology, 1993, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 16–22.
- Bannikova A.V. and Evdokimov I.A. An Innovative Approach to the Production of Fortified Dairy Products with Increased Content of Protein. Moscow: DeLi Plyus Publ., 2015. 136 p. (In Russian).