Volume 3, Issue 2, 2015
Sugar substitution is a hot topic in current food and beverage development. Sugar substitute is a food additive with sugar-like taste and usually cheaper than sugar. We developed production of glucose-galactose syrup (GGS) from cheese whey to replace and lower sucrose content in dairy products. Nanofiltrated whey containing 15% lactose underwent enzymatic and demineralization processing, producing different levels of monosaccharaides and electrolytes. We hypothesized that the amount of glucose/galactose and minerals in GGS might mediate sweet taste transduction resulting in different perception of sweetness. Using cell-based approach we demonstrated a link between GGS composition, cellular response, and sensory data. GGS with 20% glucose and 16% galactose activated sweet taste transduction and had similar sweetness level compared to sucrose. Moreover, demineralization level of GGS mediated sweet perception and cellular responses. Taken together, our results provide opportunities to optimize production at low-cost GGS from whey to reduce sugar in various PepsiCo products.
The studies show that there is an increased interest in the market for the production of protein-fortified products due to the clearly observed trend of general decline in the protein intake by the population. The purpose of this work is to develop the new types of dairy products with increased protein content using the principle of products gradation for protein content, and to assess their functional and textural characteristics. The applied methods included an assessment of the rheological and textural characteristics, an optical microscopy, and the characteristic of color parameters of the products developed. It has been shown that the protein performs various functions in dairy products, such as changes in structural properties of the dairy products, reduction of fat level, and fortification of the products with the rich source of the branched-chain essential amino acids. The assessment of the textural properties of the developed products, which includes the measurements of the viscosity versus shear rate relationship, of the functional and technological properties of foam (fold and stability), and of the texture parameters (hardness and adhesion), has showed the acceptability of the developed technological solutions. The inclusion of the desired level of protein into the dairy products has not significantly affected their textural characteristics. An analysis of the viscosity-shear rate relationship has demonstrated the similar trends in the rheological properties for all the products studied. The texture of the new products was analyzed instrumentally pointing to their similarity with the commercial versions of the products containing half as much of the complete protein. The results of the study indicate the similar values of the color attributes of the developed products. The studies of the biological value of the new products has showed an increased content of the essential amino acids to an average of up to 76.9%, 80%, and 80.7% in cream, drinks, and desserts, respectively, as compared to their commercial counterparts. The amount of leucine, which is an amino acid that plays a fundamental role in the muscle protein synthesis, increased up to 61.9%, as compared to the commercial variants. This study can lay the foundation for the further development of a wide range of the structured food products with increased protein content.
The growing demand of the Russian population for healthy food dictates the need in functional ingredients production increase. Inulin, the polysaccharide of natural origin, has a wide range of functional activity. This article grounds the expedience of inulin obtaining from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and considers effective technological methods of ensuring high yield and quality of the target product. It was demonstrated that application of vibration with frequency 24 Hz for 60 min at temperature 30–35°C intensifies the extraction process, and fractionation of the extract on membranes with pore diameter 2, 3 and 5 kDa allows to obtain inulin with certain physicochemical properties. The membrane separation results in three inulin fractions: low molecular (DP = 2-10), medium molecular (DP = 11-18) and high molecular (DP = 19-35) fraction. The medium molecular fraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic and fat substitute in food technology, was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and 1H-13C NMR spectrometry. The obtained spectral characteristics have led to a conclusion that the investigated sample of inulin is highly competitive with the best world analogues. The authors thoroughly describe the method of determining the degree of polymerization and average molecular weight of the investigated polysaccharide using 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. It has been established that inulin obtained by improved technology has the degree of polymerization DP = 13–14 and molecular weight 2124–2286 Da. The results of this work have practical value for production of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and theoretical value for the chemistry of natural compounds.
Given the shortage of raw milk, the problem of the rational use of whey as a source of biologically valuable milk components for functional products is urgent. The area of research is the use of acid demineralized whey for the production of functional fermented desserts. Acid whey is characterized by a high content of lactic acid and minerals, which makes its industrial processing difficult and limits the directions of use for food purposes. To solve these problems, the membrane methods area used, they allow regulating the composition and properties of raw materials. Demineralization of acid whey allows removing a significant part of minerals (50%) from it and providing the required acidity in the range, corresponding to raw milk. We set the following objectives: to determine the parameters of whey demineralization, the factors of thermostability; increase stability and improve the consistency of the dairy base from demineralized whey; the effect of the probiotic starter microflora on the characteristics of the final product. In the course of studies, we used a modern membrane equipment, standard and generally accepted research methods. We analysed the composition and properties of demineralized acid whey, considered the theoretical prerequisites to an increase in stability and the ways to improve the consistency of the dairy base. We examined the effect of the dose of stabilizers’ salts, dose of the consistency stabilizer and the fat content on physicochemical, organoleptic and rheological parameters of the milk base, as well as the effect of the probiotic cultures ratio in the starter, which make the product functional, on the properties and qualities of the final product. We developed the formulas and technologies of functional desserts. We developed and approved technical specifications for the desserts, based on which the experimental-industrial production is conducted. The feasibility of using demineralized acid whey as a raw material for the production of dessert products is confirmed experimentally.
The use of chitosan can significantly reduce energy costs in the processing of milk protein and carbohydrate raw materials, and is very promising for use in the dairy industry. In solution of serum proteins, the chitosan binds β-lactoglobulin and other proteins, thus forming an insoluble complex. The formation of complexes of proteins with the chitosan can be accompanied by both a change in the balance of forces that determine the nature of intra- and intermolecular interactions of protein globules, and formation of coacervates differing in size, shape, charge, degree of hydration. Electrostatic forces make the main contribution to the formation of the insoluble chitosan protein complex. In the study of the chitosan complexes formation conditions with the milk serum protein, the pH interaction was studied, as well as concentration of chitosan, the molecular mass of the polysaccharide, ionic strength, and other factors. These patterns of interaction of the milk serum proteins with the chitosan have formed the basis for the development of sorbents based on this polysaccharide. We studied the sorption properties of various forms of chitosan: granulated, as cryogels, as well as part of calcium tartrate gel. Using the chitozan containing sorbents allows us to select proteins from the milk serum and obtain purified preparations of β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin. Inclusion of the chitosan in the milk beverages and dairy desserts allows us to create a functional food, where the polysaccharide acts as a technological, bactericidal and fungistatic agent.
The paper is based on the methodological approach to using pectin and natural honey in the technology of production of new dairy products. The purpose of the study is to use products of the fractionation of milk by apple pectin – natural casein concentrate (NCC) and whey-pectin fraction (WPF) in natural form for the development of new functional products enriched with natural bee honey. Study of the specifics of the fractionation of whole and skim milk by Russian-manufactured apple pectin with the substantiation of the technological parameters of receiving WPF and NCC was conducted. It was established that the process runs effectively under the following conditions: preliminary heat treatment of milk at a temperature of 76°С, introduction of a 5% polysaccharide solution into milk, concentration of pectin of 0.6% of the weight of milk, temperature of fractionation of 4–6°C. The technological properties of the received fractions were studied. It was determined that NCC is relatively thermostable (withstands heat treatment at a temperature up to 80°C), beats well at a temperature of 5°C (overrun 50–60%), adding honey has a positive effect on the structure of the beaten NCC and reduces the likelihood of the separation of whey during storage. At the pectin content within 0.6–0.7% of the weight of milk (on a dry basis), the yield of WPF from skim milk was within 80–81%, from whole milk – 72–73%, solids content was 6.2–6.3%. The total protein content in WPF was 0.9–1.0%, of which whey proteins – 0.45–0.50%. When adding honey to the WPF, a dense gel was formed after a while, having a tendency to syneresis; in 96 hours the degree of syneresis was 10–12% for the studied concentrations of honey from 1 to 10%. On the basis of the obtained data, the closed milk processing cycle is provided by the technology and the formulations of the two products with honey on the basis of WPF and NCC – a pudding and a "Smoothie".
INVESTIGATION OF RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCENTRATED MILK PRODUCTS WITH A COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN COMPOSITION
When developing new types of dairy products, the formulation of which includes components of both dairy and nondairy origin, it is necessary to study the rheological characteristics of these products. The paper studies the rheological characteristics of concentrated milk products with a complex carbohydrate and protein composition. The study was conducted at the premises of FSBEI HPE "Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy named after N.V. Vereshchagin" (Russia, Vologda Region, Vologda). By using the rotary viscometer "Reotest 2.1" the dependence of shear stress (τ, Pa) and effective viscosity (ηef) on shear rate (γ, s-1) was determined. Freshly made product samples were studied, as well as product samples in the process of storage. In the course of the processing of the obtained data, it was found that freshly made concentrated milk products with sugar, as well as the same products in the process of storage during a period of up to 3 months are classified as "Newtonian" liquids, by virtue of the fact that the dependence of shear stress on shear rate for these samples has a linear character. It is recommended to use a Höppler viscometer for the measurement of viscosity in these samples. Adding starch syrup, malt, or demineralized whey powder to the products results in the deviation of their rheological characteristics from the properties of "Newtonian" liquids. The dependence of shear stress on shear rate for these product samples follows a power-law relationship. On this basis it can be concluded that these products are classified as pseudoplastic bodies. During prolonged storage, consolidation of the structure and an increasing degree of deviation from the properties of Newtonian liquids was observed in all studied samples. This behavior is attributable to the formation of filamentary bridges between the casein micelles, which takes place in the microstructure of concentrated milk products with a complex carbohydrate and protein composition after long storage. These bridges are pseudo-polymers, formed by glucose monomers, and determine the microstructure of the product, its organoleptic and rheological properties. It is recommended to measure the viscosity of the developed products using a rotary viscometer.
The scientific direction of the food product designing with a specified set of indicators of nutritional value is currently topical in the world. The mathematical bases for solving formulation problems are well studied. The problems concerning the multi-objective optimization of formulations for multicomponent products are frequently met. At the same time, only one, the most important, criterion is to be optimized, and the rest criteria act as the additional constraints, since the intersection of sets of the optimal solutions for all single-objective problems usually turns out to be an empty set. As a result, several formulation alternatives are obtained, which are optimized according to any single or several (but not all) criteria. The purpose of the work is to theoretically substantiate a universal approach to choosing out of the set of alternatives of the optimized formulations of food products. The authors suggest reasserting the problem of choice as the problem of assessing the degree of the product’s composition conformance with the recommended physiological standards. When assessing the balanced state of the formulation alternatives, the conclusions are made by comparing the relative degree of conformance of the generalized Harrington´s desirability function value with the reference standard, and not of the absolute value of the generalized desirability function. To select from a variety of the optimized formulation alternatives of the multicomponent food products, it is proposed to use the following 6 criteria: a balanced state index of the product’s macronutrient composition; a balanced state index of the vitamin composition; a balanced state index of the mineral composition; a balanced state index of the amino acid composition; a balanced state index of the fatty acid composition; and a balanced state index of the energy value. Wherein, it is proposed to calculate the generalized Harrington´s desirability function as a geometric mean of the partial balanced state indices. A universal approach is suggested for making a choice out of the variety of the optimized formulation alternatives. At the same time, the subjectivity is eliminated in choosing the nomenclature and numerical values of the physical indicators of quality of the compared variants of multicomponent products.
THE STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROHYDRAULIC EFFECT ON THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT AND THE PENETRATION DEPTH OF SALT INTO MUSCLE TISSUES DURING SALTING
Currently, promising methods for intensifying the salting technology of raw meat are those based on pulsed energy effects, accompanied by a variety of physical and chemical effects. One of these methods is a discharge-pulse technology, developed by the scientists of the department of meat and canning technologies of the North Caucasus Federal University. When a short high voltage electrical pulse forms in the brine-meat system, high pressure forms in the working tank, the increase in pressure is accompanied by a set of physical and chemical phenomena, such as ultrasound and electromagnetic radiation, ultraviolet glow, cavitation, etc. Taken together, all these phenomena have a beneficial impact on both the brine and the meat itself, accelerating the process of salting. In the present study, we tried using the method of determining the diffusion coefficient of salt in beef muscle tissues empirically by creating a concentration difference in two communicating chambers, the liquids in which are separated by the studied raw material of a given thickness. The main goal of the work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the discharge-pulse technology of salting meat raw materials by determining the NaCl diffusion coefficient and the penetration depth of salt into meat samples. The experimental results showed that with the discharge-pulse treatment of meat, the penetration rate of salt into muscle tissue increases and is proportional to the number of pulses transmitted to the system. The diffusion coefficient in test samples was higher that in the control meat samples at each time period. Based on the obtained results, we came to the conclusion that the discharge- pulse meat treatment contributes to the intensification of diffusion osmotic processes in the wet salting technology.
Selenium is an indispensable component for fattening broiler chickens of meat productivity. It normalizes their growth and metabolism by participating in the redox transformations of glutathione. The goal of this work was to examine the possibility of using a drug based on selenium nanoparticles and the "Ekstraselen+Vit" vitamins in the diet of broiler chickens. It is experimentally proved that supplementing the diet of poultry with a feed preventative additive leads to higher growth rates and lower mortality rates of young poultry, lower feed costs per unit of yield. During a scientific and economic experiment, we determined that there was an increase in the pre-slaughter weight, slaughter yield and the yield of certain carcass parts in accordance with anatomical butchering. Data on blood haematological parameters of broiler chickens is presented. We identified the improved chemical composition and functional-technological properties of raw meat, produced from broiler chickens, grown with the use of "Ekstraselen+Vit". The concentrations of selenium in the poultry processing products were determined. It was found that the use of the feed additive in the diet, based on selenium nanoparticles, contributes to the accumulation of this element in broiler chickens bodies. It is feasible to use enriched meat to produce medical and preventative food.
STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE PREPARATION OF CREAM FOR CHURNING USING VACUUM ATOMIZATION ON THE STRUCTURE OF BUTTER
In the process of the production of butter, glycerides of butterfat crystallize with the formation of different space lattices. Depending on the conditions of cooling, crystals of various sizes and configurations with different physical properties are formed, which determines the crystalline structure of solidified fat, its physical and chemical properties, and therefore, the consistency of the finished product. The paper explores the impact of the flow two-stage method for physical aging of cream on the pattern of the crystallization of glycerides of butterfat. Comparative X-ray crystallographic and differential-scanning studies of butter, produced using the method of churning, were carried out. The method of differential scanning calorimetry was used to study thermal effects of the test sample of butter (received by churning cream which was aged using the flow method) and the control sample (received by churning cream which was aged using the conventional method). When analyzing data, no exothermic peaks, corresponding to processes that release heat, were observed. The polymorphism and the type of crystalline lattice of glycerides in the butter samples were analyzed using the method of X-ray diffraction. The separate group character of solidification of butterfat – low-melting, medium- melting and high-melting glycerides – was determined. X-ray crystallography did not reveal fundamental differences in the pattern of the crystallization of glycerides and formation of polymorphic modifications with different types of crystalline structure. This indicates the uniformity of type of successive phase changes of butterfat in butter, both after fast cooling of cream by vacuum atomization, followed by aftercooling in a scraped heat exchanger, and in case of using the conventional method of physical aging of cream.
A crucial task of the dairy industry is the modification of the composition and properties of cheese whey to level its organoleptic characteristics for use of qualitatively new food products in technology, including the one of functional use. The work purpose is the optimization of technological parameters of the microparticulation process of ultrafiltration cheese whey concentrate for its use in the production of low-calorie synbiotic drinks. The research objects are cheese whey, food composition based on it (whey protein microparticulate) and synbiotic drink. When performing work, the standard and commonly used in research practice physical and physical and chemical, chemical and biochemical, microbiological, physiological and technological methods of research were used. For mathematical support of experimental results different methods of statistics and optimization, including the method for artificial neural networks were used. The technology of producing milk fat simulator provides pre-cleaning of whey from casein particles and fat, fractionation and concentration of whey proteins using ultrafiltration, as well as thermomechanical processing of the obtained concentrate. The whey protein microparticulate is close to skimmed milk by physical and chemical properties and chemical composition, and its organoleptic properties simulate drinking cream. The new food composition is characterized by a pronounced prebiotic activity. During the development of synbiotic drink formulation the great importance was given to the selection of probiotic cultures able to synthesis of exopolysaccharides. The research results suggested the formulation and component solution of the synbiotic drink, which involves the replacement of 27% skimmed milk by the new food composition, with the exception of cream, stabilizer and skimmed milk powder. The main advantages of the new technology solution are the implementation of a closed cycle of production, the expansion of low-calorie products of high biological value and the reduction of economic costs.
DETERMINATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL, IMMUNOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES, TOXICOLOGICAL AND HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WHEY PROTEIN COMCENTRATE AND ITS HYDROLYSATE
Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins is aimed to obtain products with low allergenic potential and high nutritional value. Whey peptides are protein fraction that possesses a variety of physicochemical, immunochemical and bioactive properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, immunomodulatory effects). Controlled parameters of enzymatic hydrolysates are the degree of hydrolysis of protein substrates, peptide composition, residual antigenicity, antioxidant capacity, etc. The purpose of this work is to characterize peptide profile, antigenicity and free radical scavenging properties of experimental hydrolysate sample, toxicological and hygienic assessment of its impact on a test object (infusoria Tetrahymena pyriformis). The research of properties of whey proteins and their enzymatic hydrolysates was conducted using classical and modern methodological approaches: SDS electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, HPLC, mass-spectrometry, competitive ELISA, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Capacity Assay) technique. Peptide composition, antigenic and antioxidant properties of obtained enzymatic hydrolysate were determined, toxicity of raw and digested whey proteins were examined. We established that the investigated hydrolysate sample falls under the category of partial hydrolysates for functional products according to its physicochemical, immunochemical, free radical scavenging and organoleptic properties. According to the results of toxicological and hygienic assessment using T. pyriformis model, whey protein concentrate and its hydrolysates are non-toxic and do not possess cumulative properties. Thus, we obtained partial enzymatic hydrolysate of whey proteins from milk, which can be used as physiologically active component in the development of new specialized food.
The most promising approach for reducing the allergenicity of milk products with high biological value is biocatalytic conversion of whey proteins, producing hydrolysates with the specified molecular-mass distribution and residual allergenicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effect of kefir product produced with the use of whey protein hydrolysate. The experimental works were conducted at the A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences. The objects of the studies were males of Brown Norway rats of BN/SsNolaHsd line with RT1n haplotype with initial mass of about 150 g, which had been obtained from the centre for Laboratory Animal Breeding of Harlan Laboratories, Inc. Company and had passed quarantine for at least 3 weeks after delivery. A model for testing the bio-functional properties of fermented milk products on the basis of enzymatic whey protein hydrolysates was created. Its essence lies in the induction of IgE-mediated allergic reaction to antigens of dairy products by oral administration with adjuvant – chlorea toxin that increases the permeability of the intestinal wall. Multiple investigations on laboratory animals found that the developed kefir product, produced with the use of whey protein hydrolysate, is characterized by hypotensive, hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect compared to kefir produced by traditional technology, as well as by reduced allergenicity of β-lactoglobulin. According to the opinion of the Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences a status of diet (preventive) food product for adults with symptoms of food allergy to milk proteins was assigned to the fermented milk drink.