ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Volume 11, Issue 2, 2023

3196
Abstract
Tables and figures
Brown algae are a source of hydrothermal extracts that can serve as an effective raw material for instant beverages. This article offers new formulations of functional instant beverages made of concentrated fruit juices and algal extracts of Saccharina japonica and Sargassum miyabei Yendo. The research objective was to define their bioactive and antioxidant profiles.
The research featured S. miyabei Yendo and S. japonica brown algae from the Far East of Russia, their dry hydrothermal extracts, and instant drinks based on these extracts combined with concentrated juices of cranberry, sea buckthorn, and chokeberry. The list of methods included spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography.
The hydrothermal algal extracts of S. miyabei and S. japonica were rich in fucoidan, phenolic compounds, and iodine. The new instant beverages underwent a sensory evaluation. They contained iodine, phenolic compounds, vitamins (ascorbic acid), fucoidan, pectin, flavonoids, anthocyanins, catechins, carotenoids, and tocopherols. All the samples could be classified as functional, but the best antiradical properties belonged to the sample with black chokeberry juice and S. miyabei.
The new functional instant beverages had a high radical-binding activity, which reached 96.3%. One portion (200 mL) covered 27–30% of the recommended daily intake of iodine and 22–50% of vitamin C. The obtained results prove that instant beverages made of S. japonica and S. miyabei Yendo can be used as functional products.
2858
Abstract
Tables and figures
During the processing of sour cherries into different foodstuffs, a large amount of kernels is produced as waste material, which creates a significant disposal problem for the food industry. Sour cherry kernels containing 25.3–35.5% of protein can be used as a functional protein source in food production. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of hydrolysis degree on the sour cherry kernel protein hydrolysates.
Proteins were extracted from the defatted flour by isoelectric precipitation. The resulting protein concentrate was hydrolyzed (5, 10, and 15% hydrolysis) using Alcalase to yield hydrolysates. We determined their oil and water holding, emulsifying, gelation, and foaming properties, as well as apparent molecular weight distribution and proximate compositions.
No protein fractions greater than an apparent molecular weight of about 22 kDa were present in the hydrolysates. The hydrolysis of the protein concentrate mostly led to an increase in protein solubility. As the degree of hydrolysis increased from 5 to 15%, the water holding capacity of the hydrolysates decreased from 2.50 ± 0.03 to 2.03 ± 0.02 g water/g, indicating its deterioration.
The hydrolysates obtained at different degrees of hydrolysis had a better solubility than the intact protein concentrate. The oil holding capacity, the foaming stability, and the least gelation concentration of the protein concentrate could not be considerably improved by hydrolysis. In contrast, its emulsifying activity index and foaming capacity could be increased with a limited degree of hydrolysis (up to 10%).
4848
Abstract
Tables and figures
Organic waste is a problem the cocoa industry has to handle. The industry produces a lot of cocoa bean husk, also called Criollo cocoa husk. Cocoa bean husk is an underutilized cocoa waste that contains bioactive components in the form of phenols and flavonoids. Processed cocoa bean husk can be brewed as a functional beverage.
The research objective was to test cocoa husk tea for sensory properties, bioactive components, and impact on blood cholesterol. This study used a randomized experimental design with six repetitions. Sensory data were processed using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (α = 0.05) to determine the difference in sensory properties between each formulation of cocoa husk tea.
The sensory evaluation involved 30 untrained panelists who gave the highest score to the formulation with 62.5% cocoa bean husk, 25% lemongrass, and 12.5% aromatic ginger, which could also reduce 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals (IC50 = 264.8675). The animal test showed that the cocoa husk formulation produced no significant difference (p > 0.05) in pre- and post-treatment, but was able to keep cholesterol within normal limits.
Cocoa bean husk showed health benefits by its antioxidant properties and ability to control blood cholesterol.
2890
Abstract
Tables and figures
Flour confectionery products are highly popular in Russia, especially honey cookies (pryanik). In order to increase their nutritional value, wheat flour can be replaced by triticale flour rich in essential amino acids and minerals. This study aimed to determine the effects of triticale flour on the quality of honey cookies.
The control cookie sample was made from premium wheat flour, while the test samples were made from mixtures of wheat and triticale flours in various ratios (10–90%), as well as from 100% triticale flour of grade T-80. Standard methods were applied to determine the cookies’ sensory and physicochemical characteristics, as well as their nutritional value and contents of minerals, vitamins, and amino acids.
All the samples with triticale flour showed good sensory characteristics. Adding up to 30% of triticale flour did not change the taste and aroma of honey cookies, whereas larger amounts of triticale flour made them sweeter and more aromatic. The test samples from 100% of triticale flour had higher contents of essential amino acids (arginine, valine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, and threonine) than the control sample from premium wheat flour. The contents of micro- and macroelements also increased with larger amounts of triticale flour in the formulation. While adding triticale flour increased the protein content in the test honey cookies, it had no significant effect on their fat and carbohydrate contents, or the calorie content. The tests showed that 60:40% was the optimal ratio of wheat and triticale flours.
Replacing wheat flour with 40% of triticale flour provided the finished product with good sensory properties and high contents of proteins, vitamins, essential amino acids, as well as micro- and macroelements. Thus, triticale flour proved to be a good replacement for wheat flour in the production of honey cookies.
2594
Abstract
Tables and figures
Today, the food industry widely uses both animal and plant proteins. Animal proteins have a balanced amino acid composition, while plant proteins have more pronounced functional properties. However, both types of proteins can act as allergens, which limits their practical application. Therefore, we aimed to select optimal conditions for obtaining hypoallergenic mixtures based on casein hydrolysates and gluten proteins, which have good functional properties and a balanced amino acid composition.
We used wheat flour (Makfa, Russia) with 12.6% of crude protein and 69.4% of starch, as well as rennet casein (Atletic Food, Russia) with 90% of protein. The methods included the Lowry method, the Anson method, Laemmli electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Protex 6L was an optimal enzyme preparation for the hydrolysis of gliadin, while chymotrypsin was optimal for the hydrolysis of glutenin and casein. The optimal amount for all the enzymes was 40 units/g of substrate. We analyzed the effect of casein, glutenin, and gliadin enzymolysis time on the functional properties of the hydrolysates and found that the latter had relatively low water- and fat-holding capacities. The highest foaming capacity was observed in gliadin hydrolysates, while the highest emulsifying capacity was registered in casein and glutenin hydrolysates. Further, protein enzymolysis significantly decreased allergenicity, so the hydrolysates can be used to obtain functional additives for hypoallergenic products. Finally, the mixtures of casein hydrolysate and gliadin or glutenin hydrolysates had a balanced amino acid composition and a high amino acid score. Also, they retained high emulsifying and foaming capacities.
The study proved the need for mixtures based on wheat protein and casein hydrolysates, which have good functional properties and hypoallergenicity.
3349
Abstract
Tables and figures
Dihydroquercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-flavanone) is known for its powerful antioxidant, organ-protective, and antiinflammatory activities that can be applied to heavy-metal intoxication. The present research objective was to evaluate the possible protective potential of dietary dihydroquercetin in a rat model of subacute (92 days) intoxication with nickel nanoparticles.
The experiment involved five groups of twelve male Wistar rats in each. Group 1 served as control. Other groups received nickel nanoparticles as part of their diet. Groups 2 and 4 received nickel nanoparticles with an average diameter of 53.7 nm (NiNP1), while groups 3 and 5 were fed with nanoparticles with an average diameter of 70.9 nm (NiNP2). The dose was calculated as 10 mg/kg b.w. Groups 4 and 5 also received 23 mg/kg b.w. of water-soluble stabilized dihydroquercetin with drinking water.
After the dihydroquercetin treatment, the group that consumed 53.7 nm nickel nanoparticles demonstrated lower blood serum glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine. Dihydroquercetin prevented the increase in total protein and albumin fraction associated with nickel nanoparticles intake. The experimental rats also demonstrated lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-17A, as well as a lower relative spleen weight after the treatment. In the group exposed to 53.7 nm nickel nanoparticles, the dihydroquercetin treatment increased the ratio of cytokines IL-10/IL-17A and decreased the level of circulating FABP2 protein, which is a biomarker of increased intestinal barrier permeability. In the group that received 70.9 nm nickel nanoparticles, the dihydroquercetin treatment inhibited the expression of the fibrogenic Timp3 gene in the liver. In the group that received 53.7 nm nickel nanoparticles, dihydroquercetin partially improved the violated morphology indexes in liver and kidney tissue. However, dihydroquercetin restored neither the content of reduced glutathione in the liver nor the indicators of selenium safety, which were suppressed under the effect of nickel nanoparticles. Moreover, the treatment failed to restore the low locomotor activity in the elevated plus maze test.
Dihydroquercetin treatment showed some signs of detoxication and anti-inflammation in rats subjected to nickel nanoparticles. However, additional preclinical studies are necessary to substantiate its prophylactic potential in cases of exposure to nanoparticles of nickel and other heavy metals.
2672
Abstract
Tables and figures
Artemisia jacutica Drob. is a valuable source of chamazulene, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We experimentally introduced this plant in the climatic conditions of Buryatia and compared the compositions of the essential oils produced from both cultivated and wild plants.
The reserves of A. jacutica and the laboratory/field germination of seeds were assessed by standard methods. Macro- and microscopic features were determined in line with general pharmacopoeia monographs. The composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The resulting data were processed by the principal component method. The antiradical activity was measured by the DPPH test.
The reserves of A. jacutica were determined in the Yeravninsky district of Buryatia. The laboratory germination of A. jacutica seeds was 75.00 ± 5.35%, while the field germination was only 11–23%. Planting with seedlings showed a good survival rate of 67–80%. In the first year of cultivation, A. jacutica plants had similar macro- and microscopic features to those of wild plants. The soils from the experimental plots were superior to the soils of A. jacutica’s natural habitat in terms of fertility. The essential oils from cultivated and wild plants contained 51 components. The content of chamazulene, the dominant component, was 59.22–66.60% in the cultivated plants and only 15.98–47.77% in the wild plants. The essential oil of A. jacutica exhibited high antiradical activity (IC50 = 49.47 μL/mL).
The primary introduction of A. jacutica showed good prospects for its cultivation in Buryatia. The macro- and microscopic features and dominant components found in the essential oil of A. jacutica grown on the experimental plots were similar to those found in the wild plants. Two chemotypes of A. jacutica, Yakutian and Buryatian, were identified according to the oil composition, with the chemotypes preserved in the cultivated plants. The oil’s high antiradical activity and a high content of chamazulene make A. jacutica a valuable material for the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and agricultural industries.
2803
Abstract
Tables and figures
As a good source of natural anti-oxidants, oyster mushroom flour can be incorporated in dairy products. However, very few scientific publications provide formulations for dairy products fortified with oyster mushroom flour. This research featured the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of oyster mushroom flour pretreated with 0.5% citric acid solution. Three samples of mozzarella cheese were incorporated with 1, 2, and 3% oyster mushroom flour and tested for physicochemical properties, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The mushroom flour had 11.09 ± 0.88% moisture content, 20.70 ± 0.74% protein, 3.25 ± 0.13% ash, 7.43 ± 0.35% crude fiber, 3.31 ± 0.51% fat, and 54.20 ± 0.81% carbohydrate. The DPPH was 87.00 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g DM, the total phenolic content was 2.09 ± 0.68 mg GAE/g DM, and the total flavonoid content was 1.67 ± 0.27 mg QE/g DM. The texture and water holding capacity of the mozzarella cheese samples fortified with oyster mushroom flour decreased as the proportion of mushroom flour increased. The color (L* lightness, b* redness, and a* yellowness) was significantly lower than in the control (cheese without oyster mushroom flour). The test samples contained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher amount of DPPH and phenolic compounds than the control. The sensory attributes were assessed by 30 semi-trained panelists, who gave the highest score to the sample fortified with 1% oyster mushroom flour. As a natural antioxidant, oyster mushroom flour proved to be an excellent component for functional cheese products.
3411
Abstract
Tables and figures
An inadequate diet and lifestyle are major causes of various diseases. A healthy diet can prevent diseases and maintain a good health status. The present research objective was to test young consumers for their preference for healthy diets and their intention to purchase functional foods, as well as to identify factors that affect their attitudes.
The study involved 720 consumers (average 20 years old), a structured questionnaire, and a specially-developed scientific methodology. The results were grouped based on sex and body mass index. The analysis focused on the points where consumers’ interest in healthy diet overlapped with health-related diet needs and how each of them corresponded with their knowledge on the following spheres: nutrition and health risks, labelled data use in food choice, preference for foods fortified with vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, or functional foods with a poor sensory quality. The data were processed using descriptive statistics, Z-test, and correlation tests.
All the consumers demonstrated healthy diet preferences and a significant positive relationship (p < 0.01) with the factors. They made an informed choice based on the labelled data and preferred foods fortified with vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers, as well as functional products with a lower sensory quality. All respondents, regardless of sex and body mass index, demonstrated nutrition and health risk awareness. The health-related diet needs also affected their food preferences (p < 0.05), with some exceptions.
The young consumers possessed sufficient basic knowledge on food quality, nutrition, and health. Their attitudes depended on their preference for healthy diets and functional foods. The novel methodology can be applied to other studies of consumer preferences.
2597
Abstract
Tables and figures
Flaxseed is a useful source of omega-3 fatty acid and many health-promoting phytochemicals. Baked products are extensively consumed in the Arabic countries. This study mainly aimed to improve the nutritional quality of pan and Arabic flat breads by adding whole and crushed flaxseed.
The study objects were pan and Arabic flat breads wholegrain and white wheat flour with whole or crushed flaxseed at different amounts. The proximate composition, texture, color characteristics, and sensory analysis were evaluated by standard methods.
The fat content increased in both the white wheat flour and in the wholegrain wheat flour pan breads with 8% of crushed flaxseed. The addition of 8% of crushed flaxseed to the white wheat flour bread also increased its specific loaf volume, while the addition of 8% of whole flaxseed significantly decreased the specific loaf volume of the wholegrain wheat flour bread. Crushed flaxseed did not affect the L* values, but significantly increased the a* values in the white wheat flour pan bread. Supplementing the white wheat flour pan bread with 8% of whole flaxseed decreased the compression force, thus indicating a softer texture. 8% of whole flaxseed significantly increased fat and protein contents of the white wheat and wholegrain wheat flour pan breads. Similar trends were observed for the Arabic breads, thus proving the enhancing effect of flaxseed on the nutritional quality of these baked products. The addition of crushed flaxseed to white wheat flour Arabic bread adversely affected its appearance and crust color, as well as significantly increased its ash, fat, protein, and dietary fiber contents. However, it did not have any adverse effect on the texture, flexibility, and flavor.
Flaxseed grains in the amount of 8% can be recommended to produce baked products with good sensory and nutritional qualities.
3073
Abstract
Tables and figures
Marker-assisted technologies in the field of plant biotechnology have attracted great interest of scientists seeking to determine the genetic variety and improve specific characteristics of species. Among several types, molecular markers hold great promise due to their high efficiency, adequate accuracy, and good reproducibility. This review aimed to present different molecular markers used in genetic biodiversity studies of common food plants, including potato, corn, and tomato.
We presented some of the most frequent molecular markers in terms of their methodologies, advantages, challenges, and applications. We also reviewed the latest advances in the genetic diversity studies of common food plants that contribute to agricultural activities.
According to latest progress, Simple Sequence Repeats, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region, and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism are the most common molecular markers in plant diversity studies due to their co-dominancy, high level of polymorphism, great reproducibility, and adequate specificity. Considering common food plants like potato, corn, and tomato, Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms provide detailed information about polymorphisms, resistance to pathogens or diseases, genome maps, and population dynamics. However, more research should be conducted to apply the latest and more efficient technologies, such as Next Generation Sequencing, Diversity Array Technologies, and omics, to the genetic diversity studies of plant species.
Within the scope of recent progress, this review has a strong potential in providing relevant material for further research. It can serve as a guide to adopt the latest and most efficient sequencing platforms for examining various plant species, primarily potato, corn, and tomato.
2358
Abstract
Tables and figures
Hyptis suaveolens L. is a medical and food plant that is commonly used to treat various microbial infections in humans in many countries of the world. We aimed to study the aqueous and ethanol extracts of H. suaveolens leaves to determine their antibacterial, in-vitro antioxidant, and phytochemical potentials for traditional medicine by using chemical analysis.
The aqueous and ethanol extracts inhibited the tested bacteria species with zones of 0–15 and 10–29 mm, respectively. On the typed culture isolates, the inhibition zones were 8–25 and 16–32 mm for the aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively.
The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the aqueous and ethanol extracts were not different, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations for the aqueous extract was higher than that for the ethanol extract. The screened phytochemicals were qualitatively and quantitatively present in both extracts, except for saponins which were absent in the aqueous extract. The free radical scavenging activity in the aqueous and ethanol extracts was 1.44 ± 0.50 and 1.57 ± 1.40 mg of ascorbic acid/1 g dry leaves, respectively. The ferric reduction was 1.19 ± 0.40 and 1.69 ± 0.18 mg of ascorbic acid/1 g dry leaves in the aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively. Hydroxyl scavenging was 65.0 ± 0.9 and 0.43 ± 0.50 mg of ascorbic acid/1 g dry leaves for the aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively.
The present research suggests that the extract of H. suaveleons can be applied as a controlling antibacterial growth agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens. It is noteworthy that the ethanol extract was more effective than the aqueous one in terms of the antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant activities.
2873
Abstract
Tables and figures
Fresh fermented milk products have a limited shelf life that can be extended by vacuum freeze-drying. Cryoprotectants are used to increase the survival of lactic acid microorganisms during freeze-drying. The most effective cryoprotectants are those of natural origin. Literature offers little information on the cryoprotective effects of fruit and vegetable purees. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fruit and vegetable purees in increasing the survival of lactic acid microorganisms during the freeze-drying and storage of fermented milk products.
We studied bioyogurt samples containing pumpkin, fig, and banana purees. Rational modes of freezing and freeze-drying were established on the basis of thermal analysis. The cryoscopic temperature was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The proportion of frozen moisture was calculated using the Nagaoka formula. Standard methods were employed to evaluate the sensory characteristics of bioyogurts and determine their protein, fat, and non-fat milk solids contents, as well as titratable acidity and microbiological indicators.
The addition of pumpkin puree increased the cryoscopic temperature and reduced the freeze-drying stage and the total drying time by 13 h, depending on the amount of puree. However, the addition of sweet fig and banana purees decreased the cryoscopic temperature and increased the freeze-drying stage and the total drying time by 0.5–1.5 and 1.5–3 h, respectively. Based on the sensory evaluation of the freeze-dried bioyogurts, we selected the formulations with 15% of pumpkin and fig purees and 10% of banana puree. We found that the freeze-dried bioyogurts with puree had higher counts of lactic acid bacteria compared to the control. In the freeze-dried samples, the counts were higher at a storage temperature of 4 ± 2°C than at 20 ± 2°C.
Pumpkin puree provided the best survival of lactic acid microorganisms during freeze-drying and storage.
2883
Abstract
Tables and figures
Nigella sativa L. and its active component, thymoquinone, attract a lot of scientific attention. However, very few review articles on this issue have been published so far, and no review relied on the method of bibliometrics, which is currently the most prominent technique for citation mapping.
This review involves a total of 2072 studies on thymoquinone reported in the Scopus database between 1915 and September 15, 2022. The data obtained were processed using the VOSviewer software, MS Excel, and Scopus Analytic. The review introduces some prospective research areas based on theme mapping, knowledge trending, bibliographic coupling, and keyword co-occurrence networks. The authors, documents, journals, institutions, and countries were ranked based on the knowledge impact and the number of publications.
The 2072 selected publications belonged to 7605 scholars, with 3.67 authors per document on average. The average number of citations per document was 68.84. The Phytotherapy Research Journal scored as the top source. M.N. Nagi proved to be the top-cited author with 2076 citations, while Saudi Arabia appeared to be the most productive and cited country. The best-studied areas were represented by such topics as anti-inflammatory properties of thymoquinone, cytokine network, and arthritic disease model.
Molecular-based approaches in conjunction with ethno-knowledge may be of assistance in comprehending the cellular mechanisms of thymoquinone and establishing its efficacy against a variety of diseases.
4039
Abstract
Tables and figures
Plants have been used as food additives worldwide to enhance the sensory qualities of foods and extend their shelf life by reducing or eliminating foodborne pathogens. They also serve as therapeutic agents due to their beneficial effects on human health through their anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory properties.
Plants can be added to food as a dry powder, grated material, paste, juice, or as an extract that can be produced by a variety of methods. Plant extracts and essential oils are concentrated sources of bioactive phytochemicals that can be added to food in small amounts in a variety of forms. These forms include liquid, semi-solid, or dry powder for easy and uniform diffusion. Encapsulation can protect bioactive compounds from temperature, moisture, oxidation, and light, as well as allow for controlling the release of the encapsulated ingredients. Nanoemulsions can enhance the bioactivity of active components.
This review explains how plant extracts and essential oils are used in the dairy industry as antimicrobial materials, analyzing their impact on starter bacteria; as natural antioxidants to prevent the development of off-flavors and increase shelf life; and as technological auxiliaries, like milk-clotting enzymes, stabilizers, and flavoring agents. Therefore, plant extracts and essential oils are a better choice for the dairy industry than plants or their parts due to a wide range of applications, homogeneous dispersion, and ability to control the concentration of the bioactive ingredients and enhance their efficiency.
2355
Abstract
Tables and figures
Protein deficiency in the human diet is a widespread problem that affects all body systems. Nutrition adjustment appears to be one of the most effective ways to prevent this problem. This study was aimed at investigating the possibilities of using animal origin protein concentrates in bread baking industry.
Study objects included five breads: one control and four samples containing protein concentrates. The test wheat bread samples contained 7, 9, and 11% of milk protein concentrate and 7% of whey protein concentrate to the mass of flour in the dough. Rheological parameters of the dough were obtained using an alveograph and a farinograph. The specific volume and sensory characteristics of the baked products as well as crumb deformation were evaluated. The nutritional value of two samples – control and with 9% of milk protein concentrate addition – was determined by calculation.
Whey protein concentrate had a negative influence on the dough rheology. Low water binding capacity and specific volume as well as hard crumb make the usage of this product in bread baking unacceptable. The palatability test showed that bread supplemented with 9% of milk protein concentrate had the best sensory characteristics, compared to control and other test samples (with 7 and 11% of this concentrate). The predicted protein content was equal to 11.6 g/100 g that is 35% higher than in the control sample. Consequently, milk protein concentrate has a potential to improve biological value of the bread that can be further helpful to prevent the protein deficiency.
Milk protein concentrate can be successfully used in the bread making process as an ingredient to correct the nutritional and biological value of baked products.
3196
Abstract
Tables and figures
Fat of game animals is a prospective raw material for bioactive additives. Before such a product enters the market, food science has to make sure it is safe for consumption.
This research featured subcutaneous adipose tissue of brown bears tested with standard methods for microbiological safety indicators. The microbial properties were studied on liquid and solid nutrient media. Staphylococcus was profiled using a VITEK 2 Compact biochemical automatic analyzer and Gram-positive cards (Bio-Mérieux, France). The analysis followed the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR TS 021/2011 On Food Safety (December 09, 2011).
The microbial count for mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms was 1.5×103 CFU/g. The fat samples revealed no molds, yeasts, or Escherichia coli bacteria. Liquid and solid nutrient media made it possible to describe the qualitative profile and cultural properties of the bear fat microflora against pork fat, which served as control. The automatic system identified Gram-positive, coagulase-negative, and oxidase-positive Staphylococcus lentus and Staphylococcus sciuri. In line with the modern classification, they belong to the new genus of Mammaliicoccus, namely Mammaliicoccus sciuri.
Subcutaneous adipose tissue of brown bears needs to undergo a microbiological safety test before consumption. Bear fat requires additional research in order to become a safe raw material for food products and bioactive additives.
3559
Abstract
Tables and figures
The Quality Index Method (QIM) provides a quick and accurate quality assessment. It makes it possible to calculate preserving time and establish the freshness of sea food. This article introduces a quality assessment program based on the QIM scheme and quality index (QI) for the Jinga shrimp.
The research included Jinga shrimps (Metapenaeus affinis L.), a commercially valuable aquatic species widely distributed throughout the Vietnamese coast. The input data included the changes in appearance and sensory profile of sampled shrimps during 20 days of storage at 0–4°C in ice water.
They were used to construct a QIM scale, which was applied to other shrimp samples at different storage time to evaluate the relationship between the QI score and the storage time. After that, the QIM scale was tested on ten random shrimp samples to verify its shelf-life predictive power. This study managed to establish a correlation equation between the QI scores and the storage time with the coefficient of R2= 0.97. This correlation proved highly reliable as verified by comparing the predicted and actual best shelf life of Jinga shrimps stored in ice water for 8–10 days.
The QIM program provides a practical and effective science-based tool that delivers fast and reliable results for customers, fishermen, food traders, and aquacultural enterprises.