ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Seasonal determination of proximate composition and essential elements in commercial fishes from Pakistan and human health risk assessment

The seasonal variability in proximate composition and essential elements demonstrates that the habitat and feeding habits of fish species play a vital role in energy transfer.
We aimed to ascertain seasonal variability in the biochemical composition (protein, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, and moisture) and the amounts of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn in the species Nemipterus japonicus, Epinephelus erythrurus, Nematalosa nasus, and Ilisha striatula inhabiting pelagic and demersal zones. We compared the nutritional profile of these fish species and their seasonal importance. The essential elements were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and found in the following order: K > Na > Ca > Mg > Mn > Zn. To determine the proximate composition, we employed a number of methods: the Lowry method for protein analysis, the acid hydrolysis method for fat/lipid analysis, a formula for carbohydrates and moisture, and the incineration method for ash content.
The spring inter-monsoon season showed the highest values for the essential elements in both pelagic and demersal species. However, the pelagic species had the highest biochemical composition levels during the southwest monsoon. The autumn intermonsoon had the lowest bio-profile for the fishes of both regimes.
The summer season, which is not thought to be good for fish consumption, showed the highest biochemical composition levels in the pelagic fish. The nutritional profile of fish flesh can be affected by feeding habits, seasonal variation, and habitat.
Ключевые слова
Seasonal determination, proximate/biochemical composition, essential elements, health risk assessment, distinct marine regimes
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Как цитировать?
Gull A, Zafar FHS, Panhwar SK, Bat L, Zahid M. Seasonal determination of proximate composition and essential elements in commercial fishes from Pakistan and human health risk assessment. Foods and Raw Materials. 2024;12(2):361–372. 
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