ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Hyptis suaveolens L. leaf extracts in traditional health care systems

Hyptis suaveolens L. is a medical and food plant that is commonly used to treat various microbial infections in humans in many countries of the world. We aimed to study the aqueous and ethanol extracts of H. suaveolens leaves to determine their antibacterial, in-vitro antioxidant, and phytochemical potentials for traditional medicine by using chemical analysis. The aqueous and ethanol extracts inhibited the tested bacteria species with zones of 0–15 and 10–29 mm, respectively. On the typed culture isolates, the inhibition zones were 8–25 and 16–32 mm for the aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the aqueous and ethanol extracts were not different, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations for the aqueous extract was higher than that for the ethanol extract. The screened phytochemicals were qualitatively and quantitatively present in both extracts, except for saponins which were absent in the aqueous extract. The free radical scavenging activity in the aqueous and ethanol extracts was 1.44 ± 0.50 and 1.57 ± 1.40 mg of ascorbic acid/1 g dry leaves, respectively. The ferric reduction was 1.19 ± 0.40 and 1.69 ± 0.18 mg of ascorbic acid/1 g dry leaves in the aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively. Hydroxyl scavenging was 65.0 ± 0.9 and 0.43 ± 0.50 mg of ascorbic acid/1 g dry leaves for the aqueous and ethanol extracts, respectively. The present research suggests that the extract of H. suaveleons can be applied as a controlling antibacterial growth agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens. It is noteworthy that the ethanol extract was more effective than the aqueous one in terms of the antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant activities.
Ключевые слова
Health care, inhibition, plant extract, antioxidant properties, Hyptis suaveolens, phytochemicals, pathogenic bacteria
Вклад авторов
Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi conceived the research idea, as well as designed and wrote the first draft. Chioma Bertha Ehis-Eriakha and Peter Taiwo Olagbe- mide reviewed the literature, while Faith Hukwu Igbudu analyzed the data. All the authors read and approved the final draft of the manuscript before submitting it for publication.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
  1. Wang C-H, Hsieh Y-H, Powers ZM, Kao C-Y. Defeating antibiotics-resistant bacteria: Exploring alternative therapies for a post-antibiotic era. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21(3).
  2. Nwobodo DC, Ugwu MC, Anie CO, Al-Quqaili MTS, Ikem JC, Chigozie UV, et al. Antibiotic resistance: The challenges and some emerging strategies for tackling a global menace. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2022;36(9).
  3. Anand T, Gokulakrishnan K. Phytochemical analysis of Hybanthus enneaspermus using UV, FT-IR and GC-MS. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2012;2(3):520–524.
  4. Nieto G. How medicinal plants are useful when added to foods. Medicines. 2020;7(9).
  5. Kibe MN, Konyole S, Nguka G, Oloo MO, Kathure D, Wangari PM. The role of phytochemicals in prevention and control of chronic diseases. International Journal of Current Research. 2017;9(12):62540–62543.
  6. Mishra P, Sohrab S, Mishra SK. A review on the phytochemical properties of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;7(1).
  7. Sharma PP, Roy RK, Anurag, Gupta D, Sharma VK. Hyptis suaveolens (L.) poit: A phyto-pharmacological review. International Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;4(1).
  8. Holt JG. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 9th edn. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 1994. 787 p.
  9. Harbone JB, Williams CA. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry. 2000;55(6):481–504.
  10. Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy 13th edn. London, Philadelphia: Baillière Tindall; 1989. 832 p.
  11. Satheesh KB, Suchetha KN, Vadisha SB, Sharmila KP, Mahesh PB. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of Punica granatum peel, whole fruit and seeds. Nitte University Journal of Health Science. 2012;2(4):34–38.
  12. Buricova L, Reblova Z. Czech medicinal plants as possible sources of antioxidants. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2008;26(2):132–138.
  13. Dorman HJD, Bachmayer O, Kosar M, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected Laminiaceae species grown in Turkey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2004;52(4):762–770.
  14. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Aruoma OI. The deoxyribose method: A simple “test-tube” assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Analytical Biochemistry. 1987;165(1):215–219.
  15. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC, 13 edn. Washington: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1980. 1038 p.
  16. Jubeh B, Breijyeh Z, Karaman R. Resistance of Gram-positive bacteria of current antibacterial agents and overcoming approaches. Molecules. 2020;25(12).
  17. Exner M, Bhathacharya S, Christiansen B, Gebel J, Goroncy-Bermes P, Hartemann P, et al. Antibiotic resistance: What is so special about multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria? GMS Hygiene and Infection Control. 2017;12.
  18. Edeoga HO, Omosun G, Uche LC. Chemical composition of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum gratissimum hybrids from Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(10):892–895.
  19. Dai J, Mumper RJ. Mumker. Plant phenolics: Extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules. 2010;15(10):7313–7352.
  20. Poonkodi K, Karthika J, Tamilselvi V, Anitha R, Vasanthamani S. Chemical composition of essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (L) POIT and its in vitro anticancer activity. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(5):410–413.
  21. Akharaiyi FC, Boboye B, Akhambang VO. Adetuyi FC. Phytochemical and antioxidant effect of Spathodea campanulata leaf extracts. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review. 2015;7(3):148–159.
  22. Pizzino G, Irrena N, Cucinotta M, Pallio G, Mannino F, Arcoraci V, et al. Oxidative stress: Harms and benefits for human health. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017;2017.
  23. Umedum NL, Udeozo IP, Muoneme O, Okoye N, Iloamaeke I. Proximate analysis and mineral content of three commonly used seasonings in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2013;5(1):11–14.
  24. Rai I, Bachheti RK, Joshi A, Pandey DP. Physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of some non-cultivated seed oild collected from Garhwal region, Uttarkland (India). International Journal of ChemTech Research. 2013;5(1):232–236.
  25. Edeoga HO, Gomina A. Nutritional values of some nonconventional leafy vegetables of Nigeria. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 2000;24:7–13.
  26. Ulhe SK, Narkhede SD. Histological and phytochemical studies on aromatic plant, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) of family Lamiaceae (MS) India. Science Research Reporter. 2013;3(1):44–48.
  27. Roy A. A review on the alkaloids: an important therapeutic compound from plants. International Journal of Plant Biotechnology. 2017;3(2):1–9.
Как цитировать?
Akharaiyi FC, Ehis-Eriakha CB, Olagbemide PT, Igbudu FH. Hyptis suaveolens L. leaf extracts in traditional health care systems. Foods and Raw Materials. 2023;11(2):293–299. 
О журнале