ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Using casein and gluten protein fractions to obtain functional ingredients

Today, the food industry widely uses both animal and plant proteins. Animal proteins have a balanced amino acid composition, while plant proteins have more pronounced functional properties. However, both types of proteins can act as allergens, which limits their practical application. Therefore, we aimed to select optimal conditions for obtaining hypoallergenic mixtures based on casein hydrolysates and gluten proteins, which have good functional properties and a balanced amino acid composition. We used wheat flour (Makfa, Russia) with 12.6% of crude protein and 69.4% of starch, as well as rennet casein (Atletic Food, Russia) with 90% of protein. The methods included the Lowry method, the Anson method, Laemmli electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protex 6L was an optimal enzyme preparation for the hydrolysis of gliadin, while chymotrypsin was optimal for the hydrolysis of glutenin and casein. The optimal amount for all the enzymes was 40 units/g of substrate. We analyzed the effect of casein, glutenin, and gliadin enzymolysis time on the functional properties of the hydrolysates and found that the latter had relatively low water- and fat-holding capacities. The highest foaming capacity was observed in gliadin hydrolysates, while the highest emulsifying capacity was registered in casein and glutenin hydrolysates. Further, protein enzymolysis significantly decreased allergenicity, so the hydrolysates can be used to obtain functional additives for hypoallergenic products. Finally, the mixtures of casein hydrolysate and gliadin or glutenin hydrolysates had a balanced amino acid composition and a high amino acid score. Also, they retained high emulsifying and foaming capacities. The study proved the need for mixtures based on wheat protein and casein hydrolysates, which have good functional properties and hypoallergenicity.
Ключевые слова
Gliadin, glutenin, casein, allergenicity, functional foods, enzymatic hydrolysis, amino acid score
Вклад авторов
D.V. Prikhodko carried out the experiments, as well as processed and interpreted experimental data. A.A. Krasnoshtanova supervised the research, reviewed experimental data, and formulated conclusions.
The authors declared no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.
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Как цитировать?
Prikhodko DV, Krasnoshtanova AA. Using casein and gluten protein fractions to obtain functional ingredients. Foods and Raw Materials. 2023;11(2):223–231.
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