ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Carboxymethyl cellulose and psyllium husk in gluten-free pasta

Formulating high-quality pasta from wheat-free materials is a technological challenge. We aimed to make gluten-free pasta with carboxymethyl cellulose and psyllium husk and evaluate their effect on the quality of the final product.
Gluten-free pasta was produced from rice flour, white corn flour, potato starch, soy protein isolate, and carboxymethyl cellulose or psyllium husk used as binding agents. Then, we evaluated the effect of these hydrocolloids on the color, texture, cooking quality, and sensory characteristics of the product.
The uncooked gluten-free pasta containing psyllium husk showed significantly higher values of hardness compared to the samples with carboxymethyl cellulose, while the cooked pasta with psyllium husk had a significantly lower nitrogen loss. Also, psyllium husk improved the texture of the cooked gluten-free pasta, providing the highest values of resilience, springiness, and chewiness. Generally, the psyllium husk samples received higher quality values for texture, cooking quality, and sensory parameters, compared to the pasta with carboxymethyl cellulose.
Psyllium husk showed a better ability to bind gluten-free pasta than carboxymethyl cellulose. Consequently, psyllium husk could become a feasible alternative to wheat gluten in producing high-quality gluten-free pasta.
Ключевые слова
Celiac, gluten free pasta, psyllium husk, carboxymethyl cellulose, potato starch, soy protein isolate

Functional foods that are consumed as part of a regular diet have the potential to improve health or reduce disease risk. For example, gluten-free foods are particularly useful for celiac patients [1]. Preventive medicine has made significant progress in the previous decade and proved the critical importance of nutrition in avoiding diseases, particularly those related to diet [2].

Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the small intestine mucosa triggered by the consumption of gluten proteins [3]. It is characterized by a lifelong intolerance to gluten, specifically the prolamin portion of wheat (gliadin), rye (secalin), and barley (hordein) [4].

Today, 1% of the world’s population has celiac disease [5]. A life-long rigorous gluten-free diet is currently the only treatment available for celiac patients. It improves the quality of life, prevents refractory celiac disease, and alleviates symptoms [6]. In the long run, this diet also benefits patients with previously unexplained persistent watery diarrhea or dominating bloating symptoms who satisfy the criteria for functional bowel disorders [7]. Thus, gluten-free food production must be prioritized to meet the needs of people with celiac disease [8].

Gluten-free pasta is one of the options for people with celiac disease caused by their inability to digest gluten adequately [9]. Gluten-intolerant people, who are becoming more common in society, will prefer this product to gluten-containing pasta [10].

Pasta is generally regarded as a classic food product that is frequently consumed due to its sensory qualities, as well as convenience and ease of transportation, cooking, handling, and storage. In addition, pasta has grown popular due to its nutritional qualities that are linked to a low glycemic index. In short-term human intervention studies, low-glycemic-index foods reduced appetite and increased fullness [11]. However, people with celiac disease prefer gluten-free pasta for health reasons [12].

Rice flour has been included in gluten-free product formulations to give the batter structure and nutritional value [13]. It is a primary ingredient in pasta production [14]. Furthermore, the use of rice flour is appealing because of its low salt content and high digestibility [15].

Hydrocolloids are commonly used as thickening agents that increase dough viscosity and bind water to improve texture, volume, and final quality. In addition to their advantages for the technological properties of gluten-free products, hydrocolloids may impact the final product’s glycemic index [16]. Particularly, fiber increases satiety after eating and reduces the glycemic index of food [17]. As a result, hydrocolloids such as psyllium husk are particularly crucial materials for gluten-free flour [18].

In addition, using psyllium in cooking may help celiacs live longer by allowing them to eat fiber with regular meals rather than separately as a supplement, which may not be as tasty [19]. On the other hand, the consumption of soybean food or fortified foods has recently increased due to its benefits for human nutrition and health [20].

Gluten-free pasta is more expensive and it is often brittle and pale compared to wheat flour pasta [21]. Therefore, we aimed to produce high-quality gluten-free pasta from various formulas fortified with soy protein isolate and two types of hydrocolloids (psyllium husk or carboxymethyl cellulose), as well as to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product.


Our study involved the production and evaluation of gluten-free pasta made from white corn flour, rice flour, soy protein isolate, psyllium husk, and carboxymethyl cellulose.

Materials. Wheat flour with 72% extraction (11.31% protein, 0.95% protein, 0.57% ash, 0.66% fiber, and 86.51% nitrogen-free extract) was obtained from Amoun Milling Company (Giza, Egypt). Rice flour (7.16% protein, 1.50% protein, 0.57% ash, 1.21% fiber, and 89.56% nitrogen-free extract) and white corn flour (9.76% protein, 4.24% protein, 1.27% ash, 2.94% fiber, and 81.79% nitrogen-free extract) were obtained from the local market (Giza, Egypt). Soy protein isolate (87.74% protein, 0.43% protein, 2.87% ash, 0.29% fiber, and 8.67% nitrogen-free extract) was obtained from American Food Chemicals. Potato starch (0.16% protein, 0.17% protein, 0.03% ash, 0.01% fiber, and 99.63% nitrogen-free extract) was obtained from Emsland Group, Germany. Carboxymethyl cellulose was obtained from Sigma Company. Psyllium husk powder (Plantago psyllium L.) was obtained from Now Foods, USA. All the chemicals used in the estimation and analysis were of analytical grade.


Technological methods.
Preparation of composite flour. Wheat flour (72% ext.) pasta was used as a control sample. The experimental samples, in addition to gluten-free flours, contained soy protein isolate and psyllium husk or carboxymethyl cellulose, with varying levels of white corn flour, rice flour, and potato starch (Table 1). Individual flour combinations were homogenized, sealed in polyethylene bags, and stored at –18°C until needed.

Table 1 Pasta formulas

Pasta dough preparation. Pasta was produced according to Collins and Pangloli with some modifications [22]. All dry ingredients were sieved through a 100-mesh sieve, combined, and mixed to produce a homogenized mixture. Then, the mixture was placed in a mixing bowl and mixed until the dough formed (31 ± 1% of tap water). The dough was shaped into a ball, covered with a plastic wrap, and allowed to rest for 30 min. Then, it was hand-kneaded for 1 min, divided into 100-g portions, and shaped in a cylindrical form by using a pasta machine without vacuum (Philips Pasta Maker HR 2357/05, Italy).

Pasta drying process. In line with Kishk et al., the pasta samples were air-dried at 23–25°C for 4 h in a room equipped with a fan [23]. After drying in the open air, the samples were placed in a cabinet dehydrator and dried at 70°C to a moisture level of about 12%. After cooling to room temperature (25 ± 2°C), the samples were placed in plastic bags, sealed, and stored at 12–14°C until analysis.

Analytical methods.
Color determination. The color of the samples was measured according to Humter by using a Hunter Lab colorimeter [24]. L*, a*, and b* parameters were measured by a spectro-colorimeter (Tristimulus Color Machine) with a CIELAB color scale (Hunter Lab Scan XE-Reston VA, USA) and the reflection mode. The instrument was standardized with white tiles (Hunter Lab Color Standard (LX No.16379), X = 72.26, Y = 81.94, and Z = 88.14 (L* = 92.46, a* = –0.86; b* = –0.16)). The instrument (65°/0° geometry; D25 optical sensor; 10° observer) was calibrated by using black and white reference tiles. The color values were expressed as lightness to darkness for L*, redness to greenness for a*, and yellowness to blueness for b*.

Physical properties of pasta. Pasta cooking quality was determined according to the method approved by the American Association of Cereal Chemists [25]. Optimum cooking time was the time required for the opaque core of the pasta to disappear when squeezed gently between two glass plates after cooking. Pasta pieces of 25 g were cooked for optimum time in a beaker with 300 mL of tap water, rinsed in cold water, drained for 15 min, and weighed. The percentage of increased weight was calculated as a cooking yield.

The content of solids in the cooking water was determined by drying at 105°C overnight. The cooking loss was expressed as a percentage between the solid weight and the initial dry matter. To calculate the swelling index, we divided the difference between the weight of cooked and uncooked pasta by the weight of uncooked pasta. The nitrogen loss was determined according to the Kjeldahl method approved by the American Association of Cereal Chemists by using conversion factor of 5.7 [25].

Texture profile analysis of pasta. The texture of the pasta samples (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess, and resilience) was determined by Texture Profiles Analysis (TPA) using a CT3™ Texture Analyzer (Brookfield) according to Boume [26]. The Test Works software was installed and an appropriate test was selected for the TPA analysis: a 2.50 mm/s test speed, a 10 000 g load cell, two cycles for cooked pasta, one cycle for uncooked pasta, and a 10 mm depth. The parameters, such as length, diameter, speed, compression percentage, and the number of cycles, were entered as input data before starting the compression. Then the load cell started to slowly move downwards, compressing the sample, with a 5-s wait between the first and the second compression cycles. After two cycles, the compression stopped automatically.

Sensory evaluation of pasta. The sensory attributes of the gluten-free pasta were evaluated by ten panelists from the Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, according to the method reported by Inglett et al. [27]. Color, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were evaluated on the 9-point hedonic scale. The scale was verbally anchored with nine categories, namely: like extremely, like very much, like moderately, like slightly, neither like nor dislike, dislike slightly, dislike moderately, dislike very much, and dislike extremely. The quality attributes of the experimental samples were compared with those of the control sample (100% wheat flour).

Statistical analysis. The results were analyzed statistically by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test in the SPSS statistical package (Version 9.05). The least significant difference was chosen to determine significant differences among various formulations. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05.


We studied effects of psyllium husk (2.5%) and carboxymethyl cellulose (2.5%) on gluten-free pasta with different proportions of white corn flour, rice flour, potato starch, and a fixed amount of soy protein isolate (10%).

Color parameters of gluten-free uncooked pasta. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*, and color intensity) of the uncooked pasta samples are presented in Table 2. As we can see, the samples containing potato starch (60%) and carboxymethyl cellulose or psyllium husk (samples J and E, respectively) recorded the highest values of L* color (more lightness) with significant differences between them or in comparison with the other samples (P ≤ 0.05).

Table 2 Color parameters of uncooked wheat flour pasta and gluten-free pasta with psyllium husk or carboxymethyl cellulose

We also found that lightness was affected by the amount of potato starch in the samples: the more potato starch, the lighter the samples. The control sample had the lowest value of lightness. The highest values of redness (a* value) were observed in the control sample (3.22) and the sample with carboxymethyl cellulose and without potato starch (2.52). However, there were no significant differences in redness among the rest of the samples.

As for yellowness (b* values), the lowest value (13.20) was recorded in the control sample, while the highest values (16.70 and 15.93) were observed in the samples without potato statrch (samples A and F). There were no significant differences in yellowness among the gluten-free samples with soy protein isolate. However, the highest value of color intensity was found in the sample containing 60% potato starch + carboxymethyl cellulose, in contrast to the control sample with the lowest value. These results were consistent with those of Bolarinwa and Oyesiji who reported that gluten-free pasta with rice and corn flour had higher lightness and lower redness compared to wheat flour pasta [28].

The hardness of gluten-free uncooked pasta. Hardness (N) is related to the strength of structure under compression during the first compression cycle. It is a force required to attain a given deformation. The hardness of uncooked pasta was determined by the texture profile analyzer (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 Texture profile analysis of uncooked pasta: Control – 100 % wheat flour pasta; A, F – no potato starch; B, G – 15% of potato starch; C, H – 30% of potato starch; D, I – 45% of potato starch; E, J – 60% of potato starch

As can be seen, the control pasta showed the highest value of hardness (65.13) compared to the gluten-free samples, which reflected the strength of structure provided by the gluten network.

However, there was a clear difference in hardness between the samples with psyllium husk and those with carboxymethyl cellulose. Particularly, the highest hardness (44.97) was recorded in the psyllium husk sample without potato starch (sample A) compared to the carboxymethyl cellulose samples without starch (sample F) (23.30).

In general, the psyllium husk pasta had hardness values in the range of 44.97 to 15.16, whereas the carboxymethyl cellulose samples had this parameter ranging from 23.30 to 4.26. Thus, potato starch played an important role in the hardness of uncooked pasta: higher contents of potato starch led to lower hardness. These results were confirmed by Kang et al. who found that the hardness of gluten-free pasta containing potato starch was lower than that of wheat flour pasta [29].

Color parameters of gluten-free cooked pasta. The color parameters of the cooked pasta samples are presented in Table 3 and Fig. 2. As we can see, the samples containing 60% potato starch and carboxymethyl cellulose or psyllium husk (samples J and E) recorded the highest values of L* (more lightness), with no significant difference between them. However, they showed significant differences when compared to the other samples (P ≤ 0.05). Consequently, lightness was affected by the content of potato starch in the samples, with higher contents leading to lighter color. The control sample had the lowest value of lightness.

Table 3 Color parameters of cooked wheat flour pasta and gluten-free pasta with psyllium husk or carboxymethyl cellulose

Figure 2 Gluten-free pasta samples: Control – 100% wheat flour; A – psyllium husk without potato starch ; B – psyllium husk + 15% of potato starch; C – psyllium husk + 30% of potato starch; D – psyllium husk + 45% of potato starch; E – psyllium husk + 60% of potato starch; F – carboxymethyl cellulose without potato starch; G – carboxymethyl cellulose + 15% of potato starch; H – carboxymethyl cellulose + 30% of potato starch; I – carboxymethyl cellulose + 45% of potato starch; J – carboxymethyl cellulose + 60% of potato starch

The highest redness (a*) values were recorded in the samples containing 45% white corn flour, 45% rice flour, 10% soy protein isolate, and 2.5% carboxymethyl cellulose or 2.5% psyllium husk, with no significant differences. The lowest redness was observed in the samples containing 60% potato starch with 2.5% carboxymethyl cellulose or 2.5% psyllium husk. However, the lowest value of color intensity was significantly recorded in the control sample, with no significant differences between the gluten-free samples.

Our results were in agreement with those of Yaseen and Shouk [30]. The authors found that pasta with corn starch had higher lightness and lower redness values compared to the control (100% wheat flour). Similarly, Mohammadi et al. reported that increased amounts of rice flour in gluten-free products led to higher lightness of the final product [31].

The quality of gluten-free cooked pasta. The cooking time and quality parameters of the pasta samples prepared with hydrocolloids (carboxymethyl cellulose and psyllium husk) are presented in Table 4. As can be seen, the optimum cooking time was highest (13.16 min) for the control sample (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the other samples except for the samples without potato starch (A and F). However, the optimum cooking time gradually decreased with higher contents of potato starch. Also, potato starch had a positive effect on the cooking yield, whether the samples contained carboxymethyl cellulose or psyllium husk as binding agents.

Table 4 Cooking time and quality parameters of cooked wheat flour pasta and gluten-free pasta with psyllium husk or carboxymethyl cellulose

The swelling index of pasta is an indicator of how much water is absorbed by starch and proteins during cooking. It is utilized for the gelatinization of starch and hydration of proteins [32]. According to Table 4, the swelling index was the lowest (142.82) for the control sample and highest (190.60) for the psyllium husk sample with 60% of potato starch (sample E), with significant difference. The swelling index was also high (186.66) for the carboxymethyl cellulose with 60% of starch (sample J).

Cooking loss is defined as the quantity of solids going into water during cooking. It determines the quality of pasta, with compact-textured pasta having a lower cooking loss [33]. According to our results (Table 4), the control sample significantly recorded the lowest value of cooking loss (6.16%). We also found that potato starch had a negative effect on the quality of the gluten-free pasta, i.e., higher contents of potato starch gradually increased cooking loss. However, this negative effect was reduced by adding psyllium husk.

The results also showed a significantly high value of nitrogen loss in the gluten-free samples with carboxymethyl cellulose, compared to the control and the samples with psyllium husk. Moreover, potato starch significantly increased nitrogen loss in the carboxymethyl cellulose samples. In general, nitrogen loss ranged from 12.10 to 40.55% in the samples with carboxymethyl cellulose and from 6.50 to 10.20% in the samples with psyllium husk.

In the study by De Arcangelis et al., such hydrothermal treatments inhibited granule swelling, retarded gelatinization, and increased starch paste stability, having thus enhanced the texture properties and cooking behavior of rice noodles [32]. Further, Khosla et al. reported that higher contents of rice flour in gluten-free pasta might increase the optimum cooking time [34].

The texture profile of gluten-free cooked pasta. The textural properties of cooked pasta are an important parameter that determines the overall acceptability by consumers [35]. The results of texture profile analysis of our gluten-free cooked pasta against the control (100% wheat flour) are shown in Table 5.

Table 5 Texture profile analysis of cooked pasta under study

During the first bite, we obtained hardness, adhesiveness, and resilience values.

Hardness is defined as the maximum load applied to the samples during a compression cycle, corresponding to the peak force [36]. According to Table 5, the control pasta recorded the highest value of cycle 1 hardness (3.96 N) compared to the gluten-free samples. This result was in agreement with Larrosa et al. who stated that wheat control pasta showed higher hardness values than all gluten-free tagliatelles, demonstrating the impact of the gluten matrix on tagliatelle texture [37].

In our study, the gluten-free samples with psyllium husk had higher hardness values than those with carboxymethyl cellulose, ranging from 3.31 to 1.76 N and from 1.73 to 0.69 N, respectively. We also found that higher contents of potato starch decreased the hardness values in all gluten-free samples. Similarly, Detchewa et al. reported an increase in the hardness of gluten-free spaghetti when hydrocolloids were incorporated [38].

Adhesiveness measures the extent to which the product gets attached to teeth and is considered the most undesirable characteristic of pasta [39]. According to Table 5, the control pasta recorded the lowest value of adhesiveness (0.1 mJ). As for the glutenfree pasta, the samples with psyllium husk had lower values of adhesiveness (0.2–0.3 mJ) than those with carboxymethyl cellulose (0.3–0.7 mJ).

These results reflect the good quality of the control wheat pasta compared to the gluten-free pasta. They also show that psyllium husk improved the quality of gluten-free pasta compared to the samples with carboxymethyl cellulose. Piwinska et al. reported such special qualities of durum wheat pasta as high hardness, low adhesiveness, low cooking loss, and tolerance to overcooking [40].

During the second bite, we obtained hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness values (Table 5). As we can see, the control had a lower value of hardness (3.74 N) compared to the same sample in cycle 1 (3.96 N), with a decreasing rate of 5.55%. In the gluten-free pasta, the decreasing rate of hardness from cycle 1 to cycle 2 ranged from 4.53 to 52.27% in the samples with psyllium husk and from 5.20 to 47.54% in those with carboxymethyl cellulose. The maximum decrease was recorded in the carboxymethyl cellulose sample with 45% potato starch.

Cohesiveness quantifies the internal resistance of food structure and can be briefly defined as an ability of a material to stick to itself [41]. According to our results, the highest value of cohesiveness (0.90) was recorded in the control sample. Also, quite high (0.75) cohesiveness was in the psyllium husk sample without potato starch (sample A). We also found that cohesiveness values gradually decreased with the increasing contents of potato starch.

Springiness measures elasticity by determining the extent of recovery between the first and the second compression. According to our results, the control sample recorded the highest value of springiness (4.95 mm). In the gluten-free samples with psyllium husk, springiness ranged from 4.58 to 3.34 mm, whilst in those with carboxymethyl cellulose, from 4.30 to 1.80 mm. Also, the control sample recorded the highest values of gumminess and chewiness.

Among the gluten-free samples, those with psyllium husk had higher values of gumminess and chewiness than those with carboxymethyl cellulose. We found that higher contents of potato starch in the gluten-free samples decreased their gumminess and chewiness. These results showed a more positive effect of psyllium husk than carboxymethyl cellulose.

As reported by Udachan and Sahoo, the primary parameters of pasta quality are hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness (they should be higher), whereas the secondary parameters are chewiness and resilience [9]. Generally, our results were in agreement with Anisa et al. who stated that gluten-free pasta was characterized by lower hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and springiness, and it had higher adhesiveness than wheat pasta [42].

Sensory evaluation of gluten-free cooked pasta. Sensory evaluation is a unique tool that uses human senses to determine organoleptic characteristics of a food product and the consumer’s attitude to it. Therefore, it is a reliable comprehensive test of the final product’s quality. Additionally, sensory evaluation provides important reference information to be compared with the results of instrumental or chemical methods [43].

In our study, the cooked gluten-free pasta samples were evaluated on a hedonic scale, with a wheat sample (72% ext.) used as a control (Table 6). We found no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in color between the control sample and those containing 15, 30, 45, and 60% of potato starch and 2.5% psyllium husk or 30, 45, and 60% of carboxymethyl cellulose. There were no significant differences in texture between the control sample and sample B containing 15% potato starch and 2.5% psyllium husk. Sample B had the most optimal content of potato starch among those containing psyllium husk as a binding agent, since increased levels of potato starch (30, 45, and 60%) significantly lowered the scores for texture. Also, psyllium husk had a more positive effect on texture than carboxymethyl cellulose, with the texture scores of 3.00–4.60 and 1.40–3.70, respectively.

Table 6 Sensory characteristics of cooked wheat flour and gluten-free pasta

As for flavor, there were no significant differences between the control and the gluten-free samples except for two carboxymethyl cellulose samples with 45 and 60% potato starch, respectively. Taste received the highest score (5.0) for the control sample (P ≤ 0.05) followed by sample B (4.0) containing 15% potato starch and psyllium husk. While the best score for taste among the carboxymethyl cellulose samples was 3.7 for the sample with 15% potato starch, it was significantly different from the control sample but not from sample B. The best scores for appearance were obtained by the control sample and the gluten-free sample containing psyllium husk and 15% of potato starch and (sample B), with significant differences. However, there were no significant differences between the sample containing psyllium husk and 30% of potato starch (sample C), and the one with carboxymethyl cellulose and 15% of potato starch and (sample G).

Overall acceptability showed no significant differences between the control and the gluten-free sample containing 15% potato starch and psyllium husk. In general, 15% was the most optimal content of potato starch in the samples with both psyllium and carboxymethyl cellulose. On the other hand, the samples with psyllium husk had a better effect on overall acceptability than those with carboxymethyl cellulose, with the scores of 1.90–4.80 and 1.0–3.50, respectively. Our results were consistent with a study by Bolarinwa and Oyesiji, where the acceptability of gluten-free ricesoy pasta was highly ranked for sensory attributes [28]. Additionally, Ribeiro et al. stated that incorporating legume flour in rice pasta resulted in acceptable scores for color, taste, flavor, and appearance [44]. Also, Peressini et al. reported that psyllium husk had a positive effect on sensory evaluation, improving overall acceptability [45].

Based on the overall results, we can conclude that hydrocolloids have an important effect on the physical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free pasta. The experimental samples with psyllium husk used as a binding agent had better texture properties due to an increased hardness of uncooked pasta, compared to the samples with carboxymethyl cellulose. Therefore, the cooked samples with psyllium husk showed better quality parameters such as swelling index, cooking loss, cooking yield, and nitrogen loss, compared to those with carboxymethyl cellulose.
Вклад авторов
S.M.M. Faheid was involved in the conceptualization, methodology, investigation, and visualization. I.R.S. Rizk was responsible for visualization, drafting of the manuscript, and supervision. G.H. Ragab took part in the investigation and drafting of the manuscript. Y.F.M. Kishk contributed to the conceptualization and data analysis. S.M. Mostafa was involved in the conceptualization, methodology, and writing the manuscript.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The authors are grateful to the Food Technology Department, Food Industries and Nutrition Institute, National Research Centre, Egypt for their assistance with the research and for providing the equipment required for measurements.
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Как цитировать?
Faheid SMM, Rizk IRS, Kishk YFM, Ragab GH, Mostafa S. Carboxymethyl cellulose and psyllium husk in gluten-free pasta. Foods and Raw Materials. 2022;10(2):329–339.
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