ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Том 9, №2, 2021

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Introduction. Fish can sometimes be contaminated with several highly toxic substances at once, e.g. heavy metals, pesticides, and preservatives. In this regard, it is essential to determine the presence of these harmful chemicals in fish products. The research objective was to analyze the level of organochlorine pesticide residues and other toxic substances in Tenualosa ilisha L.
Study objects and methods. The study featured organochlorine pesticide residues and other toxic substances in raw and cooked samples of fresh and salted T. ilisha, which is a popular dish in Northeast India, especially in the state of Tripura. The analysis involved tests for formaldehyde, pesticides, and heavy metals. Formaldehyde content was estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography, pesticides content – by low-pressure gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and heavy metals – by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.
Results and discussion. The salted samples had a high content of formaldehyde, though it remained within the normal range. Both fresh and salted samples demonstrated high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and selenium. The salted sample appeared to have a high content of toxic organochlorine pesticide residues. Frying and boiling of fresh and salted fish decreased formaldehyde and organochlorine pesticide residue contents but did not reduce heavy metal content.
Conclusion. T. ilisha was found to be quite safe for human health.
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Introduction. Diabetes is a common disease all over the world that is often a cause of mortality. Ice cream is popular in many countries. However, sugar and fat in its composition makes ice cream a high-caloric product. Soursop (Annona muricata L.) and moringa (Moringa oleifera L.), African medicinal plants, contain natural sugars and are rich in phytochemicals. We aimed to produce ice cream with these plants and evaluate its remedial properties.
Study objects and methods. The study featured ice cream purchased in a local store (control sample) and soursop ice cream with moringa leaf powder (experimental samples). The experimental ice cream samples included ice cream with soursop, ice cream with soursop and 0.1 g of moringa, and ice cream with soursop and 1 g of moringa. The antioxidant properties, glycemic indices, amylose and amylopectin contents, as well as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of the samples were determined using the standard methods.
Results and discussion. Comparing with the other samples, ice cream with 1 g of moringa showed the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, ABTS scavenging ability, DPPH radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and lowest glycemic index. Sensory evaluation revealed a lower overall acceptability of the experimental samples compared to the control ice cream. This could be due a peculiar taste of moringa (the formulation did not include sugar).
Conclusion. Ice cream based on soursop and moringa can be a good alternative to sugar-sweetened ice cream due to its antioxidant properties, low glycemic index, and acceptable sensory attributes.
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Introduction. Grape pomace is the most important by-product of winemaking that can be used as an additional raw material. There is a need for an optimal storage technology so that pomace can be further processed to obtain new types of products. We aimed to study the effect of grape pomace treatment on its microflora.
Study objects and methods. We identified and quantified microflora on the fresh and one-month-stored pomace samples from white and red grape varieties. The samples were exposed to conventional drying at 60–65°C, infrared drying at 60–65°C, as well as sulfitation with sulfur dioxide and sodium metabisulfite.
Results and discussion. The pomace microflora can be considered a microbial community. Almost all the samples stored for one month in an open area contained Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, higher concentrations of filmy yeasts of the Candida, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera, and Torulaspora genera, as well as conidia of Mucor, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium molds. Prevalent bacteria included acetic acid (mainly Acetobacter aceti) and lactic acid (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc) bacteria. These microorganisms significantly changed concentrations of volatile and non-volatile components, decreasing total polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and anthocyanins 1.7–1.9, 3.7–4.0, and 4.0–4.5 times, respectively. The contents of micromycetes and bacteria in the one-month-stored samples were significantly higher than in the fresh pomace. Predrying and sulfitation decreased bacterial contamination, but to a lesser extent compared to micromycetes.
Conclusion. Long-term storage spoiled pomace, leading to significant changes in its chemical composition. Sulfitation reduced microorganism growth during storage, but did not provide long-term preservation (over a month), while pre-drying at 60–65°C promoted longer storage.
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Introduction. There is still an urgent need in viticulture for studying the effect of tank mixtures of pesticides and bioactive substances on Vitis vinifera and, therefore, the quality and composition of wine. We aimed to study the effect of NanoKremny (silicon fertilizer) treatment of the grapevine on the productivity and quality of grape harvest, as well as the quality of dry wines.
Study objects and methods. Grape varieties from three vineyards in Crimea and the wines produced from them. We applied standard methods used in viticulture, plant protection, and oenological practice. Organic acids and volatile components in grapes and wines were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography.
Results and discussion. We found that the most effective use of NanoKremny was threefold at 0.15 L/ha during the periods of active growth and formation of vegetative and generative organs in grapevines. It had a positive effect on vegetative development, water balance, productivity of grape plants, as well as yield quality and quantity. Also, NanoKremny decreased the development of mildew and oidium diseases, preserved the content of titratable acids in grapes during their ripening, as well as accumulated phenolic compounds, tartaric and malic acids in grape berries.
Conclusion. We found no negative effect of NanoKremny treatment of the grapevine on the physicochemical parameters and sensory characteristics of wines. Thus, this preparation can be used as a bioorganic additive in viticulture.
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Introduction. Cantharellus cibarius L. is a wild mushroom that has been part of human diet for many centuries. However, there is little reliable information about its nutritional value, storage conditions, shelf life, and processing. The research objective was to study the nutritional value of C. cibarius growing in West Siberia, as well as to define its storage and processing conditions.
Study objects and methods. The research featured fresh and processed (boiled and salted) wild chanterelles (C. cibarius) obtained from the forests of the Novosibirsk region. The mushrooms were tested for amino acids, fatty acids, nutrients, reducing sugars, trehalose, mannit, glycogen, fiber, mucus, squalene, ash, minerals, vitamins, trypsin inhibitor, chlorides, mesophilic and facultative anaerobes, etc. The samples also underwent sensory evaluation.
Results and discussion. The samples of C. cibarius proved to have a high nutritional value. The samples contained 3.6% proteins, including essential amino acids; 3.9% carbohydrates, including sugars and dietary fiber; and 0.7% lipids, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated acids. In addition, C. cibarius appeared to be rich in biologically active substances. It contained trypsin inhibitors that reduce the absorption of protein compounds. Purchasing centers can be recommended to use 70–80% relative air humidity. At 0–2°C, the storage time was five days; at 5–10°C – three days; at 15–20°C – two days; at 20–30°C – one day. Before processing, the mushrooms were washed twice in non-flowing water. C. cibarius also proved to be a valuable raw material for boiled and salted semi-finished products. The optimal boiling time was 5–10 min. Lightly-, medium-, and strong-salted semi-finished mushrooms were ready for consumption after the fermentation was complete, i.e. after day 15, 10, and 3, respectively.
Conclusion. Boiled and salted semi-finished products from Siberian C. cibarius demonstrated excellent sensory qualities and can become part of various popular dishes.
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Introduction. The present research featured the effect of carbonyls, phenols, furans, fatty alcohols, ethers, and other chemical compounds on the sensory properties of cognac distillates of different ages. The research objective was to identify additional criteria of sensory evaluation by measuring the effect of various compounds on perception intensity.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cognac samples of different ages. The experiment involved standard methods, including high-performance liquid and gas chromatography and a mathematical analysis based on Microsoft software.
Results and discussion. The content of fatty alcohols, ethers, and carbonyl compounds that formed as a result of fermentation demonstrated little change during the aging period in oak casks. A longer extraction increased the content of phenolic and furan compounds and sugars. The content of terpene compounds decreased due to their high lability. The study revealed the effect of organic compounds on taste descriptors. The article introduces multivariate equations that calculate the dependences of the descriptor intensity on the content of organic compounds. A correlation and regression analysis revealed that phenolic compounds had a significant effect on the taste formation of cognac samples, depending on the aging time.
Conclusion. Organic compounds proved to affect the taste profiles of cognac samples of different ages, as well as sensory evaluation descriptors.
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Introduction. The functional basis of protopectin complex can be represented as a network of regions that consist of homogalacturonan sequences and a base of rhamnogalacturonans-I, i.e. rhamnosyl-containing branching sites. Enzymatic isolation of these regions is possible only at a certain minimal native degree of polymerization. The research objective was to develop a system of criteria for assessing the potential applicability of the enzymatic transformation of plant protopectin complex.
Study objects and methods. The research featured the polymerization degree of the homogalacturonan regions of the protopectin complex and produced a system of assessment criteria for the enzymatic fragmentation potential of the protopectin complex. The theoretical calculations were based on the values of the mass fractions of rhamnosyl and galacturonide residues in plant cell walls. The result was a new polymerization degree analytical function.
Results and discussion. The ratio of the mass fractions of rhamnosyl and galacturonide residues in the water-insoluble plant tissue served as a dimensionless criterion of applicability. The rational condition for the dimensionless criterion of applicability was based on the fundamental constraint for homogalacturonan regions in the protopectin complex. It was expressed by a fundamental inequation. The rational area for determining the numerical values of the applicability criterion was presented as. The functional dependence was reduced to a two-dimensional criteria space as “width of rhamnosyl branches vs. the criterion of applicability”, where each pectin-containing raw material was given a single uniquely defined position. The boundary conditions for the criteria space were determined analytically.
Conclusion. The new approach offers an assessment of the enzymatic fragmentation potential of the plant protopectin complex by homoenzyme preparations. The approach is in fact the second stage of the decision tree in the science-based technology for pectin and its products.
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Introduction. The article provides a review of technologies for membrane fractionation of various hydrolyzed food substrates in membrane bioreactors (MBR). In food industry, MBRs are popular in functional food production, especially in the processing of whey, which is a very promising raw material due to its physicochemical composition.
Study objects and methods. The research was based on a direct validated analysis of scientific publications and featured domestic and foreign experience in MBR hydrolysis of protein raw material.
Results and discussion. The MBR hydrolysis of proteins combines various biocatalytic and membrane processes. This technology makes it possible to intensify the biocatalysis, optimize the use of the enzyme preparation, and regulate the molecular composition of hydrolysis products. The paper reviews MBRs based on batch or continuous stirring, gradient dilution, ceramic capillary, immobilized enzyme, etc. Immobilized enzymes reduce losses that occur during the production of fractionated peptides. Continuous MBRs are the most economically profitable type, as they are based on the difference in molecular weight between the enzyme and the hydrolysis products.
Conclusion. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactors have obvious advantages over other whey processing reactors. They provide prompt separation of hydrolysates with the required biological activity and make it possible to reuse enzymes.
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Introduction. New natural antioxidants remain a relevant research task of food science. Natural antioxidants neutralize free radicals in food systems, as well as in human body. The antioxidant properties of seaweed have attracted scientific attention for many years. However, most experiments featured non-polar extracts while aqueous extracts still remain understudied. The present research objective was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of hydrothermal extracts of edible seaweed from the Northern Coast of the Sea of Japan.
Study objects and methods. The study featured hot-water and autoclave (30 and 60 min) extracts of three edible seaweed species from Russia’s Far East. The research focused on dry matter yield, total phenol content, phenolic profile, antiradical properties, hydroxylion (OH) scavenging activity, and superoxide radical (O2•−) scavenging activity.
Results and discussion. The hot-water extracts appeared to have a higher yield than the autoclave extracts. The hot-water extract of red-purple seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa had the highest yield – 15.90%. The extract of brown seaweed Sargassum miyabei demonstrated the highest total phenol content. The phenolic profile of the extracts revealed 10 compounds, syringic acid and epicatechin being the major ones. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 48.2 to 88.9%, the highest value was observed in the hot-water extract of S. miyabei. The autoclave S. miyabei extracts also had a high radical scavenging activity, which exceeded other samples by 5.0–13.3%. The hot-water (30 min) extract of G. verrucosa had the lowest antiradical activity. Hot-water and autoclave extracts of S. miyabei showed the best OH scavenging activity. Only the samples of G. verrucosa demonstrated signs of superoxide radical scavenging.
Conclusion. The extracts of brown seaweed S. miyabei proved to be the most active. The hot-water and autoclave extracts had the highest total phenol content and the strongest DPPH and OH inhibitory activity.
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Introduction. Nowadays, health-conscious consumers attend to nutritional, health, and easy-to-use products. Demand for healthy snacks is significantly increasing. Our study aimed to develop high protein nutrition bars by incorporating pumpkin seed flour and banana flour and assess their quality.
Study objects and methods. We analyzed three bar samples for nutritional, textural, and sensory quality. The bars contained banana flour, pumpkin seed flour, and the mixed flour. Proximate analysis was performed following the AOAC method. The mineral content and antioxidant properties of the bars were determined by using emission spectrophotometry and the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging modified method, respectively.
Results and discussion. The mixed flour nutrition bar had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the bar with banana flour and the bar with pumpkin seed flour. Textural analysis demonstrated that the mixed flour sample had significantly (P < 0.05) higher hardness and color parameters compared to the other bar samples. Nutritional analysis indicated that mixed flour bar contained significantly higher amounts of protein, fat, and calcium; while pumpkin seed flour bar had higher ash, iron, and magnesium contents. The mixed flour sample also had better sensory parameters.
Conclusion. The mixed flour demonstrated good quality. Hence, both banana and pumpkin seed flour have a potential to be used in bar formulations.
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Introduction. A disadvantage of the ancestral method (la méthode ancestrale), which is widely used in the production of sparkling wine, is that it is difficult to control fermentation. We aimed to identify the optimal yeast race for obtaining high-quality young sparkling wines with varietal aroma without yeast tones.
Study objects and methods. Our study objects were base and young sparkling wines from Cabernet-Sauvignon prepared on various yeast races. Organic acids, sugars, and ethanol contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Phenolic and coloring substances were measured by colorimetric method. Foaming properties were determined by air barbotage of a wine sample in a measuring cylinder; sparkling properties, by measuring the CO2 desorption rate; CO2 content, by volumetric method; viscosity, with a viscometer. Sensory evaluation was carried out according to standard methods.
Results and discussion. The wines produced on the Odesskiy Chernyi-SD13 yeast race received the highest tasting scores of 7.82 and 9.05 points for base wine and young sparkling wines, respectively. They contained larger amounts of phenolic substances (1103 mg/dm3) and coloring agents (275 mg/dm3) and had higher color intensity (1.614). The panelists rated them highly on their complex varietal aroma and harmonious, velvety flavor, as well as their foaming and sparkling properties. This yeast race ensured intensive fermentation of sugars and a great amount of bound CO2 (up to 24.93%).
Conclusion. The Odesskiy Chernyi-SD13 yeast race is optimal for making base and young sparkling wines by the bottle method. This technology can be used to produce high-quality sparkling wines in the crop year by large and small enterprises.
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Introduction. Residents of northern regions have a diet low in essential macro- and microelements. The Sea of Okhotsk is an enormous source of fish and non-fish products. We aimed to determine mineral contents in marine fish, shellfish, and algae in order to assess if they could satisfy the daily requirement for these elements through fish and non-fish consumption.
Study objects and methods. Our study objects were saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis L.), blue-headed halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides L.), commander squid (Berryteuthis magister L.), northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis L.), salted pink salmon caviar (Oncorhynchus gorbuscham L.), and kelp (Laminaria L.). The contents of 25 macro- and microelements were determined by atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma.
Results and discussion. The absolute contents of macro- and microelements in the marine species were used to assess the proportion of the recommended daily requirement that they account for. Also, we performed a thorough comparative analysis of mineral quantities in the studied species of marine fish, pink salmon caviar, shellfish, and algae from the Sea of Okhotsk. Finally, we examined the elemental status of the coastal residents belonging to the “northern type” and identified their deficiencies of vital chemical elements.
Conclusion. Some chemical elements in the studied marine species from the Sea of Okhotsk (Magadan Region) satisfy over 100% of the daily human requirement for these minerals. Therefore, their products can be recommended as part of a northern diet in order to compensate for the deficiencies of certain minerals.
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Introduction. Nakamoto Seedless, a variety of shikuwasa (Citrus depressa L.) in Okinawa, can be used to produce vinegar extracts because it has no seeds causing bitter taste. However, Nakamono Seedless is hardly cultivated commercially in Okinawa. This research was aimed to develop vinegar extract from Ogimi Kugani, another major variety of shikuwasa, and compare its characteristics with those of extracts from Nakamoto Seedless.
Study objects and methods. The study featured vinegar extracts from the whole shikuwasa of Nakamoto Seedless (20% fruit) and Ogimi Kunagi (5, 10, and 20% of fruit) varieties. The fruit was harvested in June, July, and August. We tested the samples for limonin and polymethoxyflavones content and sensory attributes, especially bitterness.
Results and discussion. Vinegar extracts with 20% of Ogimi Kugani harvested in June and July tasted bitter compared to those from Nakamoto Seedless harvested in August, but extracts from Ogimi Kugani harvested in August were not bitter. In addition, 5 and 10% vinegar extracts from Ogimi Kugani harvested in June had lower bitterness. The vinegar extracts from both shikuwasa varieties contained polymethoxyflavones ‒ bioactive compounds ‒ and similar flavor.
Conclusion. The whole shiluwasa fruit can be used to produce vinegar drinks, Ponzu soy sauce, salad dressings, etc.
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Introduction. Toxic metals in fish, even at low levels, have negative consequences for human health. Even essential metals pose a health threat if consumed in certain quantities. Mercury, cadmium, and lead are the most frequent metals containing in fish. The research objective was to inspect the quality of aquaculture fish found in most major grocery chains across Turkey.
Study objects and methods. The present research featured the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Hg, and Cd in Turkish salmon. The sampling took place between February and June 2019. The cumulative carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk for consumers was evaluated based on trace element levels in a prospective health risk assessment using the U.S. EPA model of lifetime exposure.
Results and discussion. Fe proved to be the most abundant element in fish fillets, followed by Zn and Cu. Other elements appeared to be far below the permissible values, namely Al ≤ 0.5, Cd ≤ 0.02, Pb, and Hg ≤ 0.05. All the trace elements detected in Turkish salmon were below the reference dose values. The percent contribution to total risk by Fe, Cu, and Zn were 34.20, 24.80, and 41.01%, respectively. The hazard index was ≤ 1. The contamination of aquaculture fish fillet proved insignificant, and the carcinogenic risk was entirely negligible.
Conclusion. The research revealed no hazardous trace elements, and their cumulative effects were not indicated in the hazardous index.
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Introduction. Mercury and its compounds are among the most dangerous toxic substances, which makes mercury pollution one of the most urgent environmental issues. The present research objective was to study the accumulation of mercury and its impact on the terrestrial ecosystems in the area of the Beloosipovo mercury deposit (Kemerovo Region, West Siberia, Russia).
Study objects and methods. The study used standard methods to test soil, herbs, herpetobiont insects, and small mammals. The sampling was conducted at 13 points in the cardinal directions at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 km from the pollution source. The method of atomic absorption was employed to measure the concentration of mercury in the samples prepared by the wet mineralization method.
Results and discussion. The main components of terrestrial ecosystems revealed no excessive concentration of mercury in the soil. However, the water samples from the Belaya Osipova river demonstrated an excess in the maximum permissible concentration of mercury from 5 to 20% (0.00056–0.00074 mg/L). Further up the food chains, the concentration of mercury in organisms decreased by 1–2 orders of magnitude, depending on the sampling point. The study also revealed Siberian trout lily (Erythronium sibiricum (Fisch. et C. A. Mey) Kryl.), which is protected at the federal and regional levels, as well as several nemoral tertiary relics.
Conclusion. The decreasing concentration of mercury in the food chains means the ecosystem is under no severe negative impact.
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Introduction. Cavitation is the most significant factor that affects liquid food products during ultrasound treatment. Ultrasonic treatment intensifies diffusion, dissolution, and chemical interactions. However, no physical model has yet been developed to unambiguously define the interaction between ultrasonic cavities and structural particles of liquid food media. Physical models used to describe ultrasonic interactions in liquid food media are diverse and, sometimes, contradictory. The research objective was to study ultrasonic devices in order to improve their operating modes and increase reliability.
Study objects and methods. The present research featured ultrasonic field generated in water by the cylindrical emitter, the intensity of flexural ultrasonic waves and their damping rate at various distances from the emitter.
Results and discussion. The paper offers a review of available publications on the theory of acoustic cavitation in various media. The experimental studies featured the distribution of cavities in the ultrasound field of rod vibrating systems in water. The research revealed the erosion capacity of ultrasonic waves generated by the cylindrical emitter. The article also contains a theoretical analysis of the cavitation damage to aluminum foil in water and the erosive effect of cavitation on highly rigid materials of ultrasonic vibration systems. The obtained results were illustrated by semi-graphical dependences.
Conclusion. The present research made it possible to assess the energy capabilities of cavities generated by ultrasonic field at different distances from the ultrasonic emitter. The size of the contact spot and the penetration depth can serve as a criterion for the erosion of the surface of the ultrasonic emitter.
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Introduction. People with gastrointestinal disorders should have a sparing diet with a balanced chemical and amino acid composition including all essential components. Based on formulations of meat products, we identified a number of essential nutritional components that could improve the diet for gastrointestinal pathologies. In this study, we aimed to develop a formulation for cooked sausage enriched with deficient essential nutrients.
Study objects and methods. Our study object was cooked sausage. First, we analyzed the diet for people with gastrointestinal disorders. Then, we formulated a meat-based product (cooked sausage), determined its chemical and amino acid compositions, as well as vitamin and mineral contents, and assessed the balance of amino acids. Finally, we evaluated the biological value and safety of the formulated sausage on laboratory mice.
Results and discussion. The chemical and amino acid compositions of a daily gastrointestinal diet in medical institutions revealed a deficiency of some water-soluble vitamins, vitamin A, calcium, magnesium, and iron, as well as an imbalance of amino acids. To replenish the deficiency, we formulated a meat-based product composed of trimmed beef and pork, beef liver, egg mix, food gelatin, chitosan succinate, rice flour, and soy fortifier. The product was classified as a meat and cereal cooked sausage of grade B, in which most amino acids were used for anabolic purposes. Its daily portion of 100 g eliminated the deficiency of potassium and iron, almost completely replenished magnesium, calcium, and vitamin A, as well as reduced the deficiency of dietary fiber by 4.8 g. The cytological studies of the blood of laboratory animals, whose basic diet contained the formulated sausage, proved its high biological value and safety.
Conclusion. We found that the formulated meat and cereal sausage can be included in the diet for patients with gastrointestinal diseases and used in medical institutions to eliminate the deficiency of essential nutrients.
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Introduction. Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system in modern clinical practice. Its prevention and treatment requires a diet with a sufficient intake of calcium, vitamins, and connective tissue proteins that regenerate cartilage and bone tissue. We aimed to formulate a functional product based on collagen fermentolysate to prevent osteoporosis and prove its effects in experiments on laboratory rats.
Study objects and methods. Our study objects were collagen fermentolysate obtained from pork ears and legs (1:1) and the functional product based on it. The biological experiment was carried out on Wistar female rats exposed to osteoporosis through complete ovariectomy. Their femurs were analyzed for the contents of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium, as well as cytometric and biochemical blood parameters.
Results and discussion. The formulated functional product based on collagen fermentolysate contained 41% of the most easily assimilable peptide fractions with a low molecular weight of 10 to 20 kDa. Other components included pumpkin powder, dietary fiber, calcium, chondroprotectors, and vitamins E, C, and D3. Compared to the control, the experimental rats that received the functional product had increased contents of calcium and magnesium in the bone tissue (by 25.0 and 3.0%, respectively), a decreased content of phosphorus (by 7.0%), a calcium-to-phosphorus ratio restored to 2.4:1.0, and a higher concentration of osteocalcin in the blood serum (by 15%).
Conclusion. The developed functional product based on collagen fermentolysate can be used as an additional source of connective tissue protein, calcium, vitamins C, E, and D3, dietary fiber, and chondroprotectors to prevent osteoporosis.
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Introduction. The number of people with celiac disease is rapidly increasing. Gluten, is one of the most common food allergens, consists of two fractions: gliadins and glutenins. The research objective was to determine the optimal conditions for estimating gliadins by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Study objects and methods. The experiment involved wheat flour samples (0.10; 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 g) suspended in different solvents (ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and isopropanol) of different concentrations (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% v/v). The samples were diluted with Tris buffer in ratios of 1:50, 1:100, 1:150, and 1:200. The gliadin test was performed using a Gliadin/Gluten Biotech commercial ELISA kit (Immunolab).
Results and discussion. The optimal conditions for determining gliadin proteins that provided the highest gliadin concentration were: solvent – 70% v/v ethanol, extract:Tris buffer ratio – 1:50, and sample weight – 1.0 g.
Conclusion. The obtained results can be of great importance to determine gliadin/gluten concentrations in food products by rapid analysis methods.
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Introduction. Sorghum is available cereal seeds of African origin belonging to the Poaceae family. However, its metabolites and proximate composition have not studied well, which led to the under-utilization of this cereal. This research aimed to investigate the classes of phytochemical and proximate compositions of sorghum extract in order to assess its nutraceutical potential for food chemistry and dietary formulations.
Study objects and methods. We studied the sorghum seed oil extract obtained with the help of a Soxhlet extractor. Sorghum was purchased in Ota, Nigeria. The bioactive compounds were identified by standard methods of phytochemical screening, the nutritional content was investigated with proximate analysis, and the secondary metabolites in the sorghum extract were determined using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Result and discussion. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and quinones in the sorghum extract. The oil yield obtained was 11.00 ± 0.18%. The proximate analysis revealed 5.94% moisture content, 3.05% ash, 0.20% crude fiber, 11.00% fat, 5.54% protein, and 74.27% carbohydrates. The selected physicochemical parameters measured in the sorghum extract included cloud point (0.40°C), specific gravity at 25°C (0.81), and refractive index (1.46). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, stigmasterol, 8-dodecen-1-ol, acetate, (Z)-, vitamin E, linoleic acid ethyl ester, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, which accounted for about 85% in the sorghum composition. Other constituents, presented at lower amounts, included 12-heptadecyn-1-ol, 1H-Imidazole-5-ethanamine, 1-methyl-, and cyclononene.
Conclusion. The findings of this study revealed high nutritive potential of sorghum, which make it a rich source of energy for humans and animals.
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Introduction. Myrtus communis, Aristolochia longa, and Calycotome spinosa are medicinal plants frequently used in Algeria. Some plants can cause a fragility of the erythrocyte membrane and lead to hemolysis. Therefore, we aimed to study the cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts from the aerial part of these species against red blood cells.
Study objects and methods. The hemolytic effect was determined spectrophotometrically by incubating an erythrocyte solution with different concentrations of the aqueous extracts (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL) at 37°C during one hour. In addition, we performed phytochemical screening and measured the contents of polyphenols and flavonoids.
Results and discussion. After one hour of incubation of human red blood cells with the aqueous extracts at different concentrations, the hemolysis percentage showed a significant leak of hemoglobin with A. longa (68.75 ± 6.11%; 200 mg/mL), the most toxic extract followed by C. spinosa (34.86 ± 5.06%; 200 mg/mL). In contrast, M. communis showed very low cytotoxicity (20.13 ± 3.11%; 200 mg/mL).
Conclusion. These plants are sources of a wide range of bioactive compounds but their use in traditional medicine must be adapted to avoid any toxic effect.
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Introduction. Deep learning is a modern technique for image processing and data analysis with promising results and great potential. Successfully applied in various fields, it has recently entered the field of agriculture to address such agricultural problems as disease identification, fruit/plant classification, fruit counting, pest identification, and weed detection. The latter was the subject of our work. Weeds are harmful plants that grow in crops, competing for things like sunlight and water and causing crop yield losses. Traditional data processing techniques have several limitations and consume a lot of time. Therefore, we aimed to take inventory of deep learning networks used in agriculture and conduct experiments to reveal the most efficient ones for weed control.
Study objects and methods. We used new advanced algorithms based on deep learning to process data in real time with high precision and efficiency. These algorithms were trained on a dataset containing real images of weeds taken from Moroccan fields.
Results and discussion. The analysis of deep learning methods and algorithms trained to detect weeds showed that the Convolutional Neural Network is the most widely used in agriculture and the most efficient in weed detection compared to others, such as the Recurrent Neural Network.
Conclusion. Since the Convolutional Neural Network demonstrated excellent accuracy in weed detection, we adopted it in building a smart system for detecting weeds and spraying them in place.
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Introduction. Choline has a wide range of physiological functions. It has a neuroprotective effect on brain dysfunctions, while its deficiency has a negative effect on antenatal development of the nervous system. We aimed to study the impact of exogenous choline on the psychophysiological indicators in students.
Study objects and methods. 87 students were surveyed by questionnaire to determine their background intake of dietary choline. One month before the exams, we measured their simple and complex visual-motor reaction times, functional mobility and balance of nervous processes, as well as indicators of their short-term memory, attention, health, activity, and mood. Then, we divided the students into a control and an experimental group, regardless of their choline intake. The experimental group took 700 mg choline supplements on a daily basis for one month, followed by a second psychophysiological examination.
Results and discussion. Students with a low choline intake had lower functional mobility and balance of nervous processes, but better attention stability than students with a high choline intake. The second examination showed improved short-term memory, health, and activity indicators in the experimental group, compared to the control. The visual-motor reaction times also increased, but only in students with an initially low level of choline intake.
Conclusion. Choline supplementation can be recommended to students under pre-exam stress to enhance the functional state of their central nervous system.
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Introduction. Coal mining causes a radical transformation of the soil cover. Research is required into modern methods and complementary technologies for monitoring technogenic landscapes and their remediation. Our study aimed to assess soil and rhizosphere microorganisms and their potential uses for the remediation of technogenic soils in Russian coal regions.
Study objects and methods. We reviewed scientific articles published over the past five years, as well as those cited in Scopus and Web of Science.
Results and discussion. Areas lying in the vicinity of coal mines and coal transportation lines are exposed to heavy metal contamination. We studied the application of soil remediation technologies that use sorbents from environmentally friendly natural materials as immobilizers of toxic elements and compounds. Mycorrhizal symbionts are used for soil decontamination, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza with characteristic morphological structures in root cortex cells and some mycotallia in the form of arbuscules or vesicles. Highly important are Gram-negative proteobacteria (Agrobacterium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Burkholderia, Bradyrizobium, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Rizobium), Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus), and Grampositive actinomycetes (Rhodococcus, Streptomyces, Arhtrobacter). They produce phytohormones, vitamins, and bioactive substances, stimulating plant growth. Also, they reduce the phytopathogenicity of dangerous diseases and harmfulness of insects. Finally, they increase the soil’s tolerance to salinity, drought, and oxidative stress. Mycorrhizal chains enable the transport and exchange of various substances, including mineral forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic forms of C3 and C4 plants. Microorganisms contribute to the removal of toxic elements by absorbing, precipitating or accumulating them both inside the cells and in the extracellular space.
Conclusion. Our review of scientific literature identified the sources of pollution of natural, agrogenic, and technogenic landscapes. We revealed the effects of toxic pollutants on the state and functioning of living systems: plants, animals, and microorganisms. Finally, we gave examples of modern methods used to remediate degraded landscapes and reclaim disturbed lands, including the latest technologies based on the integration of plants and microorganisms.