ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)


The current problem of winemaking is the confirmation of a method for producing table and liqueur wines to protect the economic interests of producers and protect the health of consumers. It is possible to determine the nature of the sugars contained in wine on the basis of regularities in the dynamics of the glucose-fructose index (GFI) and the proportion of disaccharides in the total sugar content in the process chain "raw materials - finished products". The study objects included: the grapes grown on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, European, autochthonous technical varieties, as well as the varieties of a new selection; domestic and foreign wine materials and wines; model samples and wine falsifications. The content of disaccharides in terms of sucrose, glycerol, glucose and fructose was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. As a result of the studies of the wines obtained by arrested fermentation, there are some trends in the reduction of GFI with a decrease in the level of endogenous sugars: for the wines with a sugar content of 230-270 g/l, the range of GFI is 0.75-0.94, with a mass concentration of sugars of 10-20 g/l - 0.05-0.14. In the case of a sugar concentration in wine of more than 120 g/l, it is necessary to study a sample for the glycerol content as a marker of fermentation depth in order to increase the reliability of conclusion. The values of the indicators characteristic of high- sugar grapes are typical for the wines obtained by sweetening with a grape must concentrate: GFI - not more than 1.0, the proportion of disaccharides is not more than 1.2%; falsifications are characterized by the profile of sugars atypical for grape products: GFI is higher than 1.02, the share of disaccharides is more than 2%.
Glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycerol, high-performance liquid chromatography, concentrated grape must, falsification, banned supplements
  1. Wu B.-H., Liu H.-F., Guan L., Fan P.-G., and Li Sh.-H. Carbohydrate metabolism in grape cultivars that differ in sucrose accumulation. Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research, 2011, vol. 50, no. 2, rr. 51–57.
  2. Sabir A., Kafkas E., and Tangolar S. Distribution of major sugars, acids and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2010, vol. 8, no. 2, rr. 425–433.
  3. Pavloušek P. and Kumšta M. Profiling of primar y metabolites in grapes of interspecific grapevine varieties: sugars and organic acids. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2011, vol. 29, no. 4, rr. 361–372.
  4. Kliewer W.M. Concentrations of Tartrates, Malates, Glucose and Fructose in the Fruits of Genus. Vitis. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 1967, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 87–96.
  5. Jolly N. The use of non-Saccharomyces fructophilic yeasts for efficient fermentation of grape juice.Available at: fructophilic-yeasts-for-efficient-fermentation-of-grape-juice. (accessed 08 April 16).
  6. Oliva Hernández A.A., Taillandier P., Reséndez Pérez D., Narváez Zapata J.A., and Larralde Corona C.P. The effect of hexose ratios on metabolite production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from the spontaneous fermentation of mezcal. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, 2013, vol. 103, no. 4, rr. 833–843. DOI: 10.1007/s10482-012-9865-1.
  7. Mocke L. Kinetic Modelling of Wine Fermentations: Why Does Yeast Prefer Glucose to Fructose.Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, 2013. 64 p.
  8. Aponte M. and Blaiotta G. Potential role of yeast strains isolated from grapes in the production of Taurasi DOCG. Frontiers Microbiology, 2016, vol. 7, article number 809. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00809.
  9. Christ E. Understanding of stuck fermentations: investigations on the relationship between the microbial diversity and chemical composition of must. Diss. Dr. Sci. (Biol.). Mainz, 2015. Available at: https://publications.ub.unimainz. de/theses/volltexte/2015/3981/pdf/3981.pdf. (accessed 19 April 2016).
  10. Zuehlke J.M., Childs B.C., Edwards C.G., et al. Evaluation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to Metabolize Residual Sugar Present in Partially-Fermented Red Wines. Fermentation, 2015, vol. 1, rr. 3–12. DOI: 10.3390/fermentation1010003.
  11. White J.S. Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: What it is and what it ain't1. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008, vol. 88, no. 6, rr. 1716–1721. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.25825B.
  12. Schobinger U. Fruit and Vegetable Juices. Verlag Eugen Ulmer. 2001. 651 p. (Russ. ed.: Shobinger U. Fruktovye i ovoshchnye soki: nauchnye osnovy tekhnologii. St. Petersburg: Professija Publ., 2004. 640 p.).
  13. Serdyuk M.E. and Gaprindashvili N.A. Prognostication of sugar content of apple fruit depending on abiotic factors. First Independent Scientific Bulletin, 2015, no. 3, pp. 104–107. (In Ukrainian).
  14. Kolesnov A., Agafonova N., and Zenina M. Mass spectroscopy of stable oxygen isotopes 18O/16O in the grapes and wines of the Crimea. Analytics, 2016, no. 3, p. 72–83. (In Russian).
  15. Kolesnov A.Yu. and Agafonova N.M. Control of the authenticity and quality of wine production. Part 3. IRMS / SIRA method in the study of the composition of stable carbon isotopes in the components of grapes and wine products of the Crimea. Quality control of products, 2016, no. 6, pp. 45–53. (In Russian).
  16. Oganesyants L.A., Panasyuk A.L., Kuzmina E.I., and Kharlamova L.N. Determination of the carbon isotope 13C/12C in ethanol of fruit wines in order to define identification characteristics. Foods and Raw Materials, 2016, vol. 4, no. 1, rr. 141–147. DOI: 10.21179/2308-4057-2016-1-141-147.
  17. Anikina N.S. Methodological bases for identiifying the authenticity of grape wine materials and wines. Magarach. Winemaking and viticulture, 2012, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 86–89. (In Russian).
  18. Gnilomedova N.V., Anikina N.S., Gerzhikova V.G., et al. Criteria for assessing the authenticity of concentrated grape must. Winemaking and viticulture, 2015, no. 6, pp. 21–24. (In Russian).
  19. Zakharova A.M., Kartsova L.A., and Greenshtein I.L. Determination of organic acids, carbohydrates and sweeteners in food and biologically active additives by HPLC. Analytics and control, 2013, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 204–210. (In Russian).
  20. Egorov E., Yakuba Yu., and Razuvaev V. Capillary electrophoresis in analytical control of wine. Indian journal of science and technology, 2017, vol. 10, no. 16. DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i16/112075.
  21. Compendium of International Methods of Wine and Must Analysis, vol. 1. Paris: O.I.V., 2016. 504 p.
  22. Ribéreau-Gayon P., Dubourdieu D., Donèche B., and Lonvaud A. Handbook of Enology: The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications, vol. 1, 2nd ed. England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006. 497 p.
  23. Kubyshkin A.V., Avidzba A.M., Borisyuk V.S., et al. Polyphenols of red grapes in wine and concentrates for use in rehabilitation technologies. Agricultural Biology, 2017, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 622–630. DOI: 10.15389/agrobiology.2017.3.622rus. (In Russian).
  24. Snyman P. The glucose: fructose ratio of wine grapes, 2006. Available at: (accessed 05 February 2016).
  25. Skorikova T.K., Tanashchuk T.N., and Shalamitskiy M.Yu. Evaluating of Saccharomyces yeast ability to use glucose or fructose in the kind of carbon source. Magarach. Winemaking and viticulture, 2017, no. 4, pp. 44–45. (In Russian).
  26. Jolly N. Yeast fermentation and glucose-fructose levels. Oenology research, Winetech Technical, 1 Aug, 2015.WineLand. Available at: (accessed 20 February 2016).
  27. Gnilomedova N.V., Ryabinina O.V., and Ermikhina M.V. Transformation of sugar-acid profile in the process of grape must concentration. Magarach. Winemaking and viticulture, 2017, no. 1. pp. 44–46. (In Russian).
  28. Anikina N.S. Glycerol index in wines as indicator of their authenticity. Winemaking and viticulture, 2016, vol. 46, pp. 59–61. (In Russian).
  29. Goold H.D., Kroukamp H., Williams Th.C., et al. Yeast's balancing act between ethanol and glycerol production in low-alcohol wines. Microbial Biotechnology, 2017, vol. 10, no. 2, rr. 264–278. DOI: 10.1111/1751-7915.12488.
  30. Kushnereva E.V. and Guguchkina T.I. Authenticity criteria development of naturally semi-sweet and naturally semidry wines. Izvestia vuzov. Pishevaya tekhnologia, 2012, vols 329–330, nos 5–6, pp. 70–72. (In Russian).
  31. Waterhouse A.L., Sacks G.L., and Jeffery D.W. Understanding wine chemistry. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016. 443 r.
How to quote?
About journal