Volume 6, Issue 1, 2018
ROLE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STATE POLICY OF HEALTHY NUTRITION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of the healthy nutrition of the population includes a set of measures aimed at meeting the needs of various groups of the population for healthy nutrition, taking into account their traditions, habits and economic situation. The complex system development of the consumer food market, in addition to the economic aspect, covers the issues of public health, demography, effective nature management, resource saving and ecology. The current scientific approaches in the field of healthy food production involve the addition of functional ingredients, biologically active substances or probiotic microorganisms capable of replenishing the deficiency of necessary substances to a base product. However, in addition to their high nutritional value, healthy food products must be absolutely safe and be of high quality, which is extremely difficult to realize in the present conditions of raw material production. The review provides a rationale that the organic products manufactured using traditional technologies without the addition of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, food additives, hormonal and other drugs, can be attributed to healthy food products. The development of the organic sector of food production at the state level will allow not only to implement the adopted normative acts within the framework of the state policy of healthy nutrition, but also to fundamentally improve the situation in other areas: economy, health and ecology.
Based on perspectives of the philosophy for science of dairy and postgenomic ideas the historical aspects, an attempt has been made to formulate the paradigm of LactOmics as a logical generalization of LipidOmics, ProteOmics and GlycOmics. The depth of experience is maintained thousands years. First paper was published 400 years ago. Up-to-date concepts have been cluster formed. The technology platform of LactOmics is based on the bio- nano- electromembrane technique of the dairy industry modernization, as part of full import replacement with export orientation. This provides the national Food safety for the entire range of dairy products for the determined population groups.
The article is devoted to some aspects of the engineering of complex technological systems designed in the agroindustrial complex. The focus is on solving the problem of Russia's food safety by creating the industrial agro- complexes that implement the technologies for agricultural production and the technology for its storage and processing. The range of issues under discussion includes the structural complication of agro-industrial complex technologies with their simultaneous simplification due to the stabilization of the leading processes of converting agricultural resources into food products. Particular attention is paid to the fluctuations in the processes of "large" technological systems that make up a system complex, under the influence of internal and external disturbing factors. These fluctuations are considered as a necessary condition for the development of complex technological systems. The information about the conditions of self-organization of system technological complexes and their main characteristics has been generalized: interoperability, nonlinearity and instability. The principles of designing such complexes in the agroindustrial complex and the dialectics of mutual reinforcement of the technologies combined into a complex have been outlined. The necessity of the industrialization of agricultural technologies as the dialectical inevitability of the creation of industrial agrocomplexes that implement a new stage of the innovative revolution in the agroindustrial complex has been proved. The main provisions of the paradigm for the development of agro-industrial complex technologies have been formulated. A conclusion has been made about the first steps in the implementation of the engineering of complex technological systems in research organizations and universities.
Expanding the scope of margarine products requires the search for new technological solutions when creating stable food emulsions for various specified purposes: hard, soft and liquid margarines with various fat content for bakery, for use in confectionery production, for frying in public catering networks and as spreads for direct consumption. The article systematizes the materials on the surfactants used in the technology of food emulsion products, in particular, margarines and spreads. The analysis of emulsifiers and their mixtures used in manufacturing emulsion products with various fat content has been carried out. The results of the studies of the composition and effect of individual and complex emulsifiers on the properties of the direct and reverse type of the obtained emulsions have been summarized. The article considers the theoretical issues and practical aspects of creation of food emulsion products with the use of various emulsifiers. A step-by-step system for choosing the optimal mixture of emulsifiers for a particular product based on the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of surfactants has been provided. A number of examples of complex emulsifiers for emulsion products for various specified purposes have been presented. It has been shown that a change in the amount and type of an emulsifier makes it possible to produce various emulsions with the required structural and rheological characteristics and with the specified composition and properties. The aspects of manufacturing margarine products with various fat content have been presented.
EFFECTS OF IN-PACKAGE PASTEURIZATION ON PREVENTING SPOILAGE IN EMULSION VACUUM PACKAGED SAUSAGES DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominate the spoilage populations of vacuum-packaged emulsion-type sausages and other processed meats stored at refrigeration temperatures. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two in-package pasteurization treatments to prevent microbial spoilage in emulsion vacuum packaged sausages during refrigerated storage. D-values at 60 and 68°C for two isolated dominant LAB ( Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum ) were determined in vitro and thermal treatments aimed to achieve a 4 log reduction in LAB. Sixty three sausage packs were divided into 3 groups: untreated packs (Control), treated at 60°C for 120 s (PAST 1) and treated at 68°C for 12 s (PAST 2). Microbial composition, pH values and sensorial changes were monitored in two-week intervals. In-package pasteurization resulted in an immediate 3.5-4.2 log CFU/g reduction in the population of LAB in PAST 1 and PAST 2 and remained at an acceptable level to the end of the experiment. On the contrary, during 84 days of cold storage, the LAB count increased significantly in the control samples and reached 9 log CFU/g. The control samples were also considered as unacceptable spoiled products after 28 days by sensorial aspects. All the pasteurized treatments also resulted resulted a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of psychrotrophic and the total mesophilic bacteria compared to the control ones. The data obtained showed that in both pasteurized groups none of the sensorial parameters were rated higher than the consumer-rejection threshold within 84 days of the study. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed in the number of spores, yeasts and molds between the pasteurized and control samples. It has been concluded that in-package pasteurization is an effective method without undesirable effects to prevent the spoilage caused by LAB growth and extend the emulsion vacuum packaged sausages shelf life to more than 3 months.
Oats, both separately and as part of other dishes, refer to that healthy food that is regularly consumed by the broad masses of the population of various countries. Oats are a grain crop with a high level of nutrients, such as proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. The oat grain from other cereals is distinguished by a high protein content and the unique composition of essential amino acids. The high content of β-glucan-soluble fiber allows us to consider oats as part of the complex therapy and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. There are more than 70 types of oats in the world, one of the most cultivated is Avena sativa L . The objects of the study were the samples of oat grains of the Drug [Friend], Adamo and Rysak [Trotter] varieties grown on the territory of the Russian Federation (the crop of 2017). The results of the study of the chemical composition and nutritional value of the samples of oat grains of these varieties have been provided. In the samples of the studied oat grain varieties, the content of proteins, carbohydrates and fats is not inferior to other varieties. The record content of protein, among the samples studied, is noted in the samples of oat grains of the Rysak variety, the minimum content - in the samples of oat grains of the Drug variety. The oat grains of the Adamo variety are characterized by a high content of carbohydrates, their mass fraction in this variety is 76.40%. The protein concentrate of oats grains of the Rysak variety was obtained using two methods: alkaline and acid extraction. The highest efficiency was observed in the alkaline extraction in the presence of an extracting agent - 1 M of the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The protein yield was 75.53% at a temperature of 40 ± 2°C, an irrigation module of 1 : 10, an active acidity of pH equal to 11.5 and a processing time of 120 ± 2 min.
Due to natural resources scarcity, farm animal blood processing to make functional food products is current task. The most promising direction is the isolation of iron-containing components from blood to obtain food products for the prevention of iron deficiency. Having analyzed disadvantages of existing techniques, we decided to use easily digestible heme iron and amino-peptide complexes obtained after the hydrolysis of red blood cells as an anti-anemic base. The scientific novelty of the research work consists in using the dried hydrolysate of packed red blood cells in developing a confection intended for the prevention of iron deficiency. Common methods were used in the investigation. Analysis of physicochemical, microbiological, and toxicological properties of the dried hydrolysate of red blood cells has been performed. Also, work on formulations of a confection, namely, sherbet-type bar containing the dried hydrolysate of red blood cells as an anti-anemic component has been carried out. In order to understand an effect of ingredients and develop the optimal processing technique, rheological properties of final bar have been studied. According to the results of the research, the dried hydrolysate of red blood cells conforms to safety requirements of SanPiN 18.104.22.1688-01. Two optimal formulations of the sherbet-type bar with anti-anemic agent based on farm animal blood have been chosen. It has been proved that such toxic elements as lead, cadmium, zinc, copper, arsenic, and mercuric, as well as pathogenic organisms are absent or within normal range.
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SEX AND TYPE OF MUSCLES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY DEFECTS IN TURKEY MEAT AFTER THE SLAUGHTER
The defects in the quality of the processed meat lead to economic losses of enterprises. With an increase in the share of meat of the turkey sent to the production of meat products, the study of its technological properties becomes an urgent problem. Until now, data on the amount of domestic turkey meat with quality defects have not been collected. In this regard, the pH and microstructure of turkey meat were studied during maturation, which showed that the raw materials that goes through processing had significant quality deviations, which were based on some intravital factors. Thus, the carcasses of turkey cocks with pH20 below 5.6; from 5.6 to 5.9; above 5.9 were, respectively, 26%, 47% and 26% of their total. The carcasses of turkey hens were only divided into two groups: the carcasses with pH20 below 5.6-80%; from 5.6 to 5.9 - only 20%. The histological studies made it possible to describe in detail the nature of autolytic changes in the microstructure of the muscular tissue of pectoral and femoral muscles and confirmed the effect of poultry stress on the formation of technological properties of meat during maturation. The meat of turkey hens, especially pectoral muscles, was most susceptible to the development of quality defects. The presence of overcontraction knots and bands testified to the severity. The study showed that the problem of defects in the quality of turkey meat requires an increase in the responsible attitude towards the compliance with the technologies of poultry pre-slaughtering.
Manufacturers are faced with the task of creating new types of functional marmalades enriched with useful ingredients. The studies were carried out at the department of technology of bakery, confectionary, macaroni and grain processing industries of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technology. The formulation of "Jelly-fruit" marmalade was taken as control. A part of apple puree (the substance content is 15%) was replaced with juice from seabuckthorn berries (the substance content is 12%) and concentrated apple juice (the substance content is 80%) in terms of solids. The effect of various ratios of apple puree, concentrated apple juice and juice from sea-buckthorn berries on the process of gelation of jelly masses based on pectin and agar using the experimental-statistical approach has been studied. The values of plastic strength were chosen as the output parameters that characterize the properties of jelly mass. The experiments were carried out using the Sheffe's simplex-centroid plan. The use of the simplex optimization method allowed to determine the optimum values of the mass fraction of the introduced formulation components that provide the preparation of jelly masses with the maximum plastic strength of 31 kPa if based on agar, and 33.23 kPa if based on pectin. The organoleptic and physicochemical indicators of product quality have been determined. The content of antioxidant activity in marmalade has been determined experimentally. The nutritional and energy value of new products and the degree of meeting daily needs have been calculated. The products can be recommended for dietary and diabetic nutrition, as they do not contain sugar and molasses, as well as for all who look after their health.
The modern food market forms a need for two trends for the development, production and sale of products: taking into account the demand of consumers and taking into account lack of irreplaceable (functional) micronutrients in the diet of different population groups. It is advisable to develop technical and technological solutions for innovative ideas at a higher institution, which are tested in business incubators (small innovative enterprises) with the interaction of scientists and production workers. The study objects included: the carrots of different varieties of the crop of 2015-2017 grown in the climatic conditions of the Kemerovo region; the syrup based on Lesovichok plant raw materials; pectolytic, amylolytic and cytolytic enzymatic preparations. Modern research methods have been used in the study. The antioxidant activity was determined using the coulometric method; the content of dry soluble substances - using the refractometric method; the size of carrot particles in the semi-finished products and the finished product - by means of microscopy using a CT-2200 electron microscope; the strength characteristics of raw materials - using Structurometer St-1. As a result of the studies, a product with a high antioxidant activity - carrot nectar developed using hybrid technologies - has been obtained. On the basis of the results of the study of the structural and mechanical properties of carrots, two-stage grinding has been proposed with the subsequent biotechnological processing of raw materials (semi-finished products), which provides specified consumer properties. The high antioxidant activity of the developed nectar has been experimentally confirmed.
Marshmallow is a special kind of chewing souffle, prepared on the basis of sugar and gelatin, belongs to popular confectionery products. The study aims at developing a marshmallow technology with the replacement of gelatin (taking into account religious and ethnic restrictions in human nutrition) with various non-starch polysaccharides. Taking into account the data on the synergism of polysaccharides, some pairs of non-starch polysaccharides (xanthan gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) with the total concentration of 1-2%, based on which eight marshmallow samples had been produced, were experimentally selected. The organoleptic quality of these samples was estimated using the subjective estimation of shape retention, elasticity, and an increase in volume. The marshmallow texture indicators were analyzed using a tool-software complex "TA.XT plus Texture Analyzer". The shelf life was estimated by measuring the moisture content and water activity using a water activity analyzer "HygroPalmAw" (Rotronic, Switzerland), which is equipped with a dielectric moisture sensor. The study of the moisture content and water activity of eight selected samples with different concentrations of xanthan gum and vegetable gums allows to refer the corresponding samples to a class of products with a mid moisture content. Based on the study, the organoleptically acceptable and economically viable marshmallow samples were selected, each of which successfully reproduces the main attributes of the well-proven and widely consumed traditional marshmallow.
Insufficiently studied and at the same time promising is the use of an acidophilic starter for making the bakery products designated as military personnel's food. An acidophilic sourdough starter is a mixture of the species and strains of yeast and lactic acid bacteria grown on the basis of saccharified pregelatinized flour and specially selected in certain proportions. The study aims at obtaining a dehydrated biopreparation of fermented pregelatinized flour for bakery production using the strain Lactobacillus helveticus H10 (dry fermented pregelatinized flour) and its application in the technologies of bakery products made from rye and a mixture of rye and wheat flour. The composition of the nutrient mixture for dry fermented pregelatinized flour has been optimized in terms of rheological, biotechnological and microbiological indicators. It has been found that fermented pregelatinized flour with a 50% content of a starter has the least viscous structure, which allows us to dry the sample faster and to preserve lactic acid bacteria. It has been found that the sample prepared using rye wholemeal flour was characterized by a higher content of amine nitrogen (by 15%), volatile acids (by 29%) and mass fraction of sugar (by 27%) compared to the sample of fermented pregelatinized flour made using rye bread flour. It has been revealed that microorganisms are destroyed least during convective drying. The main technological parameters for making dry fermented pregelatinized flour that provide stable biotechnological and microbiological properties have been developed: a drying temperature of 40-45°C for 170-200 min with an air flow rate of 1.5-1.8 m/s above, 0.3-0.5 m/s below, 0.8 m/s on the right and 0.1-0.15 m/s on the left. A complex technology of long-life rye-wheat bakery products has been developed.
Fortification with iron, zinc and vitamin A of Vietnamese tamarind fish sauce has been studied. The Vietnamese tamarind fish sauce formula consisted of 42% of slurry, 37% of sugar and 21% of fish sauce, and was fortified with 36 mg of iron (Fe), 15 mg of zinc (Zn) and 10000 IU of vitamin A palmitate per 30 g of sauce. The sauce is acidic food with pH of 3.21, the total titratable acidity of 29.63% and the water activity of 0.87. The viscosity of fortified sauce was 777 cP and it was characterized by non-Newtonian behavior. The color coordinates L*, a* and b* were 20.71, 11.46 and 23.42, respectively, which was lower than those of traditional sauce. After pasteurization, the iron, zinc and vitamin A contents were reduced to 30.73 mg, 14.21 mg and 7306 IU per 30 g, respectively, while otherwise the physical and chemical quality did not significantly change. The sensory scores of the pasteurized and fortified sauce were slightly lower than that of the sauce before pasteurization or of traditional sauce, but without a significant difference.
The increase in the shelf life of perishable food products is one of the priority trends in the development of the food and processing industry. A study has been carried out of the effect of various doses of ionizing radiation on the safety of refrigerated semi-finished pork products packed in the modified atmosphere. The meat samples were processed singly by ionization at different doses - 8 kGy and 12 kGy with the help of a linear electron accelerator of a UELR-10-10S2 type with power of up to 10 MeV. The refrigerated pork neck on the bone, packed using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and processed by ionization at doses of 8 kGy and 12 kGy, meets the requirements of the technical regulations of the Customs Union "On Food Safety" (TR TS 021/2011) and "On safety of meat and meat products" (TR TS 034/2013) for the entire storage period. The irradiation dose of 12 kGy leads to a slight color change, an increase in the acid and peroxide numbers and volatile fatty acids, but within the limits of the norm; a slight decrease in the moisture content with a high degree of correlation of the studied indicators. The indicators of microbiological safety of the meat semi-finished products processed by different irradiation doses are within the normal range. It has been established that the higher the irradiation dose, the lower the values of microbiological indicators. The organoleptic indicators are confirmed by histological studies. The radiation processing of meat semi-finished products allows us to prolong the shelf life of the meat semi-finished products packed using MAP more than 3 times. Based on the results of the studies, it is possible to recommend the processing of meat semi-finished products by ionization at a dose of 8 kGy to increase their shelf life.
At present, there are a number of high-tech trends in the development of food raw materials in the world market, the future nutritional value and composition of which can be laid even at the stage of breeding a variety, as a result of production of which the raw materials will be obtained containing the specified components - vitamins, minerals and biologically active compounds. It is possible to refer to such kinds of food raw materials common wheat of a purple color which has a high content of anthocyanins. Despite the antioxidant capacity and the related health benefits, the studies on the use of raw materials with a high level of anthocyanins as an ingredient for food products are extremely rare. This article presents the results of the use of food products of new forms of cereals in production, namely, the isogenic wheat lines specially created for comparative studies at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB RAS with the help of molecular genetic methods, which only differ in a small segment of the genome containing the regulatory anthocyanin biosynthesis gene Pp3/TaMyc1. Flour and wheat bran with anthocyanins (PG) and the control (RG) group were used for the production of flour confectionery products in order to obtain products with a high level of anthocyanins beneficial for human health. The share of anthocyanins in the products obtained from PG wheat was 2.5-2.6 times higher than in the similar products obtained on the basis of the control line. The revealed differences between PG and RG in the end-use products testify to the resistance of anthocyanins to technological processing. It has been estimated that when eating 100 grams of biscuit made from flour with the addition of bran of purple wheat grain, the consumption of anthocyanins will be up to 0.83 mg. Thus, a high content of anthocyanins in PG allows to produce the enriched confectionery products with a high nutritional value.
Cedar pine ( Pinus sibirica ) nuts are an environmentally friendly natural product that contains a unique set of useful biologically active substances. Due to its composition, pine nuts and their derivative products are widely used in a comprehensive therapy and prevention program for a lot of diseases. The objects of the study were cedar oil and oil emulsions (the cedar oil concentration was 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%). The antimicrobial properties were determined using the diffusion method and by measuring the optical density. The prebiotic properties were estimated according to the ability to stimulate the bifidobacteria growth. The antioxidant activity was determined using the fluorescent ORAC method. The antihypertensive activity was estimated according to the ability to inhibit the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme. All the studied experimental oil emulsion samples, regardless of a pressing method (cold or heat), showed high antimicrobial characteristics without suppressing only Candida albicans EMTC 34 and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 63 from the studied 10 strains of the main testing cultures. The prebiotic properties of the emulsions obtained with the addition of cedar oil have been determined. The number of cells of the bifidobacteria cultivated in nutrient media with the addition of cedar oil (with the concentration from 5.0%) is almost 3 times as large as the amount when cultivated without it. Antioxidant cedar oil properties have been revealed. The hypotensive characteristics of cedar oil can be observed even at a concentration of 5.0%, the percentage of inhibition of the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme is up to 69%. With an increase in the concentration of cedar oil to 10.0% inhibition increases to 70%. The carried out studies of the functional properties of experimental cedar oil samples have confirmed its high quality and an opportunity to use it as the basis of biologically active food supplements and dietary, medical-preventive and sports nutrition.
STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS AND MAYONNAISE USING DNA BARCODING AND METABARCODING
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms cause spoilage of produced dairy and fat-and-oil products. In addition, these products can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The standard practice of detecting bacterial pathogens is based on the cultivation of microorganisms due to which the analysis lasts from 5 to 7 days. Molecular genetic methods can reduce the analysis time to 1-2 days. In this paper, the ready-made commercial products of the dairy and fat-and-oil industry have been analyzed for the microbiological composition using classical DNA barcoding and DNA metabarcoding. During the study, representatives of the genera Pseudomonas , Bacillus , Lactococcus , Kocuria , Staphylococcus , Moraxella , Paucisalibacillus, Acinetobacter , Klebsiella , Paenibacillus , Lysinibacillus , Enterobacter, Acetobacter and Massilia have been defined . When analyzing the quantitative ratio of microorganisms, it was revealed that dairy and fat-and-oil products are most often seeded with Bacillus sp., among which Bacillus licheniformis (16.67% of colonies) and Bacillus subtilis (11.4% of colonies) can be distinguished . Among Pseudomonas sp. , Pseudomonas fluorescens (19.3% of colonies) are the most numerous . Lactococcus lactis , Acetobacter indonesiensis and Moraxella osloensis bacteria also significantly contaminate dairy and fat-and-oil products . Mayonnaise is contaminated with yeast of the Pichia genus. The analysis revealed opportunistic pathogenic species: Staphylococcus warneri , Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia , Bacillus cereus, Vibrio sp . The presented method for detecting microbial contamination using an Ion torrent PGM platform seems promising for the rapid testing of the produced dairy and fat-and-oil products.
TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MILK OF COWS WITH DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF KAPPA-CASEIN AND BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN
The presence of the desirable alleles and genotypes of casein and whey protein genes in the genome of cows affects the milk protein content, quality and technological properties of their milk. Two important properties of milk its producibility is judged on are cheeseability and heat resistance. The present studies aimed at estimating the technological properties of milk of black-motley × Holstein and Kholmogorskaya breeds cows of the Tatarstan type with different kappa-casein ( CSN3 ) and beta-lactoglobulin ( BLG ) genotypes. The study was carried out using a sampling of the first-calf cows of 5 cattle-breeding farms of the Republic of Tatarstan. In animals, the CSN3 and BLG genotypes have been determined by a PCR-RFLP analysis. The cheeseability, heat resistance and thermostability of milk have been estimated using standard methods. The studies have established that the CSN3 and BLG genotypes of cows affected the condition of a casein clot and duration of milk clotting time. The best cheese-making properties of milk were inherent in the animals with the BB and AB genotypes of the CSN3 and BLG genes. They were superior to the coevals with the AA genotype in terms of the highest yield of the desired dense casein clot and the shortest duration of milk clotting time. The first-calf cows, which are the carriers of an A allele of the CSN3 gene, were superior to the animals with the BB genotype of the CSN3 gene on the thermostability of milk including that on the proportion of animals with this milk characteristic. The BLG genotype of the studied animals did not significantly affect the thermostability of milk. Moreover, the highest thermostability of milk was characteristic of black-motley × Holstein cows with the AA genotype.
INCREASE IN THE EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF PROCESSING LINES BASED ON THE SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF SPECIFIC OPERATIONS
To develop processing lines, it is necessary to calculate the level of integrity of technological systems and determine the stability of subsystems at a certain level of stability. The complex analysis allows us to study a change in the entropy of the system (the growth of system stability) by describing the mechanism of structural information accumulation. Identifying the ranges of variation of adjustable operating parameters using the proposed approach for energy and resource saving and predicting the stability of the line at the design stage, reducing the subjectivity of estimation of technologies and their hardware design, is original and, in this regard, relevant. The studies were conducted to justify the estimation of the stability of the technological flow as a system and its subsystems in their interconnection at a certain level of stability using the method for estimating fuzzy entropy on the basis of analysis of material and technical flows. The study objects are the integrity of technological and technical systems, the stability of processes, operations and equipment operation. As a result of the analysis of technological flows and a change in the entropy of the technical system, the mechanism of accumulation of structural information entropy has been studied. The carried out analytical and experimental studies have confirmed the possibility of predicting the stability of the operation of technical and technological systems, as well as the expediency of determining the ranges of variation in the parameters of operation of the lines, technological limits and the quality indicators of the finished and semi-finished products. Thus, this method is recommended for use in the food industry.
As a result of the analysis of the technological system for the production of dry granulated food concentrates, it has been revealed that the key contradictions in the formation of product quality arise in the subsystem of concentration of an extract and whey mixture. In the present paper on the improvement of the technology of instant granular products, including those on the basis of a chokeberry extract and milk whey, the process of concentration of their mixture has been studied, and the quality of the instant granular breakfast prepared using a concentrate has been estimated. To solve technical contradictions, studies were carried out using an example of the chokeberry extract, obtained both from the dried and frozen raw materials subjected to grinding in a mixture with curd whey. The combined concentration of whey and the extract made it possible to avoid the foaming characteristic of whey concentration, and also to exclude the process of mixing high viscosity masses from the technological flow, and the replacement of the processes of "drying and grinding" with "freezing and grinding" made it possible, first, to intensify the process and, second, to ensure a more complete extraction of BAS. A mathematical model of the process has been created, the regimes and parameters of concentration have been developed in a rotary-film evaporator operating under vacuum; the regulated indicators of nutritional value, the terms and modes of storage have been determined.
The modern trends in the field of food quality management place emphasis on ensuring the traceability and systemic control of the parameters of the life cycle of products. ISO 9000 international standards recommend a process approach for these purposes. Since the standards do not give direct recommendations on the procedure for estimating the effectiveness of the quality management system (QMS), the development of approaches is an extremely urgent task for developers and has a wide application value. The given paper proposes a mathematical model for the complex estimation of the effectiveness of the QMS of a food enterprise. At the first stage, IDEF0 functional modeling methods were used to identify the processes of the life cycle of food products. Then, using the qualimetric approach, 27 unique indices were generated and coefficients were determined for each of them using Fishburn's weight coefficients. To derive a mathematical model for the complex estimation of the effectiveness of QMS processes of a food enterprise, all data were summarized from four levels of the hierarchy. The proposed mathematical model includes the quantitative and qualitative estimation of enterprise processes. The estimation indicators form a treelike hierarchy in which the factors of each sublevel have their own weight coefficients and are in preference or indifference relation to each other. The application of a mathematical model for the complex estimation of the effectiveness of QMS of a food or processing enterprise allows full compliance with the requirements of international standards, but does not require significant financial costs for implementation.
PROFILE OF SUGARS IN A GRAPE-WINE SYSTEM AS THE IDENTIFYING INDICATOR OF THE AUTHENTICITY OF WINE PRODUCTS
The current problem of winemaking is the confirmation of a method for producing table and liqueur wines to protect the economic interests of producers and protect the health of consumers. It is possible to determine the nature of the sugars contained in wine on the basis of regularities in the dynamics of the glucose-fructose index (GFI) and the proportion of disaccharides in the total sugar content in the process chain "raw materials - finished products". The study objects included: the grapes grown on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, European, autochthonous technical varieties, as well as the varieties of a new selection; domestic and foreign wine materials and wines; model samples and wine falsifications. The content of disaccharides in terms of sucrose, glycerol, glucose and fructose was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. As a result of the studies of the wines obtained by arrested fermentation, there are some trends in the reduction of GFI with a decrease in the level of endogenous sugars: for the wines with a sugar content of 230-270 g/l, the range of GFI is 0.75-0.94, with a mass concentration of sugars of 10-20 g/l - 0.05-0.14. In the case of a sugar concentration in wine of more than 120 g/l, it is necessary to study a sample for the glycerol content as a marker of fermentation depth in order to increase the reliability of conclusion. The values of the indicators characteristic of high- sugar grapes are typical for the wines obtained by sweetening with a grape must concentrate: GFI - not more than 1.0, the proportion of disaccharides is not more than 1.2%; falsifications are characterized by the profile of sugars atypical for grape products: GFI is higher than 1.02, the share of disaccharides is more than 2%.
IDENTIFICATION OF TISSUE-SPECIFIC PROTEINS AND PEPTIDES FORMING INNOVATIVE MEAT PRODUCTS CORRECTIVE PROPERTIES TO CONFIRM AUTHENTICITY OF MEAT RAW MATERIALS
Proteomic methods and approaches to the detection of tissue-specific and tissue-generating proteins and peptides – which form corrective properties – in studied meat samples and specially developed meat products were successfully tried out in 2016–2017. The methods allow one to confirm protein and peptide authenticity and also detect bio-markers of proteolytic changes in meat after slaughter. The following proteomic techniques were used in the present research: two-dimensional O’Farrell electrophoresis with isoelectrofocusing in ampholin and immobilin pH gradients, the detection of proteins on two-dimensional electrophoregrams by staining with Coomassie R-250 and silver nitrate, and mass spectrometric identification of proteins by means of MALDI-TOF and MS/MS methods. Contractile actomyosin complex proteins, such as myosin light chains and tropomyosins, were the most informative among proteins of species specificity. It is also necessary to mention that earlier experiments allowed us to choose enzymes which play a part in carbohydrate metabolism (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-enolase) as markers. In addition to the listed proteins, myoglobins, actins, and several other proteins in horse meat have showed high species specificity and have been detected well. A system of species specificity (authenticity) of meat raw materials was suggested. The system allows the presence of pork, beef, horse, and camel meat to be detected in both raw and heat-treated products if the content is 5% and more. The data has been obtained by means of bioinformatics, a highly useful tool for formulating an algorithm to identify the protein markers for the Atlas “Proteomic profiles of farm animals meat proteins”. “Proteomic profiles of farm animals muscle proteins”.
Honey has always been seen as the main source of healthy natural food and folk medicines. It has been prized due to bioactive components that are responsible for different therapeutic effects. Phenolic compounds are one the parts of these components. It is claimed that these have been antioxidant agents. But it also has to be evaluated by different perspectives in biomechanics except antioxidative effects. A variety of diseases may be treated by the inhibition of some individual enzymes. A pharmaceutical drug and synthetic agents are used to treat and avert illness even though there is a potential risk named drug resistance. Nowadays, the most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of natural foods. The study aims at investigating hyaluronidase (HYA), xanthine oxidase (XOD) and the urease enzyme inhibition of some chestnut honeys from different locations of Giresun and Ordu in Turkey. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the prepared chestnut honey extracts were investigated by using different methods. The total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), FRAP, CUPRAC assays and DPPH, and ABTS inhibition potential were carried out using in vitro models. The enzyme IC50 values in the samples ranged from 0.793 to 12.639 mg/ml for HYA; from 0.029 to 0.106 g/ml for XO; from 0.002 to 0.054 g/ml for urease, respectively. In conclusion, honey extracts exhibited good potentials towards the inhibition of activities of the studied enzymes, and the samples also suggest a practical value for surveying natural inhibitors for specific clinical purposes. Moreover, all results can provide a basis of future studies on the alternative medicinal application related to honey.
In the production crystallization of glucose, there are special problems at the nucleation stage, which requires seed crystals. The need for them reaches 10–15% of the weight of the solution, reducing the productivity of equipment. In this paper, the results of the studies on the identification and creation of effective seed crystals for the nucleation of anhydrous glucose in the presence of surface active agents (SAA) have been described. The nucleation process was controlled according to a change in the transparency of solutions and microscopy. The following have been tested as seeds: small (< 60 microns) commercial anhydrous glucose crystals and the same crystals wet with propanol; large (> 200 μm) and small (< 60 μm) hydrate glucose crystals wet with propanol. The large and small hydrate glucose crystals preliminarily wet with propanol or another aliphatic alcohol is recognized as the best of the tested seeds. When these crystals were mixed with a supersaturated glucose solution at a temperature of 60°C, they rapidly (within 15–30 min) disintegrated into a lot of uniform tiny particles with a size of 1–5 μm, became crystallization centers and began to grow rapidly in the form of anhydrous glucose. A similar phenomenon was also observed when nucleating with the hydrate crystals wet with propanol and at a temperature below 50°C. Based on the tests, new types of seed crystals and a method for preparing thereof in the form of alcohol suspensions of ground anhydrous glucose crystals and crystals of any sizes of hydrate glucose have been proposed.
EFFECT OF PRIORITY DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF BEVERAGES DURING THEIR PRODUCTION AND STORAGE
Currently, water from the centralized domestic drinking water supply system is mainly used to make non- alcoholic carbonated beverages and nectars. The classical technology does not always provide the purification of water from organic compounds. In addition, during water preparation, at the primary chlorination stage, chlorine-containing organic compounds (chloroform, dichloroethane, trichlorethylene, etc.) are formed due to the interaction of chlorine with natural organic substances. The by-products of natural water treatment by chloragents, in addition to the toxic and carcinogenic effects, can interact with the main components of products reducing their quality. Such water cannot be used for drinking purposes and in food production without the additional post-treatment. The results of the study of the effect of organic impurities present in water (chloroform, trichlorethylene and dichloroethane) on the stability of the components of non-alcoholic carbonated beverages (sodium benzoate, sucrose, citric acid, natural and synthetic dyes and vanillin) and nectars (color stability, vitamins A, C, group B) have been provided. The studies were carried out in the Kemerovo region using gas-liquid chromatography, molecular absorption spectroscopy, refractometry and capillary electrophoresis. The concentration of the main components of non-alcoholic carbonated beverages, nectars and priority contaminants (trichlorethylene and dichloroethane) has been reduced. It has been shown that chloroform does not come into chemical interaction with the components of beverages. The mechanism of interaction of sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate, vanillin, vitamins in non-alcoholic carbonated beverages and nectars with trichlorethylene and dichloroethane has been theoretically justified. It has been established that dichloroethane and trichlorethylene have a significant effect on the resistance of the main components of non-alcoholic carbonated beverages, with the exception of dyes, and also on the intensity of color and the preservation of vitamins of nectars, reducing the quality characteristics of beverages during production and storage.