Volume 1, Issue 1, 2013
Rubrics: FOOD PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
The results of a study of the chemical composition and functional properties of the plant raw material in the form of wheat germ flakes (WGFs) with a view to combining it with a meat feedstock are represented. WGFs subjected to preliminary heat treatment in various modes (toasted) are studied. It is found that water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins of WGFs exhibit high solubility, which achieves maximum values of 45 ± 2% at a pH of 7.08.0 and a sodium chloride concentration of 2.0%. The functional properties of WGFs and dependences of the functional and technological properties of combined ground meat systems prepared of meat feedstocks of different types and nature of autolysis are determined. A preliminary heat treatment of WGFs does not decrease their functional properties, which are particularly shown in feedstock with anomalies in the development of autolysis, and contributes to a decrease in the oxidative transformation of lipids. In combined ground meat systems, toasted WGFs should be used in conjunction with 0.3% of a Delikaroma smoking flavor; this inhibits the oxidation of the lipid fraction of both raw and heat-treated ground meat systems.
A model of additional stabilization for the milk colloid system by means of the micelle electric charge arising owing to dissociation of micellar calcium caseinate is offered. The model allows comprehending the unique role of calcium in milk clotting and describing some features of coagulation temperature dependence, as well as explaining the nature of rennet, acid, heat-acid and heat-calcium coagulation within uniform concepts.
The role of fats in developing the structure of dough and baked bread goods and pastries is considered. Criteria of choosing fatty materials by their nutritional value and physical state for obtaining safe and quality products are presented. A method of producing pastries with liquid vegetable oils and natural biopolymer-based stabilizing food additives is proposed.
Method of Obtaining Microparticulated Casein and the Possibility of Its Application in the Production of Nonfat Fermented Milk Products
Reducing the calorie content of everyday food, including dairy beverages, is among the key recommendations of present-day dietitians. However, fat reduction worsens the organoleptically evaluated texture and flavor score of food. The organoleptic correction of nonfat products using fat simulants often needs additional financial inputs. Furthermore, fat simulants added to the product can be hazardous to human health. Taking into consideration these facts, we have developed a casein microparticulation technology and have investigated the possibility of employing microparticulated casein in the production of nonfat fermented dairy beverages. Unlike the existing milk protein microparticulation technologies, the technology presented here uses casein in place of whey protein, which is difficult to produce and, as a consequence, expensive. A casein coagulation method has been devised, and the optimal processing parameters have been determined. A technology for producing nonfat lapper milk from skim milk has been developed. The new product has the same texture and flavor as its analogue containing 3.2 wt % fat.
In the work, activated cultures of propionic acid bacteria were found to exhibit high antimutagenic activity and adhesion properties, synthesize considerable amount of corrinoids and heme-containing enzymes. Increase of iron concentration in the medium was shown to intensify synthesis of extracellular metabolites promoting adaptation of the culture to the metal. Optimal technological parameters for isolation of casein phosphopeptides were determined. Ability of phosphopeptides to efficiently solubilize divalent iron was confirmed. Relationship between iron concentration and extent of solubilization was established. Iron chelated with casein phosphopeptides was noted to stay in divalent form for prolonged period.
With significant stocks and catches of cephalopod mollusks in the Far Eastern seas, their small output as canned goods is due to a low yield of the finished product. Research was conducted on the rational use of frozen raw cephalopod mollusks in the production of sterilized canned goods. New technological approaches to canning cephalopod mollusks that ensure canning profitability and replenish the consumer market of functional seafood are justified. It was established that the exclusion of the skinning of cephalopod mollusks from the canning technology could significantly increase the output and reduce the cost of the finished product. Oil extracts of spices used in the canning of cephalopod mollusks improve their quality by reducing the thermal effects on food during sterilization and the degree of thermal damage to nutrients.
Rubrics: FOOD PRODUCTION PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT
The pal gene coding for L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of Rhodosporidium toruloides (GenBank entry no. X12702.1) with optimized sequence was cloned into an expressing vector pET28a. Three parameters of expression (inductor type, duration, and temperature of induction) were optimized, which resulted in a strain producing recombinant L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase with the maximal productivity, that is, 35 ± 1% to total cell protein, upon utilization of 0.2% lactose (according to Studier) induction during 18 h at 37°C. The recombinant L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was found to be insoluble by 99%. Solubility of the protein did not improve upon utilization of 1 mM IPTG as an inductor instead of 0.2% lactose, or upon bacterium cultivation at various temperatures, that is 25°C and 37°C.
Development of Mathematical Models of Centrifugal Mixing Units of New Design for the Production of Dry Combined Food Units of New Design for the Production of Dry Combined Food Products
A method of modeling the continuous process of the mixing of bulk materials on the basis of cybernetic analysis with some elements of automatic control theory (ACT) [6, 9] has been considered. In this case, a mixing unit (MU) is represented in the form of a dynamic system, which is characterized by the known topology of the motion of material flows and subjected to various external disturbances. The two developed mathematical models allow us to determine the degree of the smoothening of input material flow fluctuations from volumetric dosers by the mixers incorporated into a MU. The obtained numerical values of smoothability indicate that it is reasonable to equip the studied mixers of new design with volumetric dosers. This allows us to meet the requirements to MUs from both the engineering and economical viewpoints.
Current technological aspects of lactose crystallization are considered. A promising lactose crystallization method involving simulation seed crystals is reported. Advanced engineering solutions for continuous crystallization using spraying in vacuo and scraped-surface heat exchangers are presented.
Intensification of Ultrafiltration Concentrating by the Separation of the Concentration Boundary Layer
The possibility of intensifying the ultrafiltration concentrating of food substance solutions by the separation of the near-membrane flow part that comprises the concentration boundary layer (or diffusion layer) enriched by a useful component has been investigated in this study. A mathematical model of the longitudinal development of polarization on a membrane with consideration of its selectivity (rejection coefficient) has been proposed. The efficiency of the separation of the near-membrane layer has theoretically been estimated on the basis of this model. Some constructions of membrane modules with the separation of the near-membrane layer have been proposed. Experiments have shown that the proposed method allows the concentrate to be enriched in the continuous-flow module by 9‒10%, which is much higher than for the traditional concentrating process. The calculated concentration coefficients are in good agreement with experimental values.
Rubrics: FOOD HYGIENE
The possibility of the use of the native and enzyme modified shrimp biomass (Pandalus borealis) for the development of functional foods that compensate for the lack of protein in people engaged in various sports (cyclic, speed-strength, competitive, complex coordination, technically complex, and combat sports) is scientifically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. For the first time, the technology is developed for the production of combined high-protein structured food systems (pate) using the native and enzyme modified shrimp biomass. Organoleptic, physico-chemical, and microbiological indicators of quality of high-protein structured food systems (pate) have been analyzed. In order to prove the biological effect and activity, amino acid and fatty acid comparative compositions of the native and enzyme modified shrimp biomass for the development of functional sport food products have been investigated. For the first time, fatty acid compositions of pate with and without the addition of an ant ioxidant have been examined. The storability of these products has been analyzed. The purpose of the paper is the development of the technology for the production of combined high-protein structured food systems (pate) using the native and enzyme modified shrimp biomass and the comparative analysis of their biological value.
In this paper the results of the study of the structure and properties of arabinogalactan extracted from Dahurian larch as well as its influence on the formation of fermented milk products are presented. The optimum application rate of arabinogalactan in a composite mixture is determined. The choice of the starter culture for the production of a functional fermented milk product is justified.
Rubrics: STANDARDIZATION, CERTIFICATION, QUALITY AND SAFETY
This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of organic impurities contained in water (phenol, chlorophenol, chloroform, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde) on the stability of nectar components: sucrose, citric acid, vitamins A and C, and B group vitamins. A reduction in the concentrations of the main components of nectars and priority contaminants, except for chloroform, has been established. The mechanism of interaction of sucrose, citric acid, and vitamins contained in nectars with phenol, chlorophenol, chloroform, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde has been substantiated theoretically.
Identification of the Origin of Sea Buckthorn Oil of the Altai Krai by Differential Scanning Calorinetry
The composition of lipids derived by extraction with Freon 22 and enzymatic hydrolysis from berries, berry shells, and seeds of the Chuy sea buckthorn cultivar has been studied. The fatty acid composition and acid and peroxide values of the samples have been analyzed; the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting curves have been examined. The DSC method has been found to be appropriate for determining the origin of raw materials and the production method for sea buckthorn oil.
Rubrics: AUTOMATION AND INFORMATIONAL SUPPORT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
A Methodology for Implementing a Current Cost Management System at Processing Companies of the Distilling Industry: The Case of the Mariinsk Distilling Plant
Methods of controlling current costs in the processing industry are discussed. A description is given of cost and profit management techniques based on the concept of financial responsibility centers. An algorithm is provided to consistently develop financial responsibility centers, determine the scope of their competence, and thus achieve an effective functioning of the system. A method is described which is based on direct costing and is used to determine the financial safety margin of a processing company. The implementation of advanced direct costing in the context of financial responsibility centers allows one to analyze the structure of fixed and variable costs, marginal income, and profits for the whole company and, thus, improve the cost management and financial performance.