ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)
Просеков Александр Юрьевич, главный редактор, доктор технических наук, член-корреспондент РАН
Просмотр профиля
Периодичность выхода:
2 раза в год
Индексация: Scopus, WOS, ВАК, DOAJ

Журнал «Foods and Raw Materials»

Журнал «Foods and Raw Materials» – рецензируемый научный журнал освещающий широкий круг вопросов пищевой промышленности.

Приоритетной целью Журнала является распространение в мировом научном сообществе трудов ученых из России, зарубежных стран и стран СНГ, усиление присутствия достижений представляемой ими науки на международной арене, освещение результатов перспективных направлений научно-исследовательской деятельности в пищевой промышленности и смежных отраслях.

Том 8, №2 (2020)

Food safety practices in catering during the coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic
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On January 30, 2020, the Director-General of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. There is hardly a country in the world that is not currently facing this problem. The number of cases is constantly growing, patients and carriers being the main mode of transmission. The economies of all countries are at stake. However, people need essential goods and food, regardless of the situation. In this respect, agriculture, food industry, food market, and catering have become priority industries. A continuous operation of food service enterprises (FSE) is crucial for the uninterrupted food supply in the period of preventive measures. The paper describes how pathogen makes its way into FSEs, spreads, and infects people. This information makes it possible to assess the probability of coronavirus infection and to reduce its spread, thus ensuring the safe operation of the enterprise. There are three transmission routes the coronavirus can take at a FSE: (1) aerial transmission by droplets and aerosols during the main and secondary technological production processes, (2) person-to-person transmission from clients to staff or from employee to employee via direct or indirect contact, (3) transmission via contaminated surfaces, e.g. packaging, furniture, equipment, etc. FSEs have to follow the recommendations published by the federal and/or local authorities, which may vary depending on the COVID-19 incidence rate in the area. These recommendations are based on the probability of the public health risk associated with person-to-person transmission, rather than on food safety.
Influence of coronavirus crisis on food industry economy
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
A quality index method for squid Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis (Gray, 1849) preserved on ice
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<i>Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis</i> L. is one of the most popular kind of seafood that accounts for about 20% of all cephalopod species caught in Vietnam. This study was aimed at developing a quality index method (QIM) scheme to assess the quality and freshness of Loliginid squids. The new method will be of benefit to consumers, fishers, seafood dealers, seafood industry businesses, and controlling entities. The QIM scheme for Loliginid squids was based on the changes registered for 10 sensory parameters, scoring from 0 to 28. The obtained equation for linear correlation with P-value < 0.05 during storage was Y = 1.083 Xtg + 2.866, with coefficient R2 = 0.99. When preserved on ice, the Loliginid squids proved to have a shelf life of 10–12 days. The QIM program and the quality index equation provided a user-friendly, quick, and efficient scientific-based tool that can specify the storage time and estimate the remaining shelf life for Loliginid squids. The scheme can be combined with other chemical quality parameters of freshness to form a full quality assessment program for Loliginid squids.
Amaranth as a bread enriching ingredient
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Amaranth is a promising raw material for enriching foods with protein, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre, squalene, and other nutrients. However, its varieties differ significantly in composition and properties. The research included two stages. At first, we studied the composition of eight amaranth varieties grown in a collection nursery of Voronezh State Agrarian University. Their composition was a factor that determined their functional use as an enriching ingredient. We found that amaranth grain of the Universal variety could be best used to increase the biological value of foods, whereas the Universal and Valentina varieties could be recommended as multifunctional ingredients. The addition of enriching ingredients into foods, including breads, often leads to changes in their traditional consumer properties. Therefore, our next step was to study changes in the composition of Universal amaranth during extrusion using IR spectroscopy. Also, we assessed the effect of amaranth extrudate on the baking properties of model wheat flour and extrudate mixtures as the main factor of the product’s consumer properties. The results showed a redistribution of moisture between flour gluten proteins and extrudate dietary fibre. We also established amounts of amaranth extrudate needed to ensure the preservation of crumb appearance and structure close to the traditional ones.
The hepatoprotective effect of breads with extracts of plants growing in the Far East
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Breads with proven hepatoprotective properties can make a significant contribution to preventing liver disease. This work aimed to study hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of breads enriched with water and ethanol extracts of polyphenol-containing viburnum (Viburnum sargentii Koehne L.), magnolia-vine (Schisandra chinensis L.), and grapes (Vitis amurénsis L.). It was based on an experimental model of toxic hepatitis in mice intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Experimental groups of animals were fed on bread with extracts for 7 days and control groups had a bread-free diet. We analysed their body weight, liver lipid metabolism, “lipid peroxidation – antioxidant protection” system, and antiradical activity. The level of reduced glutathione and malonic dialdehyde was determined by micro-thin-layer chromatography. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity was measured to analyse the antioxidant system. The total content of common polyphenols in breads was determined by the colorimetric method with the Folin-Chocalteu reagent. The animals on a bread-free diet showed an impaired lipid metabolism and higher activity of liver enzymes. They had a 22% increase in liver weight and a 1.9 times depletion of antiradical protection (6.65 ± 0.15 Trolox units/mg protein vs. 13.15 ± 0.21 Trolox units/mg protein in the control; P < 0.001). We also registered a 2.5 times decrease in superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme of the antioxidant defence system. The animals fed on breads with the above extracts showed a statistically significant normalization of the parameters, compared to the bread-free group. We found that those breads had hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects on the animals, stabilizing their general condition and normalizing their biochemical parameters and antioxidant system.
Effects of dust phenomenon on heavy metals in raw milk in western Iran
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Introduction. After the Iraq war, the dust phenomenon has increased in western Iran. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of the dust phenomenon on the content of heavy metals in raw milk in Ilam province. Study objects and methods. The dust samples were collected during one year. The concentrations of dust particles were determined with the Enviro Check Laser System, using the Dust Monitor Check. The concentration of heavy metals in dust was determined by using the high volume air samplers and glass fiber filters. Results and discussion. Heavy metals (lead, arsenic, zinc, copper, and iron) were measured at four sampling sites in raw milk by the atomic absorption method. The mean and standard deviations of dust particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) were 105.6 ± 90.5 and 25.9 ± 15.4 μg/m3, respectively. The amounts of arsenic, zinc, lead, and copper were higher in the spring and summer. Lead levels in western and southern regions were higher than those in the east, center, and north. Conclusion. We found similar trends for arsenic, zinc, copper, and iron in raw milk. Our results showed the potential effect of the dust phenomenon on the presence of heavy metals in raw milk.
Effects of lingonberry extract on the antioxidant capacity of meat paste
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Introduction. Modern meat scientists are currently interested in combining meat raw materials with plant ingredients to enrich products with biologically active substances of natural origin, including antioxidants. In this regard, we studied the antioxidant capacity of a dry lingonberry marc extract introduced into meat paste and analyzed its effects on the product’s color and stability during storage. Study objects and methods. Our objects of study were a dry lingonberry marc extract originating in the Republic of Buryatia, forcemeat, and a ready-made paste in a casing. The extract was obtained by water-alcohol extraction using microwave irradiation. We investigated the physicochemical characteristics of the dry extract, including its contents of phenolic compounds, benzoic acid, and antioxidants. Results and discussion. During the experiment, we analyzed the extract’s effect on the paste’s total antioxidant capacity, coloring, and shelf life. The results showed that increasing the extract’s amount from 0.1% to 0.4% changed the color of the paste from gray-brown to purple-brown, respectively, due to anthocyanins. In further tests, we used a 0.2% concentration of lingonberry extract – the optimal amount that retained the usual brown color of the paste while increasing the content of antioxidant substances. Then, we analyzed the degree of fat oxidation in the paste samples made with and without sodium lactate during storage. According to the results, the lingonberry marc extract used without the acidity regulator and with it inhibited lipid oxidation by 12.7% and 20%, respectively, by neutralizing free radicals. Finally, we tested the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the end products. We detected no E. coli bacteria in the samples and found an inhibited growth of mesophilic anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms due to the extract’s bactericidal effect established in Our earlier studies. Conclusion. Thus, our results indicated that the dry lingonberry marc extract introduced into meat paste increased the product’s total antioxidant capacity and improved its stability during storage.
Effects of non-meat proteins on the quality of fermented sausages
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Introduction. Non-meat proteins are widely used in meat processing. In our study, we analyzed the effects of whey and soy protein isolates on the physicochemical and sensory properties of domestic fermented sausage. Study objects and methods. Five groups of sausages were traditionally fermented under industrial conditions. The sausage group without the additives was labelled the control, while other sausages were manufactured with the addition of 0.5% and 1.5% protein isolates of whey and soybean. Using a quantitative descriptive test, we assessed the sensory characteristics of the sausages and instrumentally determined their color, hardness, water activity (aw), and pH. Results and discussion. The proteins added to fermented sausages improved emulsification, texture, as well as water and fat binding capacity, which was confirmed by the results for hardness. Using a 0.5% soy protein isolate resulted in a firmer product. The additives had a minor effect on the color: the samples with the additives had a slightly lower L* value, and those with a soy protein had higher yellowness (b*). Conclusion. Using the additives did not have a significant effect on the chemical composition and overall sensory quality of all tested samples (P > 0.05).
Production of peptides and amino acids from microbial biomass in food and feed industries: biotechnological aspects
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Introduction. Microbial biomass is a popular source of food ingredients and feed additives. Its high use has made it focus of many relevant studies. Yeast and fungal biomasses proved to be useful substrates that improve the quality and biological value of functional products. They differ in the content and composition of proteins and polysaccharides. The present research dealt with the enzymatic decomposition of proteins found in a novel fungal and yeast biomass. The research objective was to describe the peptide and amino acid composition of their enzymatic hydrolysates. Study objects and methods. The research featured a new fungal and yeast biomass mix. Aspergillus oryzae is a mycelial fungus and a popular industrial producer of hydrolytic enzymes in food industry. As for the yeast, it was the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which is often used in baking. Results and discussion. The total content of identified amino acids in the fungal and yeast biomass was 306.0 mg/g, which was 1.5 times higher than in the fungal biomass alone. The biomass mix demonstrated a higher biological value of proteins than the yeast biomass. A set of experiments made it possible to compile a scheme for the biocatalytic destruction of polymers in the fungal and yeast biomass under the effect of fungal intracellular and endogenous enzymes. The article also contains a thorough description of the obtained enzymatic hydrolysates with various fractional compositions of peptides and free amino acids. Peptides with the molecular weight in the range of up to 29.0 kDa decreased by 2.1 times after 5 h of hydrolysis and by 10.7 times after 18 h. The designed conditions doubled the release of amino acids and increased the content of low-molecular-weight peptides up to 75.3%. Conclusion. The research provided a new algorithm for the biocatalytic conversion of microbial biomass. Regulating the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis made it possible to obtain enzymatic hydrolysates with a desired degree of protein degradation. They could serve as peptides and amino acids in functional food and feed products.
Synergistic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus carnosus on animal food components
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Introduction. Various cultures of microorganisms have recently been used to accelerate technological processes. In this regard, it appears highly relevant to study the action of beneficial microorganisms on the components of food systems. Study objects and methods. The study objects included a model mixture of beef muscle and pork fat tissue with 2% salt, as well as a model protein. Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus carnosus were used in an amount of 1×107 CFU/g of raw material. The compositions of free amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, and other components were analyzed by liquid and gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. Results and discussion. We studied the effect of L. plantarum and S. carnosus on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate components of food systems based on animal raw materials. We found that the combined effect of the cultures was by 25% as effective as their individual use at 4×109 CFU/kg of raw material. The three-week hydrolysis of proteins to free amino acids was almost a third more effective than when the cultures were used separately. The synergistic effect of L. plantarum and S. carnosus on fat components was not detected reliably. Free monosaccharides formed more intensively when the cultures were used together. In particular, the amount of free lactose almost doubled, compared to the cultures’ individual action. Conclusion. We described culture-caused quantitative changes in the main components of animal-based food systems: amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and basic organic compounds. Also, we identified substances that can affect the taste and aroma of final products when the cultures are used together or separately. These results make it possible to obtain products with a wide variety of sensory properties.
Optimisation of a process for cocoa-based vermicelli
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
OBTAINING AND IDENTIFICATION OF INULIN FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS) TUBERS
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Volatile aroma compounds in Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausage formed in different types of casings
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Prospects for using pine nut products in the dairy industry
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
Production of bioethanol from Robusta coffee pulp (Coffea robusta L.) in Vietnam
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Optimisation of important processing conditions for rice bran sourdough fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum
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Effects of natural herbal extracts on hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) oil quality indicators
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Effect of sodium bicarbonate residue on some characteristics of processed meat products
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for 2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per 1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups (P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
Effects of protein-containing additives on pasta quality and biological value
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Natural sweeteners: health benefits of stevia
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.