ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)
Просеков Александр Юрьевич, главный редактор, доктор технических наук, член-корреспондент РАН
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Периодичность выхода:
2 раза в год
Индексация: Scopus, WOS, ВАК, DOAJ

Журнал «Foods and Raw Materials»

Журнал «Foods and Raw Materials» – рецензируемый научный журнал освещающий широкий круг вопросов пищевой промышленности.

Приоритетной целью Журнала является распространение в мировом научном сообществе трудов ученых из России, зарубежных стран и стран СНГ, усиление присутствия достижений представляемой ими науки на международной арене, освещение результатов перспективных направлений научно-исследовательской деятельности в пищевой промышленности и смежных отраслях.

Том 9, №1 (2021)

Beet pulp dietary fiber exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field: detoxification properties
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<i>Introduction</i>. The lack of dietary fibre in the Russian people diet contributes to the development of various diseases. In this regard, it seems worthwhile to enrich foods with dietary fibre obtained from various types of raw materials. In our experiments, we used beet pulp. This study aimed to develop a technology for obtaining combined dietary fibre using the electrophysical method and evaluate its detoxification properties.<br> <i>Study objects and methods</i>. Study objects were pectin substances and combined detoxicants from beet pulp obtained by extracting with succinic acid with and without an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EM) treatment. The profiles of combined detoxicants and pectin substances were identified by IR-Fourier spectrometry. Beet pectin, beet cellulose, and their combined detoxicants were tested for complexing (binding) capacity with respect to lead ions (Pb<sup>2+</sup>). For this, we applied the trilonometric method with some modifications.<br> <i>Results and discussion</i>. The analysis of the absorption bands of carboxyl groups carbonyls revealed the presence of free carboxyl groups in the combined detoxicants. The combined detoxicant with a 1:0.5 ratio of cellulose and pectin substances showed a high complexing (binding) capacity (601 mg/Pb<sup>2+</sup>) with respect to lead ions (Pb<sup>2+</sup>).<br> <i>Conclusion</i>. We developed a technology for producing combined detoxicants with a high complexing capacity with respect to lead ions analysed microstructures of gels obtained during the interaction between the combined detoxicant and lead acetate solution.
Hydrolysis products from sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka L.) heads from the Kamchatka Peninsula produced by different methods: biological value
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Introduction. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka L.) is a valuable Pacific salmon. Sockeye heads are a significant share in processing sockeye salmon. Traditionally, fish by-products are used to make fishmeal. However, due to the high content of collagen proteins and fat in sockeye salmon heads, it is difficult to produce fishmeal from this raw material. Controlled enzymatic or combined hydrolysis allows protein, fat, and minerals to be extracted to supply the market with higher value products with desirable features. This research was aimed to analyse the chemical composition and biological value of hydrolysis products obtained from sockeye heads. Study objects and methods. We investigated hydrolysis products of sockeye salmon heads, namely protein hydrolysates, fat and sludge. Thermal hydrolysis and enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis were used for the tests. Thermal hydrolysis was realized in reactor. For enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis, the raw material was pre-treated by proteolytic enzyme Alcalase. The hydrolysates obtained were investigated. Chemical composition was determined in accordance with State Standard 7636-85. HPLC was used for molecular weight and amino acid analysis. Gas chromatography was used for fatty acid analysis. Biological value of proteins was determined by the balance of the amino acid composition comparing it with the “ideal protein model”. Results and discussion. Thermal hydrolysis resulted in the production of protein hydrolysate powder with protein content of 92.0% dry matter and a protein recovery rate of 39.6%. Combined hydrolysis resulted in the production of protein hydrolysate powder with protein content of 92.6% and a protein recovery rate of 83%. All protein hydrolysates contained all essential amino acids. The biological value of protein hydrolysate obtained by thermal and combined hydrolysis was 80.1 and 82.8%, respectively. Conclusion. Hydrolysed products obtained by thermal and enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis had a valuable chemical composition and could be recommended for food and feed use.
Textural properties of low fat mayonnaise with whey protein concentrate and Tragacanth gum as egg and fat substitutes
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Introduction. Mayonnaise is a kind of oil-in-water emulsion that usually contains 70–80% of oil. However, modern food science keeps providing new knowledge about high-fat products, which makes it possible to solve the problems related to health concerns. Study objects and methods. The research featured high-fat mayonnaise (20% of oil) with reduced oil stabilizer (1.75%) and without egg stabilizer. In experimental samples, egg stabilizer was replaced with 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% of whey protein concentrate and 0.3%, 0.5%, and 1.0% of Tragacanth gum. Mayonnaise with 3.5% oil stabilizer and 0.3% egg stabilizer was used as control sample. The samples were tested for such textural attributes as firmness, consistency, adhesive force, and adhesiveness. Results and discussion. The highest and the lowest textural values were demonstrated by the sample with 0.4% of whey protein concentrate and 0.5% of Tragacanth gum and the sample with 0.5% of whey protein concentrate and 1.0% of Tragacanth, respectively. The former showed textural characteristics similar to those of the control sample. The presence of hydrocolloids proved to affect the texture properties of mayonnaise, whereas Tragacanth gum reduced its elasticity. It formed a strong and complex gel-like structure in the continuous phase. As a result, oil droplets in the emulsion had a smaller diameter, which improved the texture properties of lowfat mayonnaise. Conclusion. Whet protein concentrate and Tragacanth gum in amounts of 0.5% and 1.0%, respectively, can be used to replace egg stabilizer and reduce oil stabilizer in low-fat mayonnaise.
Antagonistic effects of raffia sap with probiotics against pathogenic microorganisms
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Introduction. Probiotics are known for their beneficial properties. Numerous studies have been conducted to find advantages that probiotics can provide. This study aimed to evaluate the functional properties of raffia sap, a Cameroonian drink, fermented with probiotics by investigating its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria. Study objects and methods. The study objective was raffia sap fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Box-Behnken design with four factors (seeding rates of L. fermentum and B. bifidum, temperature, and incubation time) was used to generate mathematical models. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate an antagonistic effect of the probiotics against four pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., and Bacillus cereus). An optimization of mathematical models of the inhibition diameters allowed to determine the optimal conditions of antagonistic effect. Results and discussion. The experimental data showed that zones of inhibition were 0‒21 mm for Salmonella sp., 0‒23 mm for E. coli, 0‒20 mm for L. monocytogenes, and 0‒22 mm for B. cereus. ANOVA results and the mathematical models obtained showed that L. fermentum was effective against B. cereus and B. bifidum against Salmonella sp., E. coli, and B. cereus. The optimization of the models revealed maximum zones of inhibition at the seeding rates of L. fermentum and B. bifidum of 2 and 10%, respectively, incubation time of 48 h, and temperature of 37°C. Conclusion. Raffia sap fermented by L. fermentum and B. bifidum demonstrated antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., and B. cereus.
Electrochemical activation as a fat rendering technology
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Introduction. The existing methods of animal fat obtaining have certain disadvantages, hence fat extraction study highly is relevant. Electrochemically activated solutions are known to have a great potential for animal fat extraction. The present paper introduced a new advanced fat obtaining technology based on the principle of electrochemical activation. Study objects and methods. The research featured ostrich fat obtained by wet rendering in water and in an electrochemically activated solution (catholyte) using various processing methods and technological parameters. Standard methods helped define the physical and chemical parameters of the obtained fat samples. Results and discussion. The paper introduced a technological and hardware setup of an ostrich fat production line with the necessary equipment specifications. The research made it possible to define the optimal parameters for fat extraction: the salt concentration for the catholyte = 4 g/100 cm3, voltage = 40–42 V, pH = 11, and redox potential of the catholyte = between –600 and –700 mV. During the fat processing, cell membranes in the electrolyte were destroyed, which inactivated the enzyme system. The obtained combination of physical and chemical factors resulted in ostrich fat of high quality. Fat extraction in an electrochemically activated solution (catholyte) catalyzed the process and increased the fat yield, regardless of the processing temperature. The fat yield exceeded 58% at 55°С and catholyte pH of 11.0. At 95–100°С and pH of 9.5–10.6, it exceeded 95%. Conclusion. The new technology increased the fat yield, maintained its high quality, and reduced the processing cost. Therefore, the developed production line could be recommended for fat extraction of farm animals, depending on the intended use.
Effects of variety and maturity stage of coconut on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of powdered coconut drink
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Introduction. Coconut water is rich in nutrients and biologically-active compounds. However, it has a short shelf life that can be prolonged by freeze drying. The purpose of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fresh and powdered coconut drinks. Study objects and methods. The experiments included eight samples, namely fresh and powdered coconut drinks obtained from coconuts of different varieties (tall and hybrid) and maturity stages (4 and 6 m.o.). The samples were analyzed for nutrient content (ash, protein, fat, total carbohydrate, and fibre), physicochemical properties (titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, total soluble solids, turbidity, water activity, and browning index), and sensory characteristics (color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptance). Results and discussion. The results obtained showed that there were significant differences among the coconut drinks of different varieties and maturity stages. They differed in nutrient content, pH value, titratable acidity, viscosity, and water activity. Meanwhile, the aroma, taste, and overall acceptance scores of all the samples were not significantly different. The powdered drink from 6 m.o. hybrid coconut was selected as the optimal sample due to its good sensory and physicochemical attributes. These attributes were similar to those of the fresh coconut drink. Conclusion. The powdered drink from 6 m.o. hybrid coconut obtained by freeze drying could be considered as an alternative healthy drink with good quality characteristics.
Bioconversion of soy under the influence of Aspergillus oryzae strains producing hydrolytic enzymes
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Introduction. The fungus Aspergillus oryzae is widely used in the production of fermented soy-based products. However, there is little data on how its genetic characteristics affect the biochemical and fractional composition of protein substances during fermentation and the quality of fermented products. This study aimed to investigate the conversion of soy meal under the influence of two A. oryzae strains with different morphological and cultural properties during the production of a fermented soy sauce. Study objects and methods. The study used two A. oryzae strains, RCAM 01133 and RCAM 01134, which were isolated from the industrial F-931 strain (Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms), a producer of hydrolytic enzymes. Micromycetes were cultivated by a solid-phase method on soy meal, followed by dry fermentation. The results were analyzed with regard to accumulation of amine nitrogen, bound and free amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates. Results and discussion. The cultivation of micromycetes resulted in a 35–38% increase in protein, a tenfold increase in free amino acids, and a 1.5–1.7 fold decrease in polysaccharides. The contents of essential amino acids in the fermented soy sauce were 1.7 and 1.2 times as high as in the initial medium (soy meal) and in the reference protein, respectively. Fermentation enhanced the biological value of proteins, increasing the amino acid scores of phenylalanine (7.3–7.7 times), phenylalanine (2 times), as well as valine, threonine, tryptophan, and lysine. The contents of protein and essential amino acids were slightly higher in the sauce with the RCAM 01133 strain. Conclusion. Fermenting soy materials with the RCAM 01133 strain of A. oryzae is an alternative way to produce food ingredients with good sensory properties containing carbohydrates and biologically complete protein in easily digestible forms.
Modelling formation and removal of biofilms in secondary dairy raw materials
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Introduction. Microorganisms of dairy raw materials tend to adhere to the surfaces of processing equipment and form sustainable biofilms, which is a serious issue in the dairy industry. The goal of the present work was to investigate formation of biofilms on a glass surface in static model conditions, and removal of such biofilms by cleaning. Study objects and methods. The study objects were the permeates of skim milk, sweet whey and acid whey, as well as the biofilms formed and washings from glass slides. Biofilms were removed from the glass with detergents used in the dairy industry. Standard methods of determining microbiological and physicochemical properties were used to characterize the permeates. The biofilm structure and morphology of microorganisms participating in biofilm formation were investigated with a light spectroscopy. The efficiency of biofilm removal in a cleaning process was quantified with optical density of washings. Results and discussion. Biofilms in whey permeates formed slower compared to those in skimmed milk permeate during the first 24 h. Yeasts contributed significantly to the biofilm microflora in acid whey permeate throughout 5 days of biofilm growth. Well adhered biofilm layers were the most stable in skimmed milk permeate. The highest growth of both well and poorly adhered biofilm layers was observed in sweet whey permeate after 3–5 days. It was established that the primary attachment of microorganisms to a glass surface occurred within 8 h, mature multicultural biofilms formed within 48 h, and their partial destruction occurred within 72 h. Conclusion. The research results can be used to improve the cleaning equipment procedures in processing secondary dairy raw materials.
Using Jerusalem artichoke powder in functional food production
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Introduction. Jerusalem artichoke is a valuable low-maintenance crop whose tubers contain vital nutrients and prebiotics. We propose using Jerusalem artichoke powder as a functional nutrient in the formulation of food products. Study objects and methods. We studied the influence of vacuum, vibration, and grinding on the kinetics of drying Jerusalem artichoke tubers of a “Skorospelka” variety in the laboratory vacuum vibromixing mill dryer (VVMD). Results and discussion. The rate of drying in the VVMD was almost 5.5 times as high as that of convective drying. The kinetic curves showed that grinding provided a period of decreasing drying rate until almost complete drying. Vibration drying in the VVMD was twice faster than vacuum drying. The comparison of theoretical and experimental data on moisture and drying time revealed good adequacy. The NMR analysis of changes in the molecular mobility of the samples obtained in the VVMD showed an implicit twocomponent spectrum, indicative of low moisture. The chemical analysis of the tubers and powders by standard methods confirmed that the proposed gentle technology (fast drying at 30°C) preserved 86% of inulin. Conclusion. Jerusalem artichoke powder obtained in the VVMD can be used in different branches of the food industry due to its long shelf life, low consolidation, and no caking, with residual moisture of 6.1%.
Optimisation of a process for cocoa-based vermicelli
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
OBTAINING AND IDENTIFICATION OF INULIN FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS) TUBERS
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Volatile aroma compounds in Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausage formed in different types of casings
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Prospects for using pine nut products in the dairy industry
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
Influence of coronavirus crisis on food industry economy
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
Production of bioethanol from Robusta coffee pulp (Coffea robusta L.) in Vietnam
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Effect of sodium bicarbonate residue on some characteristics of processed meat products
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for 2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per 1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups (P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
Natural sweeteners: health benefits of stevia
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
Effects of natural herbal extracts on hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) oil quality indicators
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Optimisation of important processing conditions for rice bran sourdough fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum
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