Volume 8, Issue 2 (2020)
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On January 30, 2020, the Director-General of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. There is hardly a country in the world that is not currently facing this problem. The number of cases is constantly growing, patients and carriers being the main mode of transmission. The economies of all countries are at stake. However, people need essential goods and food, regardless of the situation. In this respect, agriculture, food industry, food market, and catering have become priority industries. A continuous operation of food service enterprises (FSE) is crucial for the uninterrupted food supply in the period of preventive measures. The paper describes how pathogen makes its way into FSEs, spreads, and infects people. This information makes it possible to assess the probability of coronavirus infection and to reduce its spread, thus ensuring the safe operation of the enterprise. There are three transmission routes the coronavirus can take at a FSE: (1) aerial transmission by droplets and aerosols during the main and secondary technological production processes, (2) person-to-person transmission from clients to staff or from employee to employee via direct or indirect contact, (3) transmission via contaminated surfaces, e.g. packaging, furniture, equipment, etc. FSEs have to follow the recommendations published by the federal and/or local authorities, which may vary depending on the COVID-19 incidence rate in the area. These recommendations are based on the probability of the public health risk associated with person-to-person transmission, rather than on food safety.
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
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Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis L. is one of the most popular kind of seafood that accounts for about 20% of all cephalopod species caught in Vietnam. This study was aimed at developing a quality index method (QIM) scheme to assess the quality and freshness of Loliginid squids. The new method will be of benefit to consumers, fishers, seafood dealers, seafood industry businesses, and controlling entities. The QIM scheme for Loliginid squids was based on the changes registered for 10 sensory parameters, scoring from 0 to 28. The obtained equation for linear correlation with P-value < 0.05 during storage was Y = 1.083 Xtg + 2.866, with coefficient R2 = 0.99. When preserved on ice, the Loliginid squids proved to have a shelf life of 10–12 days. The QIM program and the quality index equation provided a user-friendly, quick, and efficient scientific-based tool that can specify the storage time and estimate the remaining shelf life for Loliginid squids. The scheme can be combined with other chemical quality parameters of freshness to form a full quality assessment program for Loliginid squids.
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Amaranth is a promising raw material for enriching foods with protein, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre, squalene, and other nutrients. However, its varieties differ significantly in composition and properties. The research included two stages. At first, we studied the composition of eight amaranth varieties grown in a collection nursery of Voronezh State Agrarian University. Their composition was a factor that determined their functional use as an enriching ingredient. We found that amaranth grain of the Universal variety could be best used to increase the biological value of foods, whereas the Universal and Valentina varieties could be recommended as multifunctional ingredients. The addition of enriching ingredients into foods, including breads, often leads to changes in their traditional consumer properties. Therefore, our next step was to study changes in the composition of Universal amaranth during extrusion using IR spectroscopy. Also, we assessed the effect of amaranth extrudate on the baking properties of model wheat flour and extrudate mixtures as the main factor of the product’s consumer properties. The results showed a redistribution of moisture between flour gluten proteins and extrudate dietary fibre. We also established amounts of amaranth extrudate needed to ensure the preservation of crumb appearance and structure close to the traditional ones.
Breads with proven hepatoprotective properties can make a significant contribution to preventing liver disease. This work aimed to study hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of breads enriched with water and ethanol extracts of polyphenol-containing viburnum (Viburnum sargentii Koehne L.), magnolia-vine (Schisandra chinensis L.), and grapes (Vitis amurénsis L.). It was based on an experimental model of toxic hepatitis in mice intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride. Experimental groups of animals were fed on bread with extracts for 7 days and control groups had a bread-free diet. We analysed their body weight, liver lipid metabolism, “lipid peroxidation – antioxidant protection” system, and antiradical activity. The level of reduced glutathione and malonic dialdehyde was determined by micro-thin-layer chromatography. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity was measured to analyse the antioxidant system. The total content of common polyphenols in breads was determined by the colorimetric method with the Folin-Chocalteu reagent. The animals on a bread-free diet showed an impaired lipid metabolism and higher activity of liver enzymes. They had a 22% increase in liver weight and a 1.9 times depletion of antiradical protection (6.65 ± 0.15 Trolox units/mg protein vs. 13.15 ± 0.21 Trolox units/mg protein in the control; P < 0.001). We also registered a 2.5 times decrease in superoxide dismutase, a key enzyme of the antioxidant defence system. The animals fed on breads with the above extracts showed a statistically significant normalization of the parameters, compared to the bread-free group. We found that those breads had hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects on the animals, stabilizing their general condition and normalizing their biochemical parameters and antioxidant system.
Introduction. Modern meat scientists are currently interested in combining meat raw materials with plant ingredients to enrich products with biologically active substances of natural origin, including antioxidants. In this regard, we studied the antioxidant capacity of a dry lingonberry marc extract introduced into meat paste and analyzed its effects on the product’s color and stability during storage.
Study objects and methods. Our objects of study were a dry lingonberry marc extract originating in the Republic of Buryatia, forcemeat, and a ready-made paste in a casing. The extract was obtained by water-alcohol extraction using microwave irradiation. We investigated the physicochemical characteristics of the dry extract, including its contents of phenolic compounds, benzoic acid, and antioxidants.
Results and discussion. During the experiment, we analyzed the extract’s effect on the paste’s total antioxidant capacity, coloring, and shelf life. The results showed that increasing the extract’s amount from 0.1% to 0.4% changed the color of the paste from gray-brown to purple-brown, respectively, due to anthocyanins. In further tests, we used a 0.2% concentration of lingonberry extract – the optimal amount that retained the usual brown color of the paste while increasing the content of antioxidant substances. Then, we analyzed the degree of fat oxidation in the paste samples made with and without sodium lactate during storage. According to the results, the lingonberry marc extract used without the acidity regulator and with it inhibited lipid oxidation by 12.7% and 20%, respectively, by neutralizing free radicals. Finally, we tested the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the end products. We detected no E. coli bacteria in the samples and found an inhibited growth of mesophilic anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms due to the extract’s bactericidal effect established in Our earlier studies.
Conclusion. Thus, our results indicated that the dry lingonberry marc extract introduced into meat paste increased the product’s total antioxidant capacity and improved its stability during storage.
Introduction. Various cultures of microorganisms have recently been used to accelerate technological processes. In this regard, it appears highly relevant to study the action of beneficial microorganisms on the components of food systems.
Study objects and methods. The study objects included a model mixture of beef muscle and pork fat tissue with 2% salt, as well as a model protein. Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus carnosus were used in an amount of 1×107 CFU/g of raw material. The compositions of free amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, and other components were analyzed by liquid and gas chromatography with mass-selective detection.
Results and discussion. We studied the effect of L. plantarum and S. carnosus on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate components of food systems based on animal raw materials. We found that the combined effect of the cultures was by 25% as effective as their individual use at 4×109 CFU/kg of raw material. The three-week hydrolysis of proteins to free amino acids was almost a third more effective than when the cultures were used separately. The synergistic effect of L. plantarum and S. carnosus on fat components was not detected reliably. Free monosaccharides formed more intensively when the cultures were used together. In particular, the amount of free lactose almost doubled, compared to the cultures’ individual action.
Conclusion. We described culture-caused quantitative changes in the main components of animal-based food systems: amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and basic organic compounds. Also, we identified substances that can affect the taste and aroma of final products when the cultures are used together or separately. These results make it possible to obtain products with a wide variety of sensory properties.
Introduction. After the Iraq war, the dust phenomenon has increased in western Iran. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of the dust phenomenon on the content of heavy metals in raw milk in Ilam province.
Study objects and methods. The dust samples were collected during one year. The concentrations of dust particles were determined with the Enviro Check Laser System, using the Dust Monitor Check. The concentration of heavy metals in dust was determined by using the high volume air samplers and glass fiber filters.
Results and discussion. Heavy metals (lead, arsenic, zinc, copper, and iron) were measured at four sampling sites in raw milk by the atomic absorption method. The mean and standard deviations of dust particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) were 105.6 ± 90.5 and 25.9 ± 15.4 μg/m3, respectively. The amounts of arsenic, zinc, lead, and copper were higher in the spring and summer. Lead levels in western and southern regions were higher than those in the east, center, and north.
Conclusion. We found similar trends for arsenic, zinc, copper, and iron in raw milk. Our results showed the potential effect of the dust phenomenon on the presence of heavy metals in raw milk.
Introduction. Microbial biomass is a popular source of food ingredients and feed additives. Its high use has made it focus of many relevant studies. Yeast and fungal biomasses proved to be useful substrates that improve the quality and biological value of functional products. They differ in the content and composition of proteins and polysaccharides. The present research dealt with the enzymatic decomposition of proteins found in a novel fungal and yeast biomass. The research objective was to describe the peptide and amino acid composition of their enzymatic hydrolysates.
Study objects and methods. The research featured a new fungal and yeast biomass mix. Aspergillus oryzae is a mycelial fungus and a popular industrial producer of hydrolytic enzymes in food industry. As for the yeast, it was the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which is often used in baking.
Results and discussion. The total content of identified amino acids in the fungal and yeast biomass was 306.0 mg/g, which was 1.5 times higher than in the fungal biomass alone. The biomass mix demonstrated a higher biological value of proteins than the yeast biomass. A set of experiments made it possible to compile a scheme for the biocatalytic destruction of polymers in the fungal and yeast biomass under the effect of fungal intracellular and endogenous enzymes. The article also contains a thorough description of the obtained enzymatic hydrolysates with various fractional compositions of peptides and free amino acids. Peptides with the molecular weight in the range of up to 29.0 kDa decreased by 2.1 times after 5 h of hydrolysis and by 10.7 times after 18 h. The designed conditions doubled the release of amino acids and increased the content of low-molecular-weight peptides up to 75.3%.
Conclusion. The research provided a new algorithm for the biocatalytic conversion of microbial biomass. Regulating the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis made it possible to obtain enzymatic hydrolysates with a desired degree of protein degradation. They could serve as peptides and amino acids in functional food and feed products.
Introduction. Non-meat proteins are widely used in meat processing. In our study, we analyzed the effects of whey and soy protein isolates on the physicochemical and sensory properties of domestic fermented sausage.
Study objects and methods. Five groups of sausages were traditionally fermented under industrial conditions. The sausage group without the additives was labelled the control, while other sausages were manufactured with the addition of 0.5% and 1.5% protein isolates of whey and soybean. Using a quantitative descriptive test, we assessed the sensory characteristics of the sausages and instrumentally determined their color, hardness, water activity (aw), and pH.
Results and discussion. The proteins added to fermented sausages improved emulsification, texture, as well as water and fat binding capacity, which was confirmed by the results for hardness. Using a 0.5% soy protein isolate resulted in a firmer product. The additives had a minor effect on the color: the samples with the additives had a slightly lower L* value, and those with a soy protein had higher yellowness (b*).
Conclusion. Using the additives did not have a significant effect on the chemical composition and overall sensory quality of all tested samples (P > 0.05).
Introduction. Barley can be infected with a broad variety of fungi, which can cause considerable loss of crop yield and reduce the quality of grain. Modern vision on the geographical and ecological distribution and biodiversity of micromycetes has been established by traditional, cultivation-based methods. However, more recently, molecular methods have shifted microbiological research to a new level, making it possible to investigate hidden taxonomical biodiversity.
Study objects and methods. For this study, we determined the fungal biome on the surface and inside of barley grains using the traditional mycological method and the contemporary molecular method, which employed DNA metabarcoding based on NGS (nextgeneration sequencing) of the ITS2 region. We analyzed five cultivars that were collected in two subsequent crop seasons (2014, 2015).
Results and discussion. DNA metabarcoding revealed 43 operational taxonomic units, while 17 taxa of genus or species level were recovered by the traditional method. DNA metabarcoding revealed several minor species and one predominant, presumably plantpathogenic Phaeosphaeria sp., which were not detected in the agar plate-based assay. Traditionally, Fusarium fungi were identified by mycological assay. However, the resolution of DNA metabarcoding was sufficient to determine main Fusarium groups divided by ability to produce toxic secondary metabolites. The combined list of Ascomycetes consisted of 15 genera, including 14 fungi identified to species level. The list of Basidiomycota derived from DNA metabarcoding data alone included 8 genera.
Conclusion. It was found that crop season predetermines the fungal community structure; mycobiota on the surface and inside of grain was significantly different.
Introduction. Due to the deficit and high cost of complete animal protein, the search and analysis of alternative sources is an actual scientific trend. Lentils is a good alternative to animal protein, but the pronounced bean smell and taste limit its full or partial use in food production. The aim of the work was to determine the total aromas of lentils when germinated to eliminate the bean taste and smell.
Study objects and methods. The object of the study was brown lentil beans germinated under laboratory conditions. Samples of the equilibrium gas phase formed over samples of wet and sprouted beans were investigated. The analysis of total aromas was carried out on a laboratory odor analyzer MAG-8 (“electronic nose”) by the method of piezoelectric quartz micro-weighing with an array of sensors.
Results and discussion. The study results showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the equilibrium gas phase over samples of wet and germinated grain. The quantitative analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds over sprouted grain is 12% less than over wet. The qualitative composition of the samples of wet and sprouted grain differed by 60%, which confirmed the influence of germination on the composition of the equilibrium gas phase and the possibility of eliminating bean odor. Testing showed that the use of pre-processed lentil grains allows to replace up to 50% of raw meat in minced products (minced food, chopped food) without changing the smell of the products.
Conclusion. According to the results obtained, preliminary processing of lentils by germination will allow using this bean culture as an alternative source of animal protein to expand the range, and improve the quality of meat and dairy products.
Introduction. Due to the trend of avoiding antibiotics and acquiring eco-friendly products, the use of environmentally safe preparations is becoming increasingly relevant in poultry farming.
Study objects and methods. We used Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry carcasses. At the first in vitro stage, we studied the ability of mannan oligosaccharides, isolated from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, to adsorb bacterial pathogens. At the second stage, we studied the influence of fraction on the activity, colonization and microflora composition of ducklings’ intestines. At the third stage, we determined the antagonistic activity of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus fermentun, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus acidophilus) against Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni isolates. The experiment was conducted on the ducklings of Star 53 H.Y. cross. Their diet was supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, and their combination.
Results and discussion. In vitro studies showed the ability of mannan oligosaccharides isolated from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast to adsorb Salmonella enteritidis and Campylobacter jejun. In vivo experiment showed the ability of mannan oligosaccharides to prevent colonization of poultry intestines by bacterial pathogens with type I fimbriae.
Conclusion. The reisolation rate of ducks infected with Salmonella enteritidis was 53.6% lower, and those infected with Campylobacter jejuni, 66.2% lower than the control. Mannan oligosaccharides added to the diet did not affect the concentration of lactobacilli, enterococci, and anaerobic bacteria in the ducks’ intestines. A combined use of Bifidobacterium spp. and mannan oligosaccharides improved the preservation of poultry stock by 8.7%, which made it an effective way to prevent poultry salmonellosis.
Introduction. In recent years, scientists have been actively searching for medicinal plants containing biologically active substances with geroprotective properties to treat diseases of old age, in particular cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and others. Ginseng (Panax ginseng L.) is a promising source of geroprotective compounds. We aimed to select optimal parameters for extracting organic compounds from ginseng callus, suspension, and root cultures and analyze their qualitative composition.
Study objects and methods. We studied ginseng callus, suspension, and root cultures, as well as their extracts. Biologically active substances were extracted with 30 to 70% ethanol. Organic compounds were determined by thin-layer chromatography. The results for each plant were archived and analyzed for the presence of quercetin, mangiferin, luteolin, rutin, quercetin-2-D-glucoside, malvidin, as well as caffeic, cinnamic, ferulic, and sinapinic acids.
Results and discussion. We developed a procedure for screening solvents and performed a fractional qualitative analysis of biologically active substances extracted from ginseng. As a result, we established the optimal parameters for extracting biologically
active substances from the dried biomass of ginseng cultures. In all cases, temperature and the ratio of solvent to biomass were the same (50°C, 1:5). However, the extraction time and ethanol concentration differed, amounting to 60 min and 50% for callus cultures, 30 min and 60% for suspension cultures, and 60 min and 70% for root cultures. The qualitative analysis of organic compounds showed the presence of rutin (0.25), quercetin (0.75), and mangiferin (0.57), as well as caffeic and sinapinic acids in the extracts.
Conclusion. Our set of experiments to isolate biologically active substances from ginseng callus, suspension, and root cultures resulted in selecting the optimal extraction parameters and analyzing the extracts for the presence of organic compounds.
Introduction. The existing diversity of plant raw materials and products predetermine the prospects of studying their potential as sources of pectin substances. However all current classifications are either fragmented or inconsistent.
Study objects and methods. Our theoretical ivestigation aimed to develop an adequate classification for all taxa of plant origin, as well as their tissues and derivatives as pectin-containing materials. We developed criteria for assessing transformation potential of the protopectin complex based on the mass fractions of biologically active non-uronide components, native water-soluble pectin, the protopectin complex, and pectin substances. Individual boundary conditions were based on individual pectin potential, protopectin fragmentation potential, and pectin isolation potential.
Results and discussion. Based on the boundary conditions, we defined an universal criterion space that included a set of points M in the coordinates expressed by three main criteria. According to individual boundary conditions, the criterion space was divided, or zoned, into four domains corresponding to protopectin fragmentation potential. They were characterized by: 1) lack of pectin potential, 2) ineffective protopectin fragmentation, 3) ineffective isolation of fragmentation products, and 4) effective isolation. Finally, we developed a generalized algorithm to determine the location of points M[μ1, μ2 , μ3 ] in the zoned criterion space, characterizing the plant tissue.
Conclusion. Our approach can be used to assess any plant tissue for its protopectin transformation potential, which determines the technological influence on its pectin potential. This approach is universal, i.e., applicable to both plant tissue and its derivatives.
Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-diabetic activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) leaves in vitro, as well as to determine the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and flavonols.
Study objects and methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH test using the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyle and the FRAP method, as well as by measuring total antioxidant capacity and the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity.
Results and discussion. The content of total polyphenols varied between 4.43 ± 0.3 and 12.66 ± 1.6 mg EAG/g. The highest content of flavonoids was observed in the hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum leaves (P < 0.05). The flavonol contents in the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were 7.68 ± 0.6 and 9.20 ± 2.8 mg EQ/g, respectively. The IC50 of the antioxidant potential of the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts was 32.4 ± 1.109 and 35.12 ± 4.107 mg/mL, respectively. According to the DPPH test, the aqueous extract was the least active (IC50 = 14.15 ± 1.513 mg/mL). The highest percentage of hydrogen peroxide trapping was found in the aqueous extract
(45.97 ± 6.608 %). The inhibition of α-amylase showed an IC50 of between 9.804 ± 0.67 and 19.011 ± 9.82 mg/mL in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively. The inhibition of glucose uptake by yeast recorded a high inhibitory capacity at 50 mg/mL of glucose.
Conclusion. We found that the antioxidant and anti-diabetic activity of P. granatum leaves extracts was due to the presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, which is why they are effective in preventing diabetes and its complications.
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
The growing demand of the Russian population for healthy food dictates the need in functional ingredients production increase. Inulin, the polysaccharide of natural origin, has a wide range of functional activity. This article grounds the expedience of inulin obtaining from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and considers effective technological methods of ensuring high yield and quality of the target product. It was demonstrated that application of vibration with frequency 24 Hz for 60 min at temperature 30–35°C intensifies the extraction process, and fractionation of the extract on membranes with pore diameter 2, 3 and 5 kDa allows to obtain inulin with certain physicochemical properties. The membrane separation results in three inulin fractions: low molecular (DP = 2-10), medium molecular (DP = 11-18) and high molecular (DP = 19-35) fraction. The medium molecular fraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic and fat substitute in food technology, was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and 1H-13C NMR spectrometry. The obtained spectral characteristics have led to a conclusion that the investigated sample of inulin is highly competitive with the best world analogues. The authors thoroughly describe the method of determining the degree of polymerization and average molecular weight of the investigated polysaccharide using 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. It has been established that inulin obtained by improved technology has the degree of polymerization DP = 13–14 and molecular weight 2124–2286 Da. The results of this work have practical value for production of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and theoretical value for the chemistry of natural compounds.
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The paper presents a study of Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausages formed in various artificial casings: fibrous (cellulose), collagen, and polyamide. An oxygen permeability oxygen permeability of the casings was above 40 cm<sup>3</sup> and below 30 cm<sup>3</sup>/m<sup>2</sup>∙24 h∙bar. The study involved a sensory evaluation and instrumental tests using a VOCmeter multi-sensor system (‘electronic nose’) and a 7890A gas chromatograph with a 5975C VLMSD mass-selective detector (Agilent Technologies). We obtained original data on the qualitative composition and the quantitative content of substances that form the aroma of cooked smoked sausages in various types of casings. We found that the samples contained two groups of compounds with the chemical formulas of C<sub><i>i</i></sub>H<sub><i>k</i></sub>O<sub><i>l</i></sub> and C<sub><i>i</i></sub>H<sub><i>k</i></sub>O<sub><i>l</i></sub>N<sub><i>m</i></sub>. They had a ratio of (12–33):1 and were, apparently, the most significant aromatic substances. The main class of identified compounds was carboxylic acid esters, accounting for 76.61–81.60% of the total substances. We established a correlation between the aroma intensity and the concentration of chlorine-containing and nitrogen-containing compounds (except amines, amides, nitriles, and hydrazides) in the gas phase. The results did not confirm our hypothesis about the influence of the casing type and its permeability on the development of oxidative processes in the production of cooked smoked sausages. The practical significance of the study lies in creating a database of over 200 aromatic compounds that allows for a deeper understanding of aroma formation processes in cooked smoked sausages. The database can be used to exert a purposeful technological influence on the quality indicators and create various flavour compositions to adjust the sensory properties of the product.
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
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Coffee pulp is the first waste product obtained during the wet processing of coffee beans. Coffee pulp makes up nearly 40% of the total weight of the coffee cherry. Coffee pulp contains 25.88% of cellulose, 3.6% of hemicel- luloses, and 20.07% of lignin. Coffee pulp is considered as an ideal substrate of lignocellulose biomass for micro- bial fermentation to produce such value-added products as ethanol. In this study, we used alkaline pre-treatment of the coffee pulp with NaOH (0.2 g/g biomass) in a microwave system at 120°C during 20 min. This method gave the best results: 71.25% of cellulose remained, and 46.11% of hemicellulose and 76.63% of lignin were removed. After that, the pre-treated biomass was hydrolyzed by Viscozyme Cassava C (enzyme loading was 19.27 FPU/g) at 50°C for 72 hours. The results showed that the highest reducing sugars and glucose concentration after hydrolysis were 38.21 g/l and 30.36 g/l, respectively. Then, the hydrolysis solution was fermented by S. cerevisiae (3.108 cells/ml) at 30°C for 72 hours. The highest concentration of ethanol obtained was 11.28 g/l. The result illustrated that, available and non- edible as it is, coffee pulp could be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production in Vietnam.
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for
2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per
1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups
(P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
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The present research features such natural herbal extracts as rosemary (<i>Rosmarinus officinalis</i> L.), pomegranate (<i>Punica granatum</i> L.), and green tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Together with vitamin E, they were chosen to investigate hemp oil stability. The experiments revealed the effect of various fatty acids compositions on hemp oil properties. The effect of herbal extracts on the oxidative stability of oils was measured using the Rancimat method. The chemical tests included peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) value, and acidity value (AV). Each herbal extract was applied in amounts of 30 mg/l and 50 mg/l. Vitamin E was mixed with the oil in the amount of 2 g/l. The changes in PV, FFA, AV, and fatty acid composition were measured on day 6, 12, 18, and 24. Hemp oil, pure or mixed with the extracts, was analyzed using the Rancimat method at 120°C with an airflow rate of 20 l/h to identify the in- duction periods (IP). IP values of oils with additional herbal extracts were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the control samples. The oil sample with vitamin E demonstrated the longest IP (4.12 hours at 120°C) during the Rancimat test. The herbal extracts and vitamin E had a positive effect on hemp oil PV compared with the control sample. Gas chromatography (GC) showed that hemp oil included a high amount of polyunsaturated Ome- ga-3 fatty acids, and the oil was not resistant to oxidation. In general, the natural herbal extracts and vitamin E in the recommended quantities had a positive effect on the oxidative stability of hemp oil.
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The potentials of rice bran sourdough in bread making are recently gaining popularity. However, there is no information on the influence of processing conditions on the quality attributes of rice bran sourdough. To inves- tigate the influence of fermentation time and temperature on the levels of acidity (pH and TTA) in rice bran sour-dough fermented with <i>L. plantarum</i>, we applied response surface methodology (RSM). Furthermore, we studied the effect of different fermentation time and temperature on the total phenolic and volatile compounds in the sourdough. GC/MS measurements for the evolution of aroma volatile compounds (VOCs) in the rice bran sourdoughs were conducted. The higher and longer the fermentation temperature and time, the higher the acidity levels in the sour- doughs. Fermentation temperature and time do not have a significant effect on the total phenolic sourdough con- tents. Forty-seven VOCs were detected in the rice bran sourdoughs. The major VOCs were acetic acids, ethanol, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, Hexadecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-ethanediyl ester, acetoin, and 2-methoxy-Phe- nol. The sourdough fermented at 35°C for 13 ho contained the largest number (27) of aroma compounds and had the highest acidity. These fermentation conditions are close to the optimal parameters (temperature – 33°C, duration –
12.5 hours), obtained as a result of applying RSM for rice bran fermentation. Thus, high quality bran sourdough can be produced at the temperature of 33°C for 12.5 hours. The results of this study will be useful to produce a quality rice bran sourdough bread with appealing aroma and a long shelf-life.
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
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The present work includes results on enrichment of pasta, a mass-consumption product, with protein. Meat products, legume (<i>Leguminosae</i> L.) flour and plant protein isolates were used as protein-containing additives. The content of protein and essential amino acids in the additives makes them promising for improving the biological value of pasta. We studied effects of the additives on raw gluten and wheat flour starch properties, pasta dough rheological characteristics, and finished product quality. As a result, the following optimal amounts of the additives were established: 15% by weight of flour for meat, 10% by weight of the mixture for pea and lentil flour as well as plant isolates, and 7.5% by weight of the mixture for soy flour. The enriching components added in pasta dough were found to have a positive effect on pasta quality. These increased protein content by 1.59–8.19%, biological value by 6–16%, utility coefficient of amino acid composition by 0.2–0.26, protein digestibility by pepsin by 11–24%, and daily protein intake level by 31.4–12.5%.