ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)
Alexander Ju. Prosekov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Periodicity:
2 times a year
Indexing: Scopus, WOS, DOAJ

Journal «Foods and Raw Materials»

The journal «Foods and Raw Materials» is published from 2013.

It is published in the English and German languages with periodicity of two volumes a year.

The main concern of the journal «Foods and Raw Materials» is informing the scientific community on the works by the researchers from Russia and the CIS, strengthening the world position of the science they represent, showing the results of perspective scientific researches in the food industry and related branches.

Volume 6, Issue 2 (2018)

Effect of sodium bicarbonate residue on some characteristics of processed meat products
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for 2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per 1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups (P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
Study of lysate activity to modificate collagene raw materials to use in sausage mixture
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In the current conditions of import substitution, the effective use of secondary raw materials in the meat industry is a relevant issue. A significant source of animal proteins is by-products, the yield of which is about 10% of livestock weight. Some by-products, including beef rumen, contain collagen-containing tissues which require modification for tenderization and deodorization. In order to modify rumen tissues, the biotechnological method of treatment with an enzyme solution, lysate, obtained from a whole bovine abomasum was preferred to the known method where enzyme solution is prepared from an abomasal mucosa. The purpose of this project was to study the activity of lysate from a whole bovine abomasum for the modification of rumen tissue to use it in cooked sausage formulations. We have suggested the method of obtaining enzyme solution based on infusing the minced abomasum in a reaction mixture – water, chlorohydric acid, and sodium tripolyphosphate – followed by filtering. The dependence of proteolytic and collagenase activities of the solution obtained from phosphate dose introduced have been studied; it have been revealed that 1.5% of tripolyphosphate is the optimal dose for efficient extraction of enzymes from the whole abomasum. Besides, an effect of the enzyme solution on functional and technological properties of a heat-treated rumen has been studied, and the improvement of hydro- and lipophilic characteristics has been revealed. Paste with modified rumen has been developed and found that the maximum possible dose of rumen for use in cooked sausage from horsemeat is 15%. The color on the cut of sausage developed was identical to that of beef sausage. Thus, paste made on the basis of modified rumen contributes to the formation of functional and technological properties, the stabilization of the color characteristics of the final product, as well as the effective use of basic meat raw materials and the expansion of the range of economy class high-protein sausage production.
Prospects for using pine nut products in the dairy industry
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
Microstructure and cooking quality of barley-enriched pasta produced at different process parameters
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Pasta is one of the most popular meals in the world. It is affordable, easy to combine with other foods and easy to cook. Unfortunately, pasta is energy-rich and nutrient-poor. Whole-wheat pasta is somewhat better in nutritional quality, but further improvements may be made. One option is to add different raw materials and specific nutritive components (vitamins, polyphenols, fiber, protein, etc.) to semolina. However, this approach changes its physico-chemical properties, e.g. cooking loss, texture, etc., which cannot be disregarded. The current research investigates possibilities for production of barley-enriched pasta with acceptable cooking qualities. To ensure the beneficial health effects of β-glucan, β-glucan-rich barley was selected asa starting material. Pasta enriched with 10–50% β-glucan-rich barley flour was produced in the mini-press and the laboratory extruder and then dried at low, medium and high temperature regimes. Colour, cooking quality and microstructure of the enriched pasta were investigated to determine its acceptability. The research showed that barley-enriched pasta of good cooking quality might be produced by selecting an optimal combination of suitable production parameters for forming and drying.
Optimisation of a process for cocoa-based vermicelli
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
Cherry chemical composition and antioxidant activity under freezing comprehensive relations assessment
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Cherry is a successful combination of sugars, acids, attractive color and taste. However, its shelf life is limited and can be prolonged only with the help of new freezing technologies. Therefore, the gool of this work was to investigate changes in component composition of fresh and frozen cherry. The objects of the research were cherries of the varieties of Shpanka and Lotovka. The studies were carried out with cherries grown in the Central region of Ukraine at the Department of Technology of storage and processing of fruits and vegetables at Uman National Horticulture University. For cherries of both varieties were kept in 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin 1% chitosan for 30 minutes, dried with air flow, frozen at –25°C, packed in 0.5 kg plastic bags, and stored at ‒18°C. For control purposes, nontreated cherries were packed in plastic bags of respective volume. According to the research, preprocessing with 20% sugar solution with the addition of 1% chitosan contributes to preservation of quality and biological value of frozen cherries. Thus antioxidant activity in frozen cherries of Shpanka and Lotovka varieties is 27 and 18 mmol/dm3, ascorbic acid content – 17.6 and 20 mg/100g. So the indexes of quality of cherries for freezing are interrelated and constitute one correlation pattern in which the major index indicator is the content of dry soluble substance and antioxidant activity.
Prospects of using extremely low doses of physical factors impact in food biotechnology
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The paper deals with urgent issues of development of resource-saving methods of biotechnological processes intensification. The main purpose of the work is to show the efficiency of using extremely low doses of physical factors impact in food biotechnology. Acoustic and electric treatment was in various modes. Impact capacity did not exceed 10-4 W/kg. The duration of exposure ranged from 5 to 15 min. Barley grains enzymes and lactic acid microorganisms were subjected to treatment. Impact of vibration as a physical factor, its frequency is considered as a priority in controlling growth and biochemical processes in biological objects. Impact frequency in the range of 50–10000 Hz influences the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in bimodal way. It is presented in the article. The coincidence of the frequency ranges of the maximum activity of enzymes in the model reactions with the ones in the grain of barley under the treatment of alternating current and sound is noted. Improvement of all indexes of germinating barley and improvement of the quality of the finished malt were observed in these ranges. Low-intensity acoustic treatment at a frequency of 2000 Hz contributed to an increase in β-galactosidase activity of the CT-95 Str. thermophilus strain. Selected ST-95 Str. thermophilus strain was used in the starter composition for the experimental sample production of fermented melted milk. The fermentation process intensification was observed. The lactose content of this product is 30% less in comparison with the feedstock. The use of traditional starter without a selected strain can reduce the lactose content by an average of 7.5%. The results of biotechnological processes modification by means of the treatment of enzymes and extremely low doses of physical factors impact used in meat technologies are observed. Thus, the prospects of using low-intensity physical effects of vibration in the development of innovative food technologies are substantiated. It is also promising to use these technologies in making absolutely new food products with different qualities.
Genetic identification of bovine leukaemia virus
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Molecular genetic research methods make it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and are the most informative approaches to its genetic identification. Molecular genetic research methods work well for the phylogenetic analysis of sequenced nucleotide DNA sequences of the provirus, as well as for the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) according to the phylogenetic classification of the pathogen. The purpose of the research was to study the scientific and methodological approaches to the genetic identification of bovine leukemia virus, integrated into the molecular monitoring of infection of cattle with BLV genotypes. The authors used PCR-RFLP-genotyping and comparative phylogenetic analysis of aligned nucleotide sequences of the env gene fragment of the BLV provirus isolates to detect the genotypic affiliation of the cattle from twenty-one livestock farms of the Republic of Tatarstan. As a result, isolates of four out of ten BLV genotypes were found in the Tatarstani cattle, namely genotypes 1, 4, 7, and 8. The research involved a comparative analysis of 505 nucleotide sequences of a fragment of the BLV env gene, including those deposited in GenBank NCBI. The analysis confirms the inconsistency of several earlier PCR-RFLP typing strategies with the current approach in assessing the genotypic diversity by phylogenetic analysis. The improved strategy of PCR-RFLP genotyping of BLV corresponds with its modern phylogenetic classification. The strategy makes it possible to identify all the known genotypes of the viral pathogen. Its validity has been proved by in silico modelling of restrictogrammes and a phylogenetic analysis of the env gene fragment of 57 reference isolates of ten BLV genotypes that generate 57 genotype-associated combinations of diagnostically significant PCR-RFLP profiles.
Hydrocolloid effect on the stabilization of vegetable purees in the process of freezing, refrigerating and defrosting
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The analysis of modern concepts of the use of hydrocolloids for the stabilization of mashed products of plant origin in the freezing – storage – defrosting circle is given. The effect of hydrocolloids on the structure of vegetable purees using the example of xanthan gum, starch and inulin was studied. The most significant characteristics of the structure was identified and their descriptors were considered. Experimental data on the effect of hydrocolloids on the microstructure of vegetable purees was obtained. The expediency of using starch and xanthan gum in combination with inulin was shown. To create a viscous structure, modified starch with small granules that exhibit thermal stability in cold storage and further heat treatment were most suitable. Inulin was also not subject to changes during temperature treatments for the products with a pH higher than 3.5, but probably would not be widely used as a structurant for vegetable purees due to the weak expression of the structure-forming properties. The synergistic combinations of inulin and xanthan gum improved the organoleptic characteristics of the product, especially in cold storage. In addition, the ability of inulin to form a smooth structure in vegetable purée when enveloping the oral cavity was revealed, despite the fact that the initial product had a rather coarse fibrous consistency due to the plant origin of the ingredients. Thus, it is promising to use inulin in combination with thickeners to give the product prebiotic properties with the improved perception in consumers. The results of the studies confirm the possibility of storing vegetable purees at low temperatures for a long time without the deterioration of the structural and organoleptic properties resulting from the slowly occurring degradation processes of the individual components of the product at low temperatures, provided that the hydrocolloids under study are used.
Complex of polyphenols sorbed on buckwheat flour as a functional food ingredient
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An innovative approach to creating a new generation of specialised foods for dietary therapy of type 2 diabetes can involve planned adding of plant polyphenols to their formulafions. The marked antioxidant properties of polyphenols largely determine their potential antidiabetic effects. However, the use of food polyphenols for prophylactic purposes is limited by their low bioavailability, which makes it expedient to search for technological approaches aimed at obtaining polyphenolic matrices with high biological activity, increased digestibility, and stability. This study objective was to purposely extract and concentrate the polyphenols by sorbing them from an aqueous solution of the bilberry leaf extract (BLE) on buckwheat flour and to assess their storage stability. A number of experiments on optimal parameters selection for sorbing polyphenols from the BLE on buckwheat flour were performed. The parameters included the concentration of the extract solution, the solution/sorbent ratio, the pH of the solution, the temperature and the time of sorption. The sorption on the polyphenol matrix was determined from the difference in their contents in the initial solution of the extract and in the supernatant after centrifugation by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The effects of exposure to light, temperatures, and humidity on the polyphenol compounds in the dry BLE and in the food matrix contents during storage was analysed by the FTIR spectroscopy. The experiments determined the optimal conditions for the BLE polyphenol sorption on buckwheat flour by incubation of a 2% BLE solution pH = 3.6 with the portion of buckwheat flour at the ratio of 1g/50 cm3 solution for 45 minutes at 25°C. When storing the food matrix, there was no significant degradation of the polyphenolic compounds in the food matrix, which indicates an increase in the stability of the polyphenols sorbed on buckwheat flour. This paper presents the results that are scientifically and practically relevant for the nutritiology experts who devise promising technological approaches to expanding the range of functional food ingredients of the antidiabetic character.
Intensification of thermal and rheological processes in a scraped-surface apparatus
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The operation parameters of a special heat exchange scraped-surface apparatus ware studied and mathematically described in the article. The feature of the apparatus was the use of perforated cleaning devices in order to increase the turbulence of a product. The developed device can be used in the dairy, meat, and fat and oil industry to cool cream, animal fats, margarine emulsions, cooking fats, and other viscous food products. The increase in the productivity of the apparatus was achieved as a result of the more intensive mixing of the cleaned wall layers with the bulk of the cooled product due to the presence of cylindrical holes in the slats with a diameter of at least 0.05–0.1 of the diameter of the working cylinder. As a result of processing experimental data on heat exchange taking into account energy dissipation, a calculated criterial heat exchange equation for the nonisothermal motion of products and their different flows – laminar and transient – was obtained explicitly. In addition, the article considers the effect of starting modes on the operation of apparatus with mixing devices. These data can make it possible to take into account the possible deviations of parameters caused by nonsteady operating modes. On the basis of the data obtained, we have proposed assumptions about the degree of impact of viscosity and inertia in the considered range of parameters on a starting mode. The results of the study are relevant since they allow us to intensify the thermal processes in this type of common apparatus by 10–12%.
Hydrodynamics and mass transfer with gel formation in a roll type ultrafiltration membrane
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At this point in history, mankind faces a daunting challenge: how are we to produce high-grade foods without damage to the environment? The only possible rational solution lies in the efficient use of natural raw materials. However, the practical side of the matter cannot be resolved without innovative food equipment designed on the basis of the latest scientific achievements. The current research features the theory and practice of curd whey and skimmed milk ultrafiltration. It focuses on the main operating parameters of the equipment involved and the maximum permissible value of the milk solids content. The experiment included whey, obtained as a byproduct of cottage cheese processing, and skimmed milk, obtained by whole milk separation. The membrane method in the processing of secondary dairy raw materials allows for an environmentally-friendly waste-free production. It is a promising trend in the modern food industry: it creates opportunities for a large range of novel dairy products, beverages, and animal feed, as well as for other sustainable technologies. The paper describes how the volume of permeate flux mass transfer and the selectivity of polysulfonamide ultrafiltration membranes (PSA-20 and PSA-50) depend on the volume of operating load and circulation rate during whey and skimmed milk separation. The authors analyzed the mass transfer and the hydrodynamics in the channel of a roll type baromembrane, including the gel formation process. They established the influence of the milk solids weight ratio in the liquid polydisperse system on the permeate flux volume and the selectivity of the polysulfonamide ultrafiltration membrane (PSA-50).
Durability of cutter assemblies and its causative factors
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Cutter assemblies operate under stressful conditions: the knives are subjected to high dynamic loads, the cutter shaft rotates at a frequency of 5–100 s-1, the electric driving motor of the cutter shaft overcomes high starting moments, the bed is subjected to significant static and dynamic loads, the food raw materials and humid atmospheric air in the production room is corrosive to the structural elements, etc. Under the influence of these factors, the cutter assemblies break down, which causes unregulated pauses in food raw materials processing and also requires high expenses for equipment repair. The aim of the paper was to study the durability of the main cutter assemblies and to establish its main determining factors. The presented numerical values of durability of cutter assemblies have been obtained as a result of the planned, warranty and post-warranty practical maintenance of cutters by the engineering team of GEA FOOD SOLUTIONS UKRAINE, LLC, the mechanical supervisor staff of Cherkassk Food Company, LLC and also as a result of scientific research of the processes that provide the operation of these machines and that were carried out at the Cherkassy State Technological University (the Ukraine). The components that operate under the most stressful conditions are knives, a cutter shaft and its bearing assemblies, and the electric driving motor of the cutter shaft. At the same time, the durability of most cutter assemblies is limited by the quality of operation of the cutter head and the durability of the knives. The expenses for the repair or replacement of cutter assemblies can amount to tens of thousands of euros (not including the losses caused by equipment downtime). By applying the appropriate technical solutions and cutter system operating rules, it is possible to significantly improve the durability of a cutter and reduce these expenses.
Dynamics of acousto-convective drying of sunflower cake compared with drying by a traditional thermo-convective method
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The article is devoted to the dynamics of sunflower cake drying in a fundamentally new acousto-convective way. Unlike the traditional (thermo-convective) method, the method proposed allows extracting moisture from porous materials without supplying heat to the sample. Thermo-vacuum drying helped to determine the absolute and relative initial moisture for the analysed samples of the sunflower cake, which equaled 313.1% and 75.8%, respectively. The kinetic curves for drying by thermo- and acousto-convective methods were obtained and analysed. A study of the acousto-convective drying of sunflower cake showed that the rate of moisture extraction depended on the resonating frequency, while there is an optimal mode in which drying proceeds from two to three times more intensively. In thermo-convective drying of sunflower cake, increasing the temperature of the drying stream twice (from 74.2°C to 127°C) reduces the duration of drying to a final absolute humidity of 40% three times. Comparing the thermo-convective and acousto-convective drying methods showed that twice as much moisture was removed from the samples dried by the (ACDP) with a flow frequency of 790 Hz and at room temperature for a 30-minute interval as with thermal convective drying with a working flow temperature of 127°C. The relaxation mathematical model used to describe the drying phenomenon and the experimental data for sunflower cake drying allows obtaining the quantitative parameters characterizing different modes and methods of drying the samples under study. The article analyses a discrete drying regime that contributes to increasing the efficiency of the acousto-convective mode of moisture extraction.
Sports and energy drinks
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Presently, sports and energy drinks are widely spread not only among athletes, but also among ordinary people of different ages. The purpose of these beverages is to effectively compensate for the loss of water, energy and electrolytes in the human body before or after some exhausting activities. A questionnaire survey on energy drinks conducted in all eight federal districts of the Russian Federation shows that the younger groups of the Russian population (aged 12–17 and 18–30) drink tonic beverages more often than the older groups (aged 31–45 and 45–60). Further, a recent rise in unreasonable consumption of sports and energy drinks among teenagers may lead to various diseases: obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and tooth enamel erosion. Finally, the authors analyse the composition of energy beverages and thoroughly describe each of their main components (L-carnitine, creatine, caffeine, taurine, and juice-containing products). These components are used by athletes due to their effects: L-carnitine helps reduce the signs of physical and mental overstrain, and stimulates working capacity; creatine improves endurance and anaerobic activity; caffeine raises aerobic endurance by increasing the oxidation of fats, thereby helping preserve glycogen in the muscles; taurine plays an important role as an antioxidant protector in the regulation of Ca++ transport, and as a regulator of osmotic pressure in the tissues.
Natural sweeteners: health benefits of stevia
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
Sport nutrition: the role of macronutrients and minerals in endurance exercises
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Athletes’ nutrition optimization is very important for the nutritional support in all sport specializations. Macronutrients, as well as minerals and vitamins, are functionally active components that play an important role in nutrition of athletes especially in endurance sport. Optimal use of diets, including specialized sport nutrition, normalizes biochemical, immune, endocrine functions and restores athletes’ energy balance at different stages of sport exercises. Non-optimal athletes’ nutrition of different age groups, inadequate to their physiological needs, and no personalized approach to athletes’ diets, violate their right to adequate safe nutrition, according to international standards and criteria. Nutritional factors are one of the most important key factors in the risk prevention measures for a large number of diet-dependent diseases (e.g. digestive, liver, pancreas, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and kidney diseases). The review presents the information on energy requirements, balance and availability, types and content of functional products for athletes. It also gives an overview of the specialized food market in Russia.
Oxidative stability of edible oils via addition of pomegranate and orange peel extracts
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The main objective of the present study was to improve the oxidative stability of sunflower oil (SFO) and soybean oil (SBO). The aqueous ethanol extracts (80% ethanol) of pomegranate and Baladi orange peels were used as natural antioxidants at concentrations of 800 and 1,200 ppm in SFO and SBO in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Their antioxidant activities were estimated via the Rancimat method and over 24 days of storage at 65°C. The effect of extracts on the stability of sunflower and soybean oils during the storage period was studied by measuring the peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD) at 232 nm, conjugated trienes (CT) at 270 nm, free fatty acids (FFAs), iodine value (IV), and the refractive index (RI). A great difference in PVs was observed between the control sample and the oil samples containing natural extracts which slowed the rate of peroxide formation. Generally, the results showed that during the storage period at 65°C, the conjugated diene formation followed a similar pattern relative to PV accumulation. The PV, CD, CT, FFA, and RI values of SFO and SBO containing a pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and Baladi orange peel extract (BOPE) at concentrations of 800 and 1,200 ppm were lower than those of SFO and SBO containing 200 ppm BHT, and this trend became apparent during the storage period. The rate of reduction of IV in the control was higher than that in SFO and SBO containing both synthetic and natural antioxidants. These findings confirmed that the natural antioxidants under investigation could be used as alternatives to synthetic antioxidants to improve the oxidative stability of edible oils in the food industry.
Analysis of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins in pork meat by capillary gel electrophoresis
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Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were extracted from pork meat (M. Longissimus dorsi) and then separated by capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). Migration time and peak areas of individual protein molecules in the electropherogram were analysed. The electropherograms obtained after the separation of myofibrillar proteins contained 53 well-separated peaks, of which the following were identified: thymosin, myosin light chain-3 (MLC-3), myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2), troponin C, troponin I, myosin light chain-1 (MLC-1), tropomyosin 1, tropomyosin 2, troponin T, actin, desmin, troponin, C protein, and myosin heavy chain (MHC). The relative concentration of the identified myofibrillar proteins was 74.5%. Of the 56 separated sarcoplasmic proteins the following were identified: myoglobin, myokinase, triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, creatine kinase, enolase, phosphoglucose isomerase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoglucomutase, and phosphorylase b. The relative concentration of the identified sarcoplasmic proteins was 83.6% of all sarcoplasmic proteins extracted from the pork meat.
Marbled beef quality grades under various ageing conditions
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The Russian beef market is growing, which means that the problem of meat quality is getting more and more relevant. The gradually improving culture of meat consumption raises the demand for beef maturation, or ageing. The current research is the first of its kind in Russia. It features the quality of Russian marbled beef in the process of its open-air and vacuum-packed maturation. The authors studied the changes in the quality grades of dry-aged and vacuum-packed marbled beef during 4, 16 and 28-day ageing and defined the optimal maturation conditions and terms. The study included pH, colour, microstructure, organoleptic properties, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile aroma-forming compounds, and the area of intramuscular fat. The samples were on-the-bone beef cuts obtained from 18-month-old Aberdeen-Angus castrated bulls that had received 200 days of grain fattening. The pH value remained stable throughout the ageing period in the dry-aged and vacuum-packed samples. Approaching the end of the test period, the change in pH reached 0.12 for the dry-aged samples and 0.21 for the vacuum-packed ones. The surface of the dry-aged samples obtained a dark red to burgundy-red dry crust after 16 and 28 days of ageing. The colour was significantly different from the colour of the samples after 4 days of ageing. The colour of the vacuum-packed samples remained unchanged throughout the maturation period. However, the microstructure of the packed beef showed a deeper and more widespread decomposition of muscle tissue on days 16 and 28. The changes in the dry-aged samples were less obvious. All in all, the process of extended ageing improved the organoleptic properties of the beef.
Prospects for DNA authentication in wine production monitoring
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Wines DNA authentication is a technological process of their authenticity verification by genetic identification of the main plant ingredient by means of molecular genetic analysis of the residual amounts of Vitis vinifera L nucleic acids extracted from end product cellular debris. The main aim of the research was the analysis of scientific and methodological approaches to the extraction of residual amounts of nucleic acids in wine raw materials and DNA authentication of wines for their subsequent application in solving the problem of determining wine products authenticity and place of origin. The prior art includes various approaches to the extraction of Vitis vinifera L. nucleic acids among which the three methods by Savazzini & Martinelli, Pereira and Bigliazzi can be named basically. Analysis of the effectiveness of different methods of DNA extraction from wines indicates the superiority of the Pereira method over other traditional methods of extraction in terms of DNA yield and quality. Besides, the nucleic acid extracted from wines is characterized as residual since its concentration is significantly reduced in a multi-stage wine production process. The yield of extracted nucleic acid also decreases as the wine ages. The use of microsatellite DNA loci designed for grapes genetic identification is one of the approaches applicable for wine DNA authentication.
Ensuring the safety of the lipid fraction of semi-finished products of a high degree of preparation from fatty fish raw materials
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The relevance of the studies is caused by the need to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of semi-finished products from fatty fish raw materials. The study was carried out at the premises of the Saratov State Agrarian University. Study objects were fish mixed fodder; two-year-old carps; fish raw materials; carp semi-finished products. Physicochemical, histological, and organoleptic research methods were used in the study. The authors have developed a method for inhibiting the process of fish fat oxidation at all the stages of the life cycle of fish products using CO2 rosemary extract and milk thistle oil meal as antioxidant components because they contain flavonolignans and carnosic and rosmarinic acids. Technological methods for obtaining complex fish mixed fodder with antioxidant properties were developed and the optimal dosages of the antioxidants added to a feed supplement were determined. A positive effect of an antioxidant supplement on the fish biological characteristics of a reared carp, as well as on the morpho-functional indicators of the obtained raw materials, was shown. The authors developed formulations of the fish semi-finished products made from the raw materials grown using antioxidant fish mixed fodder. The safety and quality indicators of the developed products were estimated. They showed that the use of an antioxidant component at the stage of fish rearing and in manufacturing process of fish semi-finished products makes it possible to significantly improve the stability of the fat phase both in fish raw materials and in the finished products.
Criteria for standartization of probiotic components in functional food products
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The increasing volume of consumption of probiotics and functional food products requires determination of standardized criteria for cultures and their exometabolites used in functional products manufacturing. The study was aimed at developing criteria for the estimation and standardization of exometabolites and the colony-forming ability of probiotic strains for functional food production. The work included such microbiological and physicochemical methods as GC-MS, GPC, UV, and FT-IR-spectroscopy. Based on the results of the study, the comparative analysis of the microbiological properties of probiotic Bifidobacterium strains was provided, the fatty acid composition of the cell wall was described, and the physical and chemical study of the exopolymers produced by them was carried out. According to the data of FT-IR- spectroscopy, the characteristic features of the components of the cell wall of Bifidobacterium strains were established. Bifidobacteria form the unique composition of organophosphorus structures of lipoteichoic acids, which determines the adhesive ability of strains. The authors studied the molecular weight distribution of the samples of exometabolites isolated from the nutrient medium after the cultivation of bifidobacteria, under conditions of gel-permeation chromatography. The spectral (UV, FT-IR) characteristics of the produced metabolites and their chromatographic fractions were compared. The fatty acids of the Bifidobacterium cell membrane were analyzed using the GC/MS method. The fatty acids were extracted from bacterial cells with different hydrophobicity with a mixture of chloroform and hexane. It has been established that the hydrophobicity is determined by different contents of unsaturated and branched fatty acids in the bacterial membrane. Hydrophobic bifidobacteria are the only that contain the isopentadecane (isoC15:0) and methyl-tetradecanoic (13Me-C14:0) acids. With the mean hydrophobicity, a high content of the isopalmitic (isoC16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids was established. Low-hydrophobic strains are characterized by a low content of monounsaturated fatty acids.
Informational support as an element of state control of agriculture
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This article substantiates the importance of informational support in the agricultural sector for controlling authorities and for agro-industrial organisations in enhancing their monitoring and competitive strategies. It identifies specific features of the agricultural sector that determine its needs for information, namely its dependence on climatic conditions and the state of natural resources available to economic entities, a large territorial expanse, the location of major production facilities in rural areas, the development of interregional and international contacts, and an active growth of agricultural exports. By studying the current regulatory and legal database of the Russian Federation, the authors established the regulatory framework of a state information system and identified its key data groups. Finally, the paper looks at those information resources which were created by the federal authorities and regional bodies in the Northwestern and Siberian Federal Districts, reflecting the tasks of state informational support in agriculture.
Economic effect of innovative flour-based functional foods production
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The article presents the analysis of economic effect for the innovative flour-based functional foods production incorporation. Based on the analysis of the current state and prospects for the bakery industry development, the authors propose to expand the range of flour-based foods meant for dietary preventive and dietary therapeutic nutrition using diversification methods. For this, they used alternative recipe ingredients of plant origin, such as amaranth seeds, lentil and lupine seeds, chufa, and carob beans. The innovative technologies improve the chemical composition and consumer characteristics of the foods, provide meeting the market requirements, and increase the efficiency of financial and material resources, which, as a result, facilitates the food competitiveness and leads to the bakery industry effective development. We propose to evaluate the economic effect of innovative foods by determining the retail price and profit with a minimum 10% cost effect. The calculations of economic indicators for traditional and new flour-based foods are presented. Estimated economic efficiency of 1 tonne bakery foods for the standard and high-protein diets (according to therapeutic nutrition diet classification) is 5,030–10,740 rbls, flour confectionary foods – 11,022 rbls, gluten-free breads – 7,625–16,990 rbls, depending on the constituents and bakery technology. The results provide strong evidence of economic effect and the advantages of functional flour-based foods introduction.
Matrix dynamic models of elements of technological systems with perfect mixing and plug-flow hydrodynamics in Simulink
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The dynamic models of elements of technological systems with perfect mixing and plug-flow hydrodynamics are based on the systems of algebraic and differential equations that describe a change in the basic technological parameters. The main difficulty in using such models in MathWorks Simulink™ computer simulation systems is the representation of ordinary differential equations (ODE) and partial differential equations (PDE) that describe the dynamics of a process as a MathWorks Simulink™ block set. The study was aimed at developing an approach to the synthesis of matrix dynamic models of elements of technological systems with perfect mixing and plug-flow hydrodynamics that allows for transition from PDE to an ODE system on the basis of matrix representation of discretization of coordinate derivatives. A sugar syrup cooler was chosen as an object of modeling. The mathematical model of the cooler is formalized by a set of perfect reactors. The simulation results showed that the mathematical model adequately describes the main regularities of the process, the deviation of the calculated data from the regulations did not exceed 10%. The proposed approach significantly simplifies the study and modernization of the current and the development of new technological equipment, as well as the synthesis of algorithms for controlling the processes therein.
Effect of sodium bicarbonate residue on some characteristics of processed meat products
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for 2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per 1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups (P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
Prospects for using pine nut products in the dairy industry
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
Study of lysate activity to modificate collagene raw materials to use in sausage mixture
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In the current conditions of import substitution, the effective use of secondary raw materials in the meat industry is a relevant issue. A significant source of animal proteins is by-products, the yield of which is about 10% of livestock weight. Some by-products, including beef rumen, contain collagen-containing tissues which require modification for tenderization and deodorization. In order to modify rumen tissues, the biotechnological method of treatment with an enzyme solution, lysate, obtained from a whole bovine abomasum was preferred to the known method where enzyme solution is prepared from an abomasal mucosa. The purpose of this project was to study the activity of lysate from a whole bovine abomasum for the modification of rumen tissue to use it in cooked sausage formulations. We have suggested the method of obtaining enzyme solution based on infusing the minced abomasum in a reaction mixture – water, chlorohydric acid, and sodium tripolyphosphate – followed by filtering. The dependence of proteolytic and collagenase activities of the solution obtained from phosphate dose introduced have been studied; it have been revealed that 1.5% of tripolyphosphate is the optimal dose for efficient extraction of enzymes from the whole abomasum. Besides, an effect of the enzyme solution on functional and technological properties of a heat-treated rumen has been studied, and the improvement of hydro- and lipophilic characteristics has been revealed. Paste with modified rumen has been developed and found that the maximum possible dose of rumen for use in cooked sausage from horsemeat is 15%. The color on the cut of sausage developed was identical to that of beef sausage. Thus, paste made on the basis of modified rumen contributes to the formation of functional and technological properties, the stabilization of the color characteristics of the final product, as well as the effective use of basic meat raw materials and the expansion of the range of economy class high-protein sausage production.
Prospects for DNA authentication in wine production monitoring
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Wines DNA authentication is a technological process of their authenticity verification by genetic identification of the main plant ingredient by means of molecular genetic analysis of the residual amounts of Vitis vinifera L nucleic acids extracted from end product cellular debris. The main aim of the research was the analysis of scientific and methodological approaches to the extraction of residual amounts of nucleic acids in wine raw materials and DNA authentication of wines for their subsequent application in solving the problem of determining wine products authenticity and place of origin. The prior art includes various approaches to the extraction of Vitis vinifera L. nucleic acids among which the three methods by Savazzini & Martinelli, Pereira and Bigliazzi can be named basically. Analysis of the effectiveness of different methods of DNA extraction from wines indicates the superiority of the Pereira method over other traditional methods of extraction in terms of DNA yield and quality. Besides, the nucleic acid extracted from wines is characterized as residual since its concentration is significantly reduced in a multi-stage wine production process. The yield of extracted nucleic acid also decreases as the wine ages. The use of microsatellite DNA loci designed for grapes genetic identification is one of the approaches applicable for wine DNA authentication.
Cherry chemical composition and antioxidant activity under freezing comprehensive relations assessment
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Cherry is a successful combination of sugars, acids, attractive color and taste. However, its shelf life is limited and can be prolonged only with the help of new freezing technologies. Therefore, the gool of this work was to investigate changes in component composition of fresh and frozen cherry. The objects of the research were cherries of the varieties of Shpanka and Lotovka. The studies were carried out with cherries grown in the Central region of Ukraine at the Department of Technology of storage and processing of fruits and vegetables at Uman National Horticulture University. For cherries of both varieties were kept in 20% sugar solution with the addition of 4% ascorutin 1% chitosan for 30 minutes, dried with air flow, frozen at –25°C, packed in 0.5 kg plastic bags, and stored at ‒18°C. For control purposes, nontreated cherries were packed in plastic bags of respective volume. According to the research, preprocessing with 20% sugar solution with the addition of 1% chitosan contributes to preservation of quality and biological value of frozen cherries. Thus antioxidant activity in frozen cherries of Shpanka and Lotovka varieties is 27 and 18 mmol/dm3, ascorbic acid content – 17.6 and 20 mg/100g. So the indexes of quality of cherries for freezing are interrelated and constitute one correlation pattern in which the major index indicator is the content of dry soluble substance and antioxidant activity.
OBTAINING AND IDENTIFICATION OF INULIN FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS) TUBERS
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The growing demand of the Russian population for healthy food dictates the need in functional ingredients production increase. Inulin, the polysaccharide of natural origin, has a wide range of functional activity. This article grounds the expedience of inulin obtaining from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and considers effective technological methods of ensuring high yield and quality of the target product. It was demonstrated that application of vibration with frequency 24 Hz for 60 min at temperature 30–35°C intensifies the extraction process, and fractionation of the extract on membranes with pore diameter 2, 3 and 5 kDa allows to obtain inulin with certain physicochemical properties. The membrane separation results in three inulin fractions: low molecular (DP = 2-10), medium molecular (DP = 11-18) and high molecular (DP = 19-35) fraction. The medium molecular fraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic and fat substitute in food technology, was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and 1H-13C NMR spectrometry. The obtained spectral characteristics have led to a conclusion that the investigated sample of inulin is highly competitive with the best world analogues. The authors thoroughly describe the method of determining the degree of polymerization and average molecular weight of the investigated polysaccharide using 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. It has been established that inulin obtained by improved technology has the degree of polymerization DP = 13–14 and molecular weight 2124–2286 Da. The results of this work have practical value for production of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and theoretical value for the chemistry of natural compounds.
Genetic identification of bovine leukaemia virus
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Molecular genetic research methods make it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and are the most informative approaches to its genetic identification. Molecular genetic research methods work well for the phylogenetic analysis of sequenced nucleotide DNA sequences of the provirus, as well as for the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) according to the phylogenetic classification of the pathogen. The purpose of the research was to study the scientific and methodological approaches to the genetic identification of bovine leukemia virus, integrated into the molecular monitoring of infection of cattle with BLV genotypes. The authors used PCR-RFLP-genotyping and comparative phylogenetic analysis of aligned nucleotide sequences of the env gene fragment of the BLV provirus isolates to detect the genotypic affiliation of the cattle from twenty-one livestock farms of the Republic of Tatarstan. As a result, isolates of four out of ten BLV genotypes were found in the Tatarstani cattle, namely genotypes 1, 4, 7, and 8. The research involved a comparative analysis of 505 nucleotide sequences of a fragment of the BLV env gene, including those deposited in GenBank NCBI. The analysis confirms the inconsistency of several earlier PCR-RFLP typing strategies with the current approach in assessing the genotypic diversity by phylogenetic analysis. The improved strategy of PCR-RFLP genotyping of BLV corresponds with its modern phylogenetic classification. The strategy makes it possible to identify all the known genotypes of the viral pathogen. Its validity has been proved by in silico modelling of restrictogrammes and a phylogenetic analysis of the env gene fragment of 57 reference isolates of ten BLV genotypes that generate 57 genotype-associated combinations of diagnostically significant PCR-RFLP profiles.
Ensuring the safety of the lipid fraction of semi-finished products of a high degree of preparation from fatty fish raw materials
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The relevance of the studies is caused by the need to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of semi-finished products from fatty fish raw materials. The study was carried out at the premises of the Saratov State Agrarian University. Study objects were fish mixed fodder; two-year-old carps; fish raw materials; carp semi-finished products. Physicochemical, histological, and organoleptic research methods were used in the study. The authors have developed a method for inhibiting the process of fish fat oxidation at all the stages of the life cycle of fish products using CO2 rosemary extract and milk thistle oil meal as antioxidant components because they contain flavonolignans and carnosic and rosmarinic acids. Technological methods for obtaining complex fish mixed fodder with antioxidant properties were developed and the optimal dosages of the antioxidants added to a feed supplement were determined. A positive effect of an antioxidant supplement on the fish biological characteristics of a reared carp, as well as on the morpho-functional indicators of the obtained raw materials, was shown. The authors developed formulations of the fish semi-finished products made from the raw materials grown using antioxidant fish mixed fodder. The safety and quality indicators of the developed products were estimated. They showed that the use of an antioxidant component at the stage of fish rearing and in manufacturing process of fish semi-finished products makes it possible to significantly improve the stability of the fat phase both in fish raw materials and in the finished products.
Prospects of using extremely low doses of physical factors impact in food biotechnology
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The paper deals with urgent issues of development of resource-saving methods of biotechnological processes intensification. The main purpose of the work is to show the efficiency of using extremely low doses of physical factors impact in food biotechnology. Acoustic and electric treatment was in various modes. Impact capacity did not exceed 10-4 W/kg. The duration of exposure ranged from 5 to 15 min. Barley grains enzymes and lactic acid microorganisms were subjected to treatment. Impact of vibration as a physical factor, its frequency is considered as a priority in controlling growth and biochemical processes in biological objects. Impact frequency in the range of 50–10000 Hz influences the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in bimodal way. It is presented in the article. The coincidence of the frequency ranges of the maximum activity of enzymes in the model reactions with the ones in the grain of barley under the treatment of alternating current and sound is noted. Improvement of all indexes of germinating barley and improvement of the quality of the finished malt were observed in these ranges. Low-intensity acoustic treatment at a frequency of 2000 Hz contributed to an increase in β-galactosidase activity of the CT-95 Str. thermophilus strain. Selected ST-95 Str. thermophilus strain was used in the starter composition for the experimental sample production of fermented melted milk. The fermentation process intensification was observed. The lactose content of this product is 30% less in comparison with the feedstock. The use of traditional starter without a selected strain can reduce the lactose content by an average of 7.5%. The results of biotechnological processes modification by means of the treatment of enzymes and extremely low doses of physical factors impact used in meat technologies are observed. Thus, the prospects of using low-intensity physical effects of vibration in the development of innovative food technologies are substantiated. It is also promising to use these technologies in making absolutely new food products with different qualities.
Microstructure and cooking quality of barley-enriched pasta produced at different process parameters
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Pasta is one of the most popular meals in the world. It is affordable, easy to combine with other foods and easy to cook. Unfortunately, pasta is energy-rich and nutrient-poor. Whole-wheat pasta is somewhat better in nutritional quality, but further improvements may be made. One option is to add different raw materials and specific nutritive components (vitamins, polyphenols, fiber, protein, etc.) to semolina. However, this approach changes its physico-chemical properties, e.g. cooking loss, texture, etc., which cannot be disregarded. The current research investigates possibilities for production of barley-enriched pasta with acceptable cooking qualities. To ensure the beneficial health effects of β-glucan, β-glucan-rich barley was selected asa starting material. Pasta enriched with 10–50% β-glucan-rich barley flour was produced in the mini-press and the laboratory extruder and then dried at low, medium and high temperature regimes. Colour, cooking quality and microstructure of the enriched pasta were investigated to determine its acceptability. The research showed that barley-enriched pasta of good cooking quality might be produced by selecting an optimal combination of suitable production parameters for forming and drying.