Volume 9, Issue 1 (2021)
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Introduction. The lack of dietary fibre in the Russian people diet contributes to the development of various diseases. In this regard, it seems worthwhile to enrich foods with dietary fibre obtained from various types of raw materials. In our experiments, we used beet pulp. This study aimed to develop a technology for obtaining combined dietary fibre using the electrophysical method and evaluate its detoxification properties.
Study objects and methods. Study objects were pectin substances and combined detoxicants from beet pulp obtained by extracting with succinic acid with and without an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EM) treatment. The profiles of combined detoxicants and pectin substances were identified by IR-Fourier spectrometry. Beet pectin, beet cellulose, and their combined detoxicants were tested for complexing (binding) capacity with respect to lead ions (Pb2+). For this, we applied the trilonometric method with some modifications.
Results and discussion. The analysis of the absorption bands of carboxyl groups carbonyls revealed the presence of free carboxyl groups in the combined detoxicants. The combined detoxicant with a 1:0.5 ratio of cellulose and pectin substances showed a high complexing (binding) capacity (601 mg/Pb2+) with respect to lead ions (Pb2+).
Conclusion. We developed a technology for producing combined detoxicants with a high complexing capacity with respect to lead ions analysed microstructures of gels obtained during the interaction between the combined detoxicant and lead acetate solution.
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Introduction. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka L.) is a valuable Pacific salmon. Sockeye heads are a significant share in processing sockeye salmon. Traditionally, fish by-products are used to make fishmeal. However, due to the high content of collagen proteins and fat in sockeye salmon heads, it is difficult to produce fishmeal from this raw material. Controlled enzymatic or combined hydrolysis allows protein, fat, and minerals to be extracted to supply the market with higher value products with desirable features. This research was aimed to analyse the chemical composition and biological value of hydrolysis products obtained from sockeye heads.
Study objects and methods. We investigated hydrolysis products of sockeye salmon heads, namely protein hydrolysates, fat and sludge. Thermal hydrolysis and enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis were used for the tests. Thermal hydrolysis was realized in reactor. For enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis, the raw material was pre-treated by proteolytic enzyme Alcalase. The hydrolysates obtained were investigated. Chemical composition was determined in accordance with State Standard 7636-85. HPLC was used for molecular weight and amino acid analysis. Gas chromatography was used for fatty acid analysis. Biological value of proteins was determined by the balance of the amino acid composition comparing it with the “ideal protein model”.
Results and discussion. Thermal hydrolysis resulted in the production of protein hydrolysate powder with protein content of 92.0% dry matter and a protein recovery rate of 39.6%. Combined hydrolysis resulted in the production of protein hydrolysate powder with protein content of 92.6% and a protein recovery rate of 83%. All protein hydrolysates contained all essential amino acids. The biological value of protein hydrolysate obtained by thermal and combined hydrolysis was 80.1 and 82.8%, respectively.
Conclusion. Hydrolysed products obtained by thermal and enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis had a valuable chemical composition and could be recommended for food and feed use.
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Introduction. Mayonnaise is a kind of oil-in-water emulsion that usually contains 70–80% of oil. However, modern food science keeps providing new knowledge about high-fat products, which makes it possible to solve the problems related to health concerns.
Study objects and methods. The research featured high-fat mayonnaise (20% of oil) with reduced oil stabilizer (1.75%) and without egg stabilizer. In experimental samples, egg stabilizer was replaced with 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of whey protein concentrate and 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0% of Tragacanth gum. Mayonnaise with 3.5% oil stabilizer and 0.3% egg stabilizer was used as control sample. The samples were tested for such textural attributes as firmness, consistency, adhesive force, and adhesiveness.
Results and discussion. The highest and the lowest textural values were demonstrated by the sample with 0.4% of whey protein concentrate and 0.5% of Tragacanth gum and the sample with 0.5% of whey protein concentrate and 1.0% of Tragacanth, respectively. The former showed textural characteristics similar to those of the control sample. The presence of hydrocolloids proved to affect the texture properties of mayonnaise, whereas Tragacanth gum reduced its elasticity. It formed a strong and complex gel-like structure in the continuous phase. As a result, oil droplets in the emulsion had a smaller diameter, which improved the texture properties of low-fat mayonnaise.
Conclusion. Whet protein concentrate and Tragacanth gum in amounts of 0.5% and 1.0%, respectively, can be used to replace egg stabilizer and reduce oil stabilizer in low-fat mayonnaise.
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Introduction. Probiotics are known for their beneficial properties. Numerous studies have been conducted to find advantages that probiotics can provide. This study aimed to evaluate the functional properties of raffia sap, a Cameroonian drink, fermented with probiotics by investigating its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria.
Study objects and methods. The study objective was raffia sap fermented by Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Box-Behnken design with four factors (seeding rates of L. fermentum and B. bifidum, temperature, and incubation time) was used to generate mathematical models. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate an antagonistic effect of the probiotics against four pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., and Bacillus cereus). An optimization of mathematical models of the inhibition diameters allowed to determine the optimal conditions of antagonistic effect.
Results and discussion. The experimental data showed that zones of inhibition were 0‒21 mm for Salmonella sp., 0‒23 mm for E. coli, 0‒20 mm for L. monocytogenes, and 0‒22 mm for B. cereus. ANOVA results and the mathematical models obtained showed that L. fermentum was effective against B. cereus and B. bifidum against Salmonella sp., E. coli, and B. cereus. The optimization of the models revealed maximum zones of inhibition at the seeding rates of L. fermentum and B. bifidum of 2 and 10%, respectively, incubation time of 48 h, and temperature of 37°C.
Conclusion. Raffia sap fermented by L. fermentum and B. bifidum demonstrated antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., and B. cereus.
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Introduction. The existing methods of animal fat obtaining have certain disadvantages, hence fat extraction study highly is relevant. Electrochemically activated solutions are known to have a great potential for animal fat extraction. The present paper introduced a new advanced fat obtaining technology based on the principle of electrochemical activation.
Study objects and methods. The research featured ostrich fat obtained by wet rendering in water and in an electrochemically activated solution (catholyte) using various processing methods and technological parameters. Standard methods helped define the physical and chemical parameters of the obtained fat samples.
Results and discussion. The paper introduced a technological and hardware setup of an ostrich fat production line with the necessary equipment specifications. The research made it possible to define the optimal parameters for fat extraction: the salt concentration for the catholyte = 4 g/100 cm3, voltage = 40–42 V, pH = 11, and redox potential of the catholyte = between –600 and –700 mV. During the fat processing, cell membranes in the electrolyte were destroyed, which inactivated the enzyme system. The obtained combination of physical and chemical factors resulted in ostrich fat of high quality. Fat extraction in an electrochemically activated solution (catholyte) catalyzed the process and increased the fat yield, regardless of the processing temperature. The fat yield exceeded 58% at 55°C and catholyte pH of 11.0. At 95–100°C and pH of 9.5–10.6, it exceeded 95%.
Conclusion. The new technology increased the fat yield, maintained its high quality, and reduced the processing cost. Therefore, the developed production line could be recommended for fat extraction of farm animals, depending on the intended use.
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Introduction. Coconut water is rich in nutrients and biologically-active compounds. However, it has a short shelf life that can be prolonged by freeze drying. The purpose of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fresh and powdered coconut drinks.
Study objects and methods. The experiments included eight samples, namely fresh and powdered coconut drinks obtained from coconuts of different varieties (tall and hybrid) and maturity stages (4 and 6 m.o.). The samples were analyzed for nutrient content (ash, protein, fat, total carbohydrate, and fibre), physicochemical properties (titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, total soluble solids, turbidity, water activity, and browning index), and sensory characteristics (color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptance).
Results and discussion. The results obtained showed that there were significant differences among the coconut drinks of different varieties and maturity stages. They differed in nutrient content, pH value, titratable acidity, viscosity, and water activity. Meanwhile, the aroma, taste, and overall acceptance scores of all the samples were not significantly different. The powdered drink from 6 m.o. hybrid coconut was selected as the optimal sample due to its good sensory and physicochemical attributes. These attributes were similar to those of the fresh coconut drink.
Conclusion. The powdered drink from 6 m.o. hybrid coconut obtained by freeze drying could be considered as an alternative healthy drink with good quality characteristics.
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Introduction. The fungus Aspergillus oryzae is widely used in the production of fermented soy-based products. However, there is little data on how its genetic characteristics affect the biochemical and fractional composition of protein substances during fermentation and the quality of fermented products. This study aimed to investigate the conversion of soy meal under the influence of two A. oryzae strains with different morphological and cultural properties during the production of a fermented soy sauce.
Study objects and methods. The study used two A. oryzae strains, RCAM 01133 and RCAM 01134, which were isolated from the industrial F-931 strain (Russian Collection of Industrial Microorganisms), a producer of hydrolytic enzymes. Micromycetes were cultivated by a solid-phase method on soy meal, followed by dry fermentation. The results were analyzed with regard to accumulation of amine nitrogen, bound and free amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates.
Results and discussion. The cultivation of micromycetes resulted in a 35–38% increase in protein, a tenfold increase in free amino acids, and a 1.5–1.7 fold decrease in polysaccharides. The contents of essential amino acids in the fermented soy sauce were 1.7 and 1.2 times as high as in the initial medium (soy meal) and in the reference protein, respectively. Fermentation enhanced the biological value of proteins, increasing the amino acid scores of phenylalanine (7.3–7.7 times), phenylalanine (2 times), as well as valine, threonine, tryptophan, and lysine. The contents of protein and essential amino acids were slightly higher in the sauce with the RCAM 01133 strain.
Conclusion. Fermenting soy materials with the RCAM 01133 strain of A. oryzae is an alternative way to produce food ingredients with good sensory properties containing carbohydrates and biologically complete protein in easily digestible forms.
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Introduction. Microorganisms of dairy raw materials tend to adhere to the surfaces of processing equipment and form sustainable biofilms, which is a serious issue in the dairy industry. The goal of the present work was to investigate formation of biofilms on a glass surface in static model conditions, and removal of such biofilms by cleaning.
Study objects and methods. The study objects were the permeates of skim milk, sweet whey and acid whey, as well as the biofilms formed and washings from glass slides. Biofilms were removed from the glass with detergents used in the dairy industry. Standard methods of determining microbiological and physicochemical properties were used to characterize the permeates. The biofilm structure and morphology of microorganisms participating in biofilm formation were investigated with a light spectroscopy. The efficiency of biofilm removal in a cleaning process was quantified with optical density of washings.
Results and discussion. Biofilms in whey permeates formed slower compared to those in skimmed milk permeate during the first 24 h. Yeasts contributed significantly to the biofilm microflora in acid whey permeate throughout 5 days of biofilm growth. Well adhered biofilm layers were the most stable in skimmed milk permeate. The highest growth of both well and poorly adhered biofilm layers was observed in sweet whey permeate after 3–5 days. It was established that the primary attachment of microorganisms to a glass surface occurred within 8 h, mature multicultural biofilms formed within 48 h, and their partial destruction occurred within 72 h.
Conclusion. The research results can be used to improve the cleaning equipment procedures in processing secondary dairy raw materials.
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Introduction. Jerusalem artichoke is a valuable low-maintenance crop whose tubers contain vital nutrients and prebiotics. We propose using Jerusalem artichoke powder as a functional nutrient in the formulation of food products.
Study objects and methods. We studied the influence of vacuum, vibration, and grinding on the kinetics of drying Jerusalem artichoke tubers of a “Skorospelka” variety in the laboratory vacuum vibromixing mill dryer (VVMD).
Results and discussion. The rate of drying in the VVMD was almost 5.5 times as high as that of convective drying. The kinetic curves showed that grinding provided a period of decreasing drying rate until almost complete drying. Vibration drying in the VVMD was twice faster than vacuum drying. The comparison of theoretical and experimental data on moisture and drying time revealed good adequacy. The NMR analysis of changes in the molecular mobility of the samples obtained in the VVMD showed an implicit twocomponent spectrum, indicative of low moisture. The chemical analysis of the tubers and powders by standard methods confirmed that the proposed gentle technology (fast drying at 30°C) preserved 86% of inulin.
Conclusion. Jerusalem artichoke powder obtained in the VVMD can be used in different branches of the food industry due to its long shelf life, low consolidation, and no caking, with residual moisture of 6.1%.
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Introduction. Amylase is a significant enzyme with numerous commercial applications, which is largely used to convert starches into oligosaccharides. Extraction of amylase from plant by-products or cheap sources is cost-effective. Annually, pitaya fruit juice industry produces huge amounts of peels that could be utilized as an alternative source in enzyme production industry. The work aimed to examine and optimize extraction process.
Study objects and methods. In this study, we investigated parameters of extraction to optimize the process, as well as activity of α-amylase from white pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus L.) peel. For this purpose, a two-level full factorial design was applied. Three variables, namely the pH of sodium phosphate buffer (X1, 4.5–7.5), mixing time (X2, 1–3 min), and a sample-to-buffer ratio (X3, 1:3–1:5), were used to identify significant effects and interactions within the samples.
Results and discussion. The results demonstrated that the buffer pH had the most significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on total amylase activity. Based on full factorial design analysis, we revealed the optimal conditions for amylase enzyme extraction ‒ pH of 6, mixing time of 2 min, and a sample-to-buffer ratio of 1:4. Lower and higher values influenced adversely on specific activity of amylase.
Conclusion. Optimization increased the enzyme specific activity by a factor of 4.5. Thus, pitaya peel could be used in different industries as a rich natural α-amylase source.
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Introduction. The ever-growing world population and protein deficiency increase the demand for products of animal origin, especially fish-based. However, canned foods and fillets, which are the most popular types of fish products, are made from medium-sized and large fish. In spite of the fact that undersized fish is cheap, it requires manual processing and remains so time and labour consuming that it is utilized for non-food purposes. The research objective was to develop a new technology for processing undersized sea fish into minced ready-to-eat products.
Study objects and methods. The study featured experimental samples of fish mince with texturing agents and food additives vs. control samples of pure fish mince. The experiment involved block-frozen Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens L.). The anchovy was minced without pre-defrosting, gutting, or beheading. The experimental and control samples underwent sensory evaluation and were tested for moisture content, water-binding capacity, and rheological properties using a PNDP-penetrometer.
Results and discussion. Adding 3.6% of wheat fiber, ≤ 15% of pea flour, ≤ 10% of textured soy, and 12% of onion improved the sensory and technological profiles of the finished product. The recommended mass fraction of fish in the finished product did not exceed 55%, as a higher amount deteriorated the sensory quality of the product. The textured soy provided the optimal texture. The fish balls were cooked from the fish mince, which were deep-fried in breadcrumbs, received a high score for sensory properties and could be recommended as basis for various formulations.
Conclusion. Minced undersized fish, traditionally used as fertilizers or crude product, proved to be an advantageous semi-finished and ready-to-eat product. The developed technology is relevant for most undersized block-frozen sea fish.
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Introduction. Numerous molecular genetic studies have revealed a correlation between the polymorphism of milk protein genes and the technological properties of milk raw materials. DNA analysis, in particular, initiated research into the influence of allelic variants of κ-casein (CSN3) on thermal stability and cheese suitability of milk. This gives relevance to our study that compares the results of genotypic identification of lactating cows by the κ-casein gene, using raw and processed milk samples.
Study objects and methods. Our study used raw and reconstituted milk samples from first-calf cows of the black motley breed with the AA and BB genotypes of the κ-casein gene. The samples were analyzed by standardized and generally accepted chemical engineering methods, as well as by capillary electrophoresis and PCR-RFLP analysis.
Results and discussion. We compared the results of tests on thermal stability and cheese suitability of raw and reconstituted milk samples from cows with the AA and BB genotypes of the κ-casein gene. We tried out an integrated approach to monitoring milk raw materials based on the most relevant technological criteria and correlating the data with the associated CSN3 gene identification parameters. The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed reproducible results for both raw and dried milk samples in relation to the genotypical identification by the A- and B- allelic variants of the CSN3 gene. The tests showed higher thermal stability in the reconstituted milk from the BB genotype cow and better cheese suitability in the AA genotype sample.
Conclusion. We developed a system for evaluating milk raw materials based on the most important technological parameters in combination with their genotypic characteristics. Our research procedure can unify the accumulation of experimental data and contribute to the formation of bioinformatics algorithms. This approach can be used in mathematical modeling of criteria to evaluate the compliance of the technological properties of milk with the recommended indicators.
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Introduction. Although sustainability represents a high-profile topic in supply chain management, it remains an unexplored research area for Halal food supply chains (HFSCs). Hence, to bridge this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify the measures necessary for the development of sustainable HFSCs and potential research gaps at the nexus of sustainability and Halal food literature.
Study objects and methods. We carefully analyzed forty (40) papers selected from leading, highly-ranked journals to answer the following research question: “What are the measures necessary for the development of sustainable Halal food supply chains?”
Results and discussion. The findings revealed that the improvement of Halal processes through the implementation of quality management systems, the effectiveness of Halal labeling, and the use of technology could enhance the economic performance of HFSCs. Furthermore, HFSC’s sustainability efforts are strengthened by enhancing trust and transparency benefitting human resource skills development, promoting animal welfare issues, and increasing regulatory compliance. The implementation of environmental protection measures is a primary driving factor for environmental sustainability activities. Environmental sustainability could be fostered by a shift to the application of greening practices and the support of environmentalism in the Halal food industry.
Conclusion. The findings of this study provide critical managerial implications for Halal food practitioners as they can have a summary of the previous studies and thus use it as a benchmark for introducing sustainable measures in their Halal food firms.
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Introduction. The bacterium strain Paracoccus carotinifaciens VTP20181 isolated in Vietnam produces canthaxanthin, a carotenoid widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this work was to determine optimal parameters for canthaxanthin extraction from fermented biomass of P. carotinifaciens VTP20181.
Study objects and methods. First, a series of single factor investigations were carried out in regard to maximal carotenoid content in the biomass extract obtained by using ultrasonic waves. Four parameters of the extraction process, such as extraction temperature, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, and ultrasonic output power, were studied. The obtained results were then optimized by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design.
Results and discussion. The optimal technological parameters of the extraction process included extraction temperature of 35°C, solvent/material ratio of 9.5:1 (v/w), extraction time of 90 min, and ultrasonic output power of 145 W. Under optimal conditions, canthaxanthin and total carotenoid contents were determined as 14.95 ± 0.12 and 18.21 ± 0.11 mg/g respectively, which were compatible with theoretical calculations ‒ 15.074 and 18.263 mg/g, respectively.
Conclusion. Current results confirmed that the strain of halophilic P. carotinifaciens VTP20181 is a potential source for canthaxanthin biosynthesis.
Introduction. There is an urgent need for geroprotectors that prevent premature aging, especially antioxidants of plant origin. Due to the shortage of medicinal plant materials, scientists look for alternative sources of bioactive compounds of phenolic nature, for example, cell cultures and organs of higher plants. This paper describes a study of the geroprotective potential of in vitro bioactive compounds isolated from yarrow (Achilleae millefolii L.) cell cultures.
Study objects and methods. Callus, suspension and hairy root cultures of A. millefolii were obtained by in vitro cultivation on modified nutrient media. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the composition of the cell cultures and ethanol extracts. The extracts’ antimicrobial activity was studied by the disk diffusion method and their antioxidant activity was measured based on titration of a potassium permanganate solution.
Results and discussion. The biomass of all yarrow cell cultures contained essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic acids, carotenoids, as well as vitamins C and E. The suspension culture had a higher content of essential oils, flavonoids and glycosides than the callus and hairy root cultures. The extracts of the A. millefolii suspension culture also contained geroprotectors – phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and simple phenols, with a prevalence of caffeic acid, cynaroside, 4,5-dicofeylquinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin. In addition, HPLC revealed the presence of cumic aldehyde, umbelliferone, 3-caffeylquinic acid, and caffeic acid – the bioactive compounds previously not reported in yarrow. In vitro experiments with the extracts proved their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.
Conclusion. The complex of bioactive compounds isolated from the biomass of yarrow suspension culture provides this plant with potential geroprotective properties. Thus, yarrow can be used to create nutraceuticals that prevent premature aging.
Introduction. For over half a century, corporate social responsibility has been in the center of scientific discourse. Its basic concept has become part of strategic management, changing the content of financial reporting and leading to new forms of corporate reporting.
Study objects and methods. The article substantiated the importance of studying corporate social responsibility (CSR) concepts and national models. The study covered the CSR basic concept, targets and paradigms. The evolution of CSR was considered in terms of its impact on the formation of non-financial reporting.
Results and discussion. The authors identified two stages of non-financial reporting development and two directions for the convergence of financial and non-financial reporting. They proposed an assessment matrix to measure facts, actions, and resources in the past, present, and future. This matrix can help companies to generate information for integrated reporting by showing the impact of each type of capital (financial, production, human, intellectual, social, and environmental) on their value creation. Within a promising direction for developing non-financial reporting in conjunction with financial reporting, the authors set requirements to reflect the impact of climate risks on the company’s activities in accordance with the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures. The authors discussed both standardized and their own approaches to CSR indicators. Finally, they addressed the problem of reliability of non-financial reporting, discussed various forms of its verification (taking evidence from food industry enterprises), and set specific principles to control non-financial reporting indicators.
Conclusion. The authors identified further promising areas of research in the theory and practice of CSR. Their findings can be used in scientific debates on CSR and in the practice of corporate reporting.
Introduction. Mead, one of the oldest alcoholic beverages that man consumed is obtained by fermentation of honey solution, and contains from 8 to 18% vol. ethanol. Honey can be considered as an excellent source of carbohydrates for the fermentation process, but low concentrations of other substances in the honey can slow down the process. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) contains dietary fibers, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin A, vitamin E, potassium and calcium, along with the phenolic metabolites that are a source of possible health benefits.
Study objects and methods. In this study was investigated the influence of blackberry juice addition on mead fermentation process, chemical composition and antioxidative activity. Dynamics of the fermentation process were controlled based on weighing the flasks in time on a scale every 24 h throughout the alcoholic fermentation. At the end of fermentations, oenological parameters of mead: dry matter content, pH, volatile acidity and ethanol content and reducing sugars. For the determination of antioxidative capacity the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and total flavonols were measured and two tests were performed: DPPH and ABTS.
Results and discussion. Addition of blackberry juice had a positive effect on fermentation dynamics (almost 25% higher rate of fermentation than in control samples), and improved all physicochemical characteristics and composition of resultant meads. Also, meads with the addition of blackberry juice had a significantly higher concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids and total flavonols and significantly stronger antioxidative properties compared to the control meads without juice addition. The highest total phenolics, total flavonoids and total flavonols content was determined in the mead with the maximum addition of blackberry juice (B20W): it reached 490.88, 50.34 and 62.57 μgQE.mL–1, respectively, and was 6-fold higher for total phenolics and total flavonoids content, and 10-fold higher for total flavonols content than in the mead without juice addition (CW). The strongest antioxidative activity was determined in the B10W mead; it accounted for 6.98 μgTE.mL–1 (DPPH assay) and 0.65 μgTE.mL–1 (ABTS assay), what was 1.5-fold and 3-fold higher, respectively, than in the mead without juice addition (CW).
Conclusion. The conducted study demonstrated that the use of blackberry juice influenced the course of fermentation of meads as well as their physicochemical and antioxidative properties (positive effect on fermentation dynamics – almost 25% higher rate of fermentation than in control samples, and improvement of all physicochemical characteristics and composition of resultant meads).
Introduction. Wild-crafting leads to the local extinction of many medicinal plants that are rich in phenolic substances. In vitro cultivation of cells and organs of higher plants can be the optimal solution to this problem. The research objective was to study the biosynthetic activity of in vitro extracts of wild Siberian plants.
Study objects and methods. The study featured callus, cell suspension, and hairy root extracts of such Siberian medicinal plants as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Codonopsis pilosula, Platanthera bifolia, and Saposhnikovia divaricata. They were obtained by in vitro cultivation using modified nutrient media of Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg. The content of secondary metabolites was studied using the methods of thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. A set of in vitro experiments tested the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts.
Results and discussion. All the samples demonstrated a high content of secondary metabolites of phenolic nature. Flavonoglycosides, apigenin, and rutin were found to be the predominant biologically active substances in the callus extracts. Flavonoglycosides dominated in the suspension extracts. The root extracts contained more caffeic acid, rutin, ecdysteroids, quercetin, apigenin, cardiofolin, and coleofolide than the callus and suspension cultures. The list of prevailing secondary metabolites in the root extracts included rutin, apigenin, coleofolide, and quercetin. All the extracts showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.
Conclusion. All the extracts demonstrated good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, they can be used for the production of pharmaceuticals and biologically active food supplements as they can be helpful against infectious diseases, as well as oncological, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases linked to oxidative stress.
Introduction. Biscuit is a mass-consumption product worldwide. As biscuit contains low amount of protein, it can be fortified with protein-containing raw materials. In the present work, we fortified biscuit with kishk, an Egyptian dairy product, and evaluated changes in its physicochemical properties and volatile compounds.
Study objects and methods. We analyzed biscuit from wheat flour (control sample) and biscuit form wheat flour with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% of kishk (experimental samples). The experiments were carried out by using standard methods.
Results and discussion. The fortified biscuit samples showed higher lightness (L*) values than control. The antioxidant activity in the biscuit increased with the increasing amount of kishk. Aldehydes were the main volatile compounds in all the biscuit samples, followed by sulfur-containing compounds and alcohols. The predominant aldehyde was benzldehyde. However, kishk in amounts more than 20% affected adversely the aroma, taste and texture, as well as volatile compounds of the biscuits. Both the control and fortified with kishk biscuits contained an increased amount of total phenolic compounds. Based on sensory evaluation and volatile analysis, the most acceptable amount of kishk for fortification of biscuit was 10%.
Conclusion. Fortification of biscuit with Egyptian kishk enhanced its protein, fat and fiber, as well as antioxidant activity at all levels of fortification with no significant effect on appearance and color. Further studies are needed to evaluate storage conditions and shelf life of biscuits with kishk.
Introduction. Mycotoxins are reported to have a considerable impact on the health of consumers. There has been plentiful research into the effects of mycotoxins, fungi, and bacteria on the safety and quality of food and feed. This research paper reviews the literature on mycotoxins.
Study objects and methods. The study focused on mycotoxins in food and feed produced in Saudi Arabia. We reviewed literature on the occurrence and health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins. We also studied the presence of mycotoxins in herbs, nuts, cereals, dried fruits and vegetables, infant formulas and baby foods, as well as dairy products. Finally, the paper offers a review of mycotoxin analysis methods.
Results and discussion. The findings showed that mycotoxins attract a lot of scientific interest in Saudi Arabia. Certain types of mycotoxins (zearalenone, aflatoxins) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus niger) were common in the samples (isolates) of products tested in the Saudi regions. Furthermore, the researchers used different techniques of analysis such as the HPLC method, dilution plate method, thin layer chromatography, total plate count method, and seed-plate method to detect, identify, and isolate mycotoxins.
Conclusion. Most importantly, the results showed that mycotoxins have serious health impacts on consumers and most of the contamination cases are caused by improper storage conditions and/or inappropriate handling and harvesting practices.
Introduction. Contamination of food, including animal protein sources, with heavy metals is a major threat to humans. The aim of this research was to determine lead concentrations in eggs from different Iranian regions and assess risks to human health.
Study objects and methods. In this study, lead concentrations in eggs produced at laying hen farms in Qom, Isfahan (Kashan city), and Khorasan Razavi (Mashhad city) provinces were measured by an atomic absorption device. Health risk was estimated using the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) model.
Results and discussion. The levels of lead in eggs were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) among the three regions. They were lower than the permissible limit (0.1 mg/kg) for Kashan (0.0756 mg/kg) and Mashhad (0.0633 mg/kg), but eggs from Qom contained
0.1163 mg/kg of lead. In all the three regions, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of lead was lower than the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI), indicating no health risk for lead through egg consumption among Iranian consumers. Also, no risks were detected for adults in terms of non-cancer risk, or target hazard quotients (THQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) of lead (THQ < 1 and CR < 10–6).
Conclusion. The results of this study indicated that lead health risk through egg consumption is within safe limits. However, the nutritional importance and high consumption of eggs among households necessitate a more careful monitoring of lead concentrations to meet public health requirements.
Introduction. Fruits and vegetables are vital for healthy food consumption. Conservation is the only option to prolong their shelf life. Nigeria is currently experiencing an increase in production of fruit jams that incorporate vegetables. Cucumbers, Jatropha tanjorensis L. leaf, and pineapples have a lot of health benefits, which makes them very promising for jam making. The present research featured the effect of cucumber, pineapple, and Jatropha leaf in different proportions on the functional and sensory properties of composite jam.
Study objects and methods. The technology of jam making followed standard procedures. Pineapple jam without cucumbers and Jatropha leaf served as control (pineapple:cucumber:Jatropha leaf = 100:0:0). The experimental jam samples had increasing amounts of Jatropha leaf (J), decreasing amounts of pineapple pulps (P), and a constant amount of cucumber (C), i.e. P:C:J = 85:10:5, 80:10:10, 75:10:15, and 70:10:20. The functional analysis involved chemical and proximate aspects, whereas the sensory evaluation involved appearance, aroma, taste, spreadability, and overall liking.
Results and discussion. The experimental samples showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in vitamins, minerals, total titratable acidity, pH, Brix, and total soluble solids. The control sample (P:C:J = 100:0:0) had significantly lower (P < 0.05) contents of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and fiber than the experimental ones. However, the pH and total titratable acidity of the experimental samples 85:10:5 and 80:10:10 appeared to be quite similar (P > 0.05). Compared to the control sample, the sensory properties of the experimental samples differed significantly (P < 0.05) by appearance, aroma, and spreadability but were of similar (P > 0.05) taste and overall liking.
Conclusion. The obtained functional and sensory data proved that the new pineapple jam with cucumber and Jatropha leaf is a promising functional product.
The growing demand of the Russian population for healthy food dictates the need in functional ingredients production increase. Inulin, the polysaccharide of natural origin, has a wide range of functional activity. This article grounds the expedience of inulin obtaining from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and considers effective technological methods of ensuring high yield and quality of the target product. It was demonstrated that application of vibration with frequency 24 Hz for 60 min at temperature 30–35°C intensifies the extraction process, and fractionation of the extract on membranes with pore diameter 2, 3 and 5 kDa allows to obtain inulin with certain physicochemical properties. The membrane separation results in three inulin fractions: low molecular (DP = 2-10), medium molecular (DP = 11-18) and high molecular (DP = 19-35) fraction. The medium molecular fraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic and fat substitute in food technology, was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and 1H-13C NMR spectrometry. The obtained spectral characteristics have led to a conclusion that the investigated sample of inulin is highly competitive with the best world analogues. The authors thoroughly describe the method of determining the degree of polymerization and average molecular weight of the investigated polysaccharide using 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. It has been established that inulin obtained by improved technology has the degree of polymerization DP = 13–14 and molecular weight 2124–2286 Da. The results of this work have practical value for production of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and theoretical value for the chemistry of natural compounds.
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
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The paper presents a study of Moskovskaya cooked smoked sausages formed in various artificial casings: fibrous (cellulose), collagen, and polyamide. An oxygen permeability oxygen permeability of the casings was above 40 cm<sup>3</sup> and below 30 cm<sup>3</sup>/m<sup>2</sup>∙24 h∙bar. The study involved a sensory evaluation and instrumental tests using a VOCmeter multi-sensor system (‘electronic nose’) and a 7890A gas chromatograph with a 5975C VLMSD mass-selective detector (Agilent Technologies). We obtained original data on the qualitative composition and the quantitative content of substances that form the aroma of cooked smoked sausages in various types of casings. We found that the samples contained two groups of compounds with the chemical formulas of C<sub><i>i</i></sub>H<sub><i>k</i></sub>O<sub><i>l</i></sub> and C<sub><i>i</i></sub>H<sub><i>k</i></sub>O<sub><i>l</i></sub>N<sub><i>m</i></sub>. They had a ratio of (12–33):1 and were, apparently, the most significant aromatic substances. The main class of identified compounds was carboxylic acid esters, accounting for 76.61–81.60% of the total substances. We established a correlation between the aroma intensity and the concentration of chlorine-containing and nitrogen-containing compounds (except amines, amides, nitriles, and hydrazides) in the gas phase. The results did not confirm our hypothesis about the influence of the casing type and its permeability on the development of oxidative processes in the production of cooked smoked sausages. The practical significance of the study lies in creating a database of over 200 aromatic compounds that allows for a deeper understanding of aroma formation processes in cooked smoked sausages. The database can be used to exert a purposeful technological influence on the quality indicators and create various flavour compositions to adjust the sensory properties of the product.
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
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The present research features such natural herbal extracts as rosemary (<i>Rosmarinus officinalis</i> L.), pomegranate (<i>Punica granatum</i> L.), and green tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Together with vitamin E, they were chosen to investigate hemp oil stability. The experiments revealed the effect of various fatty acids compositions on hemp oil properties. The effect of herbal extracts on the oxidative stability of oils was measured using the Rancimat method. The chemical tests included peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) value, and acidity value (AV). Each herbal extract was applied in amounts of 30 mg/l and 50 mg/l. Vitamin E was mixed with the oil in the amount of 2 g/l. The changes in PV, FFA, AV, and fatty acid composition were measured on day 6, 12, 18, and 24. Hemp oil, pure or mixed with the extracts, was analyzed using the Rancimat method at 120°C with an airflow rate of 20 l/h to identify the in- duction periods (IP). IP values of oils with additional herbal extracts were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of the control samples. The oil sample with vitamin E demonstrated the longest IP (4.12 hours at 120°C) during the Rancimat test. The herbal extracts and vitamin E had a positive effect on hemp oil PV compared with the control sample. Gas chromatography (GC) showed that hemp oil included a high amount of polyunsaturated Ome- ga-3 fatty acids, and the oil was not resistant to oxidation. In general, the natural herbal extracts and vitamin E in the recommended quantities had a positive effect on the oxidative stability of hemp oil.
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Coffee pulp is the first waste product obtained during the wet processing of coffee beans. Coffee pulp makes up nearly 40% of the total weight of the coffee cherry. Coffee pulp contains 25.88% of cellulose, 3.6% of hemicel- luloses, and 20.07% of lignin. Coffee pulp is considered as an ideal substrate of lignocellulose biomass for micro- bial fermentation to produce such value-added products as ethanol. In this study, we used alkaline pre-treatment of the coffee pulp with NaOH (0.2 g/g biomass) in a microwave system at 120°C during 20 min. This method gave the best results: 71.25% of cellulose remained, and 46.11% of hemicellulose and 76.63% of lignin were removed. After that, the pre-treated biomass was hydrolyzed by Viscozyme Cassava C (enzyme loading was 19.27 FPU/g) at 50°C for 72 hours. The results showed that the highest reducing sugars and glucose concentration after hydrolysis were 38.21 g/l and 30.36 g/l, respectively. Then, the hydrolysis solution was fermented by S. cerevisiae (3.108 cells/ml) at 30°C for 72 hours. The highest concentration of ethanol obtained was 11.28 g/l. The result illustrated that, available and non- edible as it is, coffee pulp could be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production in Vietnam.
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for
2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per
1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups
(P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
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The potentials of rice bran sourdough in bread making are recently gaining popularity. However, there is no information on the influence of processing conditions on the quality attributes of rice bran sourdough. To inves- tigate the influence of fermentation time and temperature on the levels of acidity (pH and TTA) in rice bran sour-dough fermented with <i>L. plantarum</i>, we applied response surface methodology (RSM). Furthermore, we studied the effect of different fermentation time and temperature on the total phenolic and volatile compounds in the sourdough. GC/MS measurements for the evolution of aroma volatile compounds (VOCs) in the rice bran sourdoughs were conducted. The higher and longer the fermentation temperature and time, the higher the acidity levels in the sour- doughs. Fermentation temperature and time do not have a significant effect on the total phenolic sourdough con- tents. Forty-seven VOCs were detected in the rice bran sourdoughs. The major VOCs were acetic acids, ethanol, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, Hexadecanoic acid, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-1,2-ethanediyl ester, acetoin, and 2-methoxy-Phe- nol. The sourdough fermented at 35°C for 13 ho contained the largest number (27) of aroma compounds and had the highest acidity. These fermentation conditions are close to the optimal parameters (temperature – 33°C, duration –
12.5 hours), obtained as a result of applying RSM for rice bran fermentation. Thus, high quality bran sourdough can be produced at the temperature of 33°C for 12.5 hours. The results of this study will be useful to produce a quality rice bran sourdough bread with appealing aroma and a long shelf-life.