ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of wheat biscuits fortified with local buckwheat

The research featured two species of buckwheat: Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. and Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. The authors used 10, 20, or 30% of buckwheat flour to substitute soft wheat flour in order to obtain biscuits with improved sensory and nutritional properties. The biscuits were tested for chemical composition, rheology, color, baking quality, sensory properties, and texture. The sample made of soft wheat flour and F. tataricum contained less protein and fat than the sample with F. esculentum. The samples with F. tataricum demonstrated greater amounts of fiber and ash while the samples made of soft wheat flour were rich in carbohydrates. The additional increment enhanced the arrival time, dough development time, dough stability, the mixing tolerance index, and weakening. Compared to the control, the samples with F. esculentum demonstrated lower peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities. F. tataricum, on the contrary, increased the viscosity readings. The biscuits fortified with F. esculentum and F. tataricum contained more protein, fat, ash, and crude fiber the control. The control biscuits also exceeded the total carbohydrates. The experimental biscuits with F. esculentum and F. tataricum were darker in color than the control: the lightness (L*) and redness values (b*) decreased as the proportion of F. esculentum/F. tataricum rose. However, the experimental biscuits had a higher level of yellowness (a*). As the replacement levels rose, F. esculentum and F. tataricum reduced biscuit weight and volume. According to the research results, 30% F. esculentum and 20% F. tataricum proved able to yield nutritious biscuits with outstanding physical properties. Greater proportions of F. esculentum/F. tataricum resulted in poor sensory ratings for color, taste, flavour, texture, appearance, and overall acceptability.
Ключевые слова
Fagopyrum tataricum, Fagopyrum esculentum, semolina, biscuit, chemical composition, color, baking quality, sensory evaluation, texture
  1. Okarter N, Liu RH. Health benefits of whole grain phytochemicals. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2010;50(3):193–208.
  2. Gandhi A-P, Kotwaliwale N, Kawalkar J, Srivastav DC, Parihar VS, Nadh PR. Effect of incorporation of defatted soyflour on the quality of sweet biscuits. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2001;38(5):502–503.
  3. Sudha ML, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K. Influence of fibre from different cereals on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on biscuit quality. Food Chemistry. 2007;100(4):1365–1370.
  4. Ibrahim GE, Bahgaat WK, Hussein AMS. Egyptian kishk as a fortificant: Impact on the quality of biscuit. Foods and Raw Materials. 2021;9(1):164–173.
  5. Lee H, Yuan C, Hammet A, Mahajan A, Chen ES-W, Wu M-R, et al. Diphosphothreonine-specific interaction between an SQ/TQ cluster and an FHA domain in the Rad53-Dun1 kinase cascade. Molecular Cell. 2008;30(6):767–778.
  6. Verma KC. Biochemical constituents of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) collected from different geographical regions of Himachal Pradesh. Molecular Biology Reports. 2018;45:2681–2687.
  7. Ahmed A, Khalid N, Ahmad A, Abbasi NA, Latif MSZ, Randhawa MA. Phytochemicals and biofunctional properties of buckwheat: A review. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;152(3):349–369.
  8. Rauf M, Yoon H, Lee S, Hyun DY, Lee M-C, Oh S, et al. Evaluation of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench germplasm based on agro-morphological traits and the rutin and quercetin content of seeds under spring cultivation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2020;67:1385–1403.
  9. Halbrecq B, Romedenne P, Ledent JF. Evolution of flowering, ripening and seed set in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench): Quantitative analysis. European Journal of Agronomy. 2005;23(3):209–224.
  10. Skerritt JH. Molecular comparison of alcohol-soluble wheat and buckwheat proteins. Cereal Chemistry. 1986;63(4):365–369.
  11. Torbica A, Hadnađev M, Dapčević T. Rheological, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free bread formulations based on rice and buckwheat flour. Food Hydrocolloids. 2010;24(6–7):626–632.
  12. Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists. AACC; 2000. 1200 p.
  13. Official methods of analysis. 17th Edition. Gaithersburg: AOAC; 2000.
  14. Sapers GM, Douglas Jr FW. Measurement of enzymatic browning at cut surfaces and in juice of raw apple and pear fruits. Journal of Food Science. 1987;52(5):1258–1285.
  15. Hussien AMS, Badr AN, Naeem MA. Innovative nutritious biscuits limit aflatoxin contamination. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;22(3):133–142.
  16. McClave JT, Benson PG, Sincich T. Statistical for business and economics. Prentice Hall; 1998. 1067 p.
  17. Sindhu R, Khatkar BS. Composition and functional properties of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour and starch. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies. 2016;3(7):154–159.
  18. Ahmad M, Ahmad F, Dar EA, Bhat RA, Mushtaq T, Shah F. Buck wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) – A neglected crop of high altitude cold arid regions of ladakh: Biology and nutritive value. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience. 2018;6(1):395–406.
  19. Babu S, Yadav GS, Singh R, Avasthe RK, Das A, Mohapatra KP, et al. Production technology and multifarious uses of buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.): A review. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 2018;63(4):118–130.
  20. El-Shenawy M, Hussien AMS, Fouad MT. Production of biscuits from mixture of tiger nut flour, milk permeate and soft wheat flour. Asian Food Science Journal. 2020;18(2):11–21.
  21. Hussein AS, Bahgaat WK, Ibraheim GE. Impact of Jameed fortification on physicochemical, antioxidant and volatile compounds of snacks. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2022;65(5):1–11.
  22. Chen H, Rubenthaler GL, Schanus EG. Effect of apple fiber and cellulose on the physical properties of wheat flour. Journal of Food Science. 1988;53(1):304–305.
  23. Ogunsina BS, Radha C, Indrani D. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2011;62(2):185–194.
  24. Hallén E, İbanoğlu Ş, Ainsworth P. Effect of fermented/germinated cowpea flour addition on the rheological and baking properties of wheat flour. Journal of Food Engineering. 2004;63(2):177–184.
  25. Symons LJ, Brennan CS. The effect of barley β‐glucan fiber fractions on starch gelatinization and pasting characteristics. Journal of Food Science. 2006;69(4):FCT257–FCT261.
  26. Adebowale YA, Adeyemi IA, Oshodi AA. Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(12).
  27. Muralikrishna G, Nirmala M. Cereal α-amylases – An overview. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2005;60(2):163–173.
  28. van Hung P, Maeda T, Morita N. Dough and bread qualities of flours with whole waxy wheat flour substitution. Food Research International. 2007;40(2):273–279.
  29. Renzetti S, Arendt EK. Effect of protease treatment on the baking quality of brown rice bread: From textural and rheological properties to biochemistry and microstructure. Journal of Cereal Science. 2009;50(1):22–28.
  30. de Francischi MLP, Salgado JM, Leitao RFF. Chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of buck wheat and non-prolamine buckwheat flours in comparison of wheat flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1994;46:323–329.
  31. Mustafa AI, Al-Wessali MS, Al-Basha OM, Al-Amir RH. Utilization of cowpea flour and protein isolate in bakery products. Cereal Foods World. 1986;31(10):756–759.
  32. Rufeng N, Enqi L, Chuangji C, Jiangping Z. A study of the production of healthy biscuit made with tartary buckwheat grown in North China. Current advances in buckwheat research. 1995:861–865.
  33. Baljeet SY, Ritika BY, Roshan LY. Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat flour for biscuit making. International Food Research Journal. 2010;17:1067–1076.
  34. Kaur M, Sandhu KS, Arora A, Sharma A. Gluten free biscuits prepared from buckwheat flour by incorporation of various gums: Physicochemical and sensory properties. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2015;62(1):628–632.
  35. Kim YS, Ha TY, Lee SH, Lee HY. Effect of rice bran dietary fiber on flour rheology and quality of wet noodles. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1997;29(1):90–95.
  36. Hussein AMS, Saber MM, Daoud EM, Alshafei MM, Ziada YM, Gamal A, et al. Formulation and evaluation of biscuits from functional flour mixture to enhance of antioxidants reflecting on nutrition in -patients. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2022;65(5):455–466.
  37. Ramy A, Salama MF, Shouk AA. Pollards a potential source of dietary fiber for pasta manufacture. Egyptian Journal of Food Science. 2002;30(2):313–330.
  38. Laguna L, Salvador A, Sanz T, Fiszman SM. Performance of a resistant starch rich ingredient in the baking and eating quality of short-dough biscuits. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2011;44(3):737–746.
  39. Stojceska V, Ainsworth P, Plunkett A, İbanoğlu Ş. The effect of extrusion cooking using different water feed rates on the quality of ready-to-eat snacks made from food by-products. Food Chemistry. 2009;114(1):226–232.
  40. Sharma P, Gujral HS. Extrusion of hulled barley affecting β-glucan and properties of extrudates. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2013;6:1374–1389.
  41. Sharma P, Gujral HS. Cookie making behavior of wheat-barley flour blends and effects on antioxidant properties. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2014;55(1):301–307.
  42. Miller RA, Hoseney RC. Factors in hard wheat flour responsible for reduced cookie spread. Cereal Chemistry. 1997;74(3):330–336.
  43. Arshad MU, Anjum FM, Zahoor T. Nutritional assessment of cookies supplemented with defatted wheat germ. Food Chemistry. 2007;102(1):123–128.
  44. Ganorkar PM, Jain RK. Effect of flaxseed incorporation on physical, sensorial, textural and chemical attributes of cookies. International Food Research Journal. 2014;21(4):1515–1521.
  45. Wang N, Hou GG, Kweon M, Lee B. Effects of particle size on the properties of whole-grain soft wheat flour and its cracker baking performance. Journal of Cereal Science. 2016;69:187–193.
  46. Kuchtová V, Minarovičová L, Kohajdová Z, Karovičová J. Effect of wheat and corn germs addition on the physical properties and crackers sensory quality. Potravinarstvo. 2016;10(1):543–549.
  47. Gujral HS, Mehta S, Samra IS, Goyal P. Effect of wheat bran, coarse wheat flour, and rice flour on the instrumental texture of cookies. International Journal of Food Properties. 2003;6(2):329–340.
  48. Hunter RS. Scales for the measurements of color difference. In: Hunter RS, editor. The measurement of appearance. New York: Willy; 1975. pp. 133–140.
  49. Krishnaswamy GG, Parameshwari S. A concise review on buckwheat materials based ready to serve and ready to eat food products. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022;66:783–788.
  50. Sofi SA, Ahmed N, Farooq A, Rafiq S, Zargar SM, Kamran F, et al. Nutritional and bioactive characteristics of buckwheat, and its potential for developing gluten‐free products: An updated overview. Food Science and Nutrition. 2022;11(5):2256–2276.
  51. Hassona MM, Hussein AS, Morsy N, Abd El-Aal HA. Chemical, rheological, sensorial and functional properties buckwheat semolina flour composite pasta. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 2023.
  52. Silav-Tuzlu G, Tacer-Caba Z. Influence of chia seed, buckwheat and chestnut flour addition on the overall quality and shelf life of the gluten-free biscuits. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 2021;59(4):463–474.
  53. Farzana T, Hossain FB, Abedin MdJ, Afrin S, Rahman SS. Nutritional and sensory attributes of biscuits enriched with buckwheat. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2022;10.
  54. Constantino ABT, Garcia‐Rojas EE. Proteins from pseudocereal seeds: Solubility, extraction, and modifications of the physicochemical and techno‐functional properties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2022;102(7):2630–2639.
  55. Sofi SA, Ahmed N, Farooq A, Rafiq S, Zargar SM, Kamran F, et al. Nutritional and bioactive characteristics of buckwheat, and its potential for developing gluten‐free products: An updated overview. Food Science and Nutrition. 2022;11(5):2256–2276.
  56. di Cairano M, Condelli N, Caruso MC, Cela N, Tolve R, Galgano F. Use of underexploited flours for the reduction of glycaemic index of gluten-free biscuits: Physicochemical and sensory characterization. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2021;14:1490–1502.
Как цитировать?
Hussein AMS, Abd El-Aal HA, Morsy NM, Hassona MM. Chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of wheat biscuits fortified with local buckwheat. Foods and Raw Materials. 2024;12(1):156–167. 
О журнале