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Получена 05 Января, 2023 |
Принята в исправленном виде 07 Марта, 2023 |
Опубликована 30 Августа, 2023
The Vietnamese food industry produces a lot of coffee pulp, which is a valuable and abundant source of agricultural by-products. It contains a lot of cellulose, which can be converted into bioethanol. However, coffee pulp needs an extensive pretreatment to reduce the amount of lignin and hemicellulose while retaining the initial cellulose composition. This study compared several pre-hydrolysis and pre-fermentation pretreatment methods which involved H2SO4, NaOH, microwaves, and white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
The hemicellulose dropped by 43.8% after the acidic pretreatment, by 47.1% after the alkaline pretreatment, and by 12.8% after the microbial pretreatment. The lignin contents dropped by 4.2, 76.6, and 50.2% after acidic, alkaline, and microbial pretreatment, respectively. The removal of hemicellulose and lignin in the coffee pulp was much more efficient when two or three of the pretreatment methods were combined. The microwave-assisted acid and alkaline pretreatment was the most efficient method: it removed 71.3% of hemicellulose and 79.2% of lignin. The combined method also had the highest amount of reducing sugars and glucose in hydrolysate. Additionally, concentrations of such yeast inhibitors as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and furfural were 2.11 and 3.37 g/L, respectively.
The acid pretreatment was effective only in removing hemicellulose while the alkaline pretreatment was effective in lignin removal; the fungal pretreatment had low results for both hemicellulose and lignin removals. Therefore, the combined pretreatment method was found optimal for coffee pulp.
, reducing sugars
, acidic pretreatment
, alkaline pretreatment
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