ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Chorizo sausage with shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) as a fat substitute: quality evaluation

Traditional meat products are made with large amounts of saturated fat and binders such as starch, which increase calories and move away from current consumer trends that seek low-fat products with natural ingredients. Shiitake mushroom has beneficial health properties and it can be used as a fat substitute in processed meat products. We aimed to identify the effects of incorporating shiitake powder into chorizo sausages as a fat substitute.
Shiitake powder was characterized and five formulations of chorizo sausage were developed: control and four experimental samples with 30, 40, 50 and 100% fat substitution (the latter included 50% of shiitake powder and 50% of olive oil).
The experimental sausage showed a greater moisture, lower lipid content, and less cooking loss. The samples with shiitake powder were darker and less red than the control. Texture parameters were not affected by substituting 40% of fat with shiitake powder. The treatment with 40% fat substitution had a greater insoluble fiber content and a lower aerobic mesophile count (CFU/g) than the control. No significant differences were found in the fatty acids profile. The samples with shiitake powder had a moderate level of sensory acceptance which might be associated with the consumers’ lack of familiarity with shiitake.
Consumers may accept comminuted sausages in which a maximum of 40% of fat is substituted with shiitake powder. Such products have an adequate nutritional composition, as well as acceptable physicochemical, technological, and microbiological properties.
Shiitake, fat substitute, comminuted sausages, processed meat, sensory acceptance
This work was supported by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL) (Project number: HERMES 49072- QUIPU: 302010032172).
  1. Kim S-A, Shin S. Red meat and processed meat consumption and the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean adults: A prospective cohort study based on the Health Examinees (HEXA) study. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2021;31(6):1714–1727.
  2. Zhang J, Hayden K, Jackson R, Schutte R. Association of red and processed meat consumption with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in participants with and without obesity: A prospective cohort study. Clinical Nutrition. 2021;40(5):3643–3649.
  3. González N, Marquès M, Nadal M, Domingo JL. Meat consumption: Which are the current global risks? A review of recent (2010–2020) evidences. Food Research International. 2020;137.
  4. Barone AM, Banovic M, Asioli D, Wallace E, Ruiz-Capillas C, Grasso S. The usual suspect: How to co-create healthier meat products. Food Research International. 2021;143.
  5. Carvalho LT, Pires MA, Baldin JC, Munekata PES, de Carvalho FAL, Rodrigues I, et al. Partial replacement of meat and fat with hydrated wheat fiber in beef burgers decreases caloric value without reducing the feeling of satiety after consumption. Meat Science. 2019;147:53–59.
  6. Aslinah LNF, Mat Yusoff M, Ismail-Fitry MR. Simultaneous use of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) flour as meat extender and fat replacer in reduced-fat beef meatballs (bebola daging). Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018;55(8):3241–3248.
  7. Patinho I, Selani MM, Saldaña E, Bortoluzzi ACT, Rios-Mera JD, da Silva CM, et al. Agaricus bisporus mushroom as partial fat replacer improves the sensory quality maintaining the instrumental characteristics of beef burger. Meat Science. 2021;172.
  8. Oh I, Lee JH, Lee HG, Lee S. Feasibility of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose oleogel as an animal fat replacer for meat patties. Food Research International. 2019;122:566–572.
  9. Kouzounis D, Lazaridou A, Katsanidis E. Partial replacement of animal fat by oleogels structured with monoglycerides and phytosterols in frankfurter sausages. Meat Science. 2017;130:38–46.
  10. Pérez-Montes A, Rangel-Vargas E, Lorenzo JM, Romero L, Santos EM. Edible mushrooms as a novel trend in the development of healthier meat products. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2021;37:118–124.
  11. Pil-Nam S, Park K-M, Kang G-H, Cho S-H, Park B-Y, Van-Ba H. The impact of addition of shiitake on quality characteristics of frankfurter during refrigerated storage. LWT. 2015;62(1):62–68.
  12. Mattar TV, Gonçalves CS, Pereira RC, Faria MA, de Souza VR, Carneiro JdDS. A shiitake mushroom extract as a viable alternative to NaCl for reduction in sodium in beef burgers: A sensory perspective. British Food Journal. 2018;120(6):1366–1380.
  13. Tejedor-Calvo E, Garcia-Barreda S, Sánchez S, Marco P. Effect of bacterial strains isolated from stored shiitake (Lentinula edodes) on mushroom biodeterioration and mycelial growth. Agronomy. 2020;10(6).
  14. Schill S, Stessl B, Meier N, Tichy A, Wagner M, Ludewig M. Microbiological safety and sensory quality of cultivated mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes) at retail level and post-retail storage. Foods. 2021;10(4).
  15. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC International, 19th ed. Gaithersburg: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2012.
  16. Yaruro Cáceres NC, Suarez Mahecha H, de Francisco A, Vásquez Mejia SM, Diaz-Moreno C. Physicochemical, thermal, microstructural and paste properties comparison of four achira (Canna edulis sp.) starch ecotypes. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science. 2021;25.
  17. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC International. Method 950.46. Loss on drying (moisture) in meat, 20th ed. Arlington: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2016.
  18. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC International. Method 991.36. Fat (crude) in meat and meat products, 20th ed. Gaithersburg: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2016.
  19. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC International. Method 990.03. Protein (crude) in animal feed, combustion method, 18th ed. Arlington: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2005.
  20. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC International. Method 920.53. Ash in meat and meat products, 20th ed. Gaithersburg: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2016.
  21. Vasquez Mejia SM, Shaheen A, Zhou Z, McNeill D, Bohrer BM. The effect of specialty salts on cooking loss, texture properties, and instrumental color of beef emulsion modeling systems. Meat Science. 2019;156:85–92.
  22. Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC International, 18th ed. Gaithersburg: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2005.
  23. Janiszewski P, Grześkowiak E, Lisiak D, Borys B, Borzuta K, Pospiech E, et al. The influence of thermal processing on the fatty acid profile of pork and lamb meat fed diet with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Meat Science. 2016;111:161–167.
  24. Norma Técnica Colombiana NTC 1325. Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación; 2008.
  25. Moghtadaei M, Soltanizadeh N, Goli SAH. Production of sesame oil oleogels based on beeswax and application as partial substitutes of animal fat in beef burger. Food Research International. 2018;108:368–377.
  26. Bisen PS, Baghel RK, Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Prasad GBKS. Lentinus edodes: A macrofungus with pharmacological activities. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2010;17(22):2419–2430.
  27. Ramos M, Burgos N, Barnard A, Evans G, Preece J, Graz M, et al. Agaricus bisporus and its by-products as a source of valuable extracts and bioactive compounds. Food Chemistry. 2019;292:176–187.
  28. Buruleanu LC, Radulescu C, Georgescu AA, Danet FA, Olteanu RL, Nicolescu CM, et al. Statistical characterization of the phytochemical characteristics of edible mushroom extracts. Analytical Letters. 2018;51(7):1039–1059.
  29. Adebayo EA, Martínez-Carrera D, Morales P, Sobal M, Escudero H, Meneses ME, et al. Comparative study of antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus levis, P. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius and P. tuber-regium. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018;53(5):1316–1330.
  30. Subramaniam S, Wen X-Y, Zhang Z-T, Jing P. Changes in the morphometric, textural, and aromatic characteristics of shiitake mushrooms during combined humid-convective drying. Drying Technology. 2021;39(16):2206–2217.
  31. Wang X-M, Zhang J, Wu L-H, Zhao Y-L, Li T, Li J-Q, et al. A mini-review of chemical composition and nutritional value of edible wild-grown mushroom from China. Food Chemistry. 2014;151:279–285.
  32. Qiu Y, Bi J, Jin X, Hu L, Lyu J, Wu X. An understanding of the changes in water holding capacity of rehydrated shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) from cell wall, cell membrane and protein. Food Chemistry. 2021;351.
  33. Xu Z, Meenu M, Xu B. Effects of UV-C treatment and ultrafine-grinding on the biotransformation of ergosterol to vitamin D2, physiochemical properties, and antioxidant properties of shiitake and Jew’s ear. Food Chemistry. 2020;309.
  34. Wang L, Guo H, Liu X, Jiang G, Li C, Li X, et al. Roles of Lentinula edodes as the pork lean meat replacer in production of the sausage. Meat Science. 2019;156:44–51.
  35. Borrajo P, Pateiro M, Munekata PES, Franco D, Domínguez R, Mahgoub M, et al. Pork liver protein hydrolysates as extenders of pork patties shelf-life. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021;56(12):6246–6257.
  36. Bastos SC, Pimenta MESG, Pimenta CJ, Reis TA, Nunes CA, Pinheiro ACM, et al. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: Technological and sensory characteristics. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;51(9):2046–2053.
  37. Soltanizadeh N, Ghiasi-Esfahani H. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera. Meat Science. 2015;99:75–80.
  38. Martín MJ, García-Parra J, Trejo A, Gómez-Quintana A, Miguel-Pintado C, Riscado A, et al. Comparative effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on Spanish and Portuguese traditional chorizos and evolution at different storage temperatures. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2020;45(1).
  39. Martínez-Zamora L, Peñalver R, Ros G, Nieto G. Substitution of synthetic nitrates and antioxidants by spices, fruits and vegetables in Clean label Spanish chorizo. Food Research International. 2021;139.
  40. Royse DJ, Baars J, Tan Q. Current overview of mushroom production in the world. In: Zied DC, Pardo-Giménez A, editors. Edible and medicinal mushrooms: Technology and applications. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2017.
  41. Savadkoohi S, Shamsi K, Hoogenkamp H, Javadi A, Farahnaky A. Mechanical and gelling properties of comminuted sausages containing chicken MDM. Journal of Food Engineering. 2013;117(3):255–262.
  42. Selani MM, Shirado GAN, Margiotta GB, Saldaña E, Spada FP, Piedade SMS, et al. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger. Meat Science. 2016;112:69–76.
  43. Mehta N, Ahlawat SS, Sharma DP, Dabur RS. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products – A critical review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(2):633–647.
  44. Nieto G, Lorenzo JM. Use of olive oil as fat replacer in meat emulsions. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2021;40:179–186.
  45. Pathak MP, Pathak K, Saikia R, Gogoi U, Ahmad MZ, Patowary P, et al. Immunomodulatory effect of mushrooms and their bioactive compounds in cancer: A comprehensive review. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2022;149.
  46. Harada-Padermo SDS, Dias-Faceto LS, Selani MM, Conti-Silva AC, Vieira TMFdS. Umami ingredient, a newly developed flavor enhancer from shiitake byproducts, in low-sodium products: A study case of application in corn extruded snacks. LWT. 2021;138.
  47. Urruzola N, Santana M, Gámbaro A. Aceptabilidad sensorial de una hamburguesa de carne vacuna y vegetales. Innotec. 2018;15(1):15–22.
  48. Sadovoy VV, Shchedrina TV, Trubina IA, Morgunova AV, Franko EP. Cooked sausage enriched with essential nutrients for the gastrointestinal diet. Foods and Raw Materials. 2021;9(2):345–353.
  49. Koneva SI, Zakharova AS, Meleshkina LE, Egorova EYu, Mashkova IA. Technological Properties of Dough from a Mix of Rye and Wheat Flour with Processed Sea Buckthorn. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2023;53(2):247–258. (In Russ.).
How to quote?
Rincón Soledad EM, Arredondo Nontién M A, Castro JW, Barrios D, Vásquez Mejía SM. Chorizo sausage with shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) as a fat substitute: quality evaluation. Foods and Raw Materials. 2024;12(1):168–178. 
About journal