ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Том 4, №2, 2016

Рубрика: REVIEW

850
Аннотация
Currently, the science-based capabilities have been generated to develop and test various identification methods of food products and reveal adulteration using advanced technique and processes. This article reviews researches and developments to identify the plant raw materials in food products based on morphological, anatomic, physical and chemical test methods and the latest DNA-technologies. Review of physical, chemical, anatomic and morphological test methods to identify raw materials both as discrete and as the food content validated that these methods are useful to differ the herbal material with apparent specific peculiarities in structure and chemical content, though, in most cases, they are not adequate enough to differentiate the used raw material by species and genus. In the sphere where DNA-technologies are applied to identify the plant raw material, various methods for DNA extraction, requirements to DNA-targets, methods to optimize the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) stages have been developed; a range of developed methods are in place for species identification of plant-based additives in food products by species which is rather relevant in view of promotion in the market of cheaper substitutions for food ingredient components. The review of national and international scientific publications and intellectual property items to work with PCR-based species identification of the fruit raw material showed that this method differs in high specificity and is practically the only method of species identification available.
924
Аннотация
The paradigm of formation of science about nitrogen-containing compounds (protein complex) of raw milk - Proteomics - is stated. The monitoring of fractional composition, possibility of extraction, modification and application of the whole protein complex, caseins and serum proteins, their fractions and derivatives allows to consider the traditional and innovative component of dairy business in an absolutely new light, based on nanoclusters and biotechnology. The road map of casein complex of raw milk is considered. The characteristic of the main fractions of casein, from the point of view of modern biotechnology of cheeses and cottage cheese is provided. The characteristic of serum proteins of raw milk in the native and denatured states and after the microparticulation directed into nanotubes is separately considered. The unimproved opportunities for the modernization of technologies of extraction of protein clusters with the receipt of products for import substitution with export orientation are emphasized. For the first time in the logistics of system analysis the problems of controlled proteolysis of albumins of milk - casein and serum proteins, with the receipt of products for clinical nutrition are considered.

Рубрика: FOOD PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

943
Аннотация
The object of our current study is to study the phytochemicalc contents in solid-liquid extraction of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) dry leaves grown in Bulgaria. Cichorium intybus , commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also discretely used as the natural product in food industry and medicine throughout its long history. Solid-liquid extraction was performed by using the 50% aqueous ethanol for 120 min which results in concentration of phytochemical contents and the findings of our present results are well consistent with those obtained in other works. The chicory leaves were analysed for the content of tannin by titrimetric method; rutin was determined spectrophotometrically by using ammonium molybdate; the total phenolics was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids was identified through the colorimetric reaction with aluminum (III) chloride. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids of chicory varied between 2.71 mg GAE/mL for 10 min and 5.65 mg GAE/mL for 120 minutes and 0.84 mg CE/mL for 10 minutes and 2.45 mg CE/mL for 120 min. The content of rutin and tannins that varied within 0.71 percent for 10 minutes and 1.39 percent for 120 min of rutin and tannins was higher than that in 50% aqueous ethanol extract of Cichorium intybus L. for 120 min at 1.56% and 1.08% for 10 min, respectively. Extracts obtained positively correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents, rutin and tannins, respectively. Therefore, the complex of phytochemical active substance in dry leaves of Cichorium intybus L. offers lots of opportunities for future application in herbal medicine and nutrition industry to produce healthy food.
902
Аннотация
Biologically active peptides with antioxidative, antibacterial, immunomodulating and other properties result from the reaction between the whey proteins and proteolytic enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract or purified proteases. This work aims to determine antimutagenic and antifungal effect of the enzymatic hydrolysate of whey protein obtained, to assess its acute toxicity characteristics and sensitizing power. Antimutagenic action of native whey proteins and hydrolysates (test sample and hydrolyzate analog) was assessed by the Ames test using indicator strains of Salmonella typhimurium ТА 98 and ТА 100. When determining the antifungal activity, opportunistic strains of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were used. The toxicity degree of samples was defined in studies to evaluate the acute intragastric toxicity in white rats as well as in the single abdominal dose study on the white mice. Irritating influence of whey proteins and peptides on was evaluated when applied to the eye mucosa of rabbits. The sensitizing capacity of samples was evaluated using the experimental model to reproduce the delayed hyperresponsiveness in white mice. It is identified that the developed hydrolisate is classified as the safe agent and has low sensitizing ability. The sample obtained has the comparative values of antioxidant and antimutagenic activity level as compared with the analog “Vital Аrmor H 801 LB” (Armor Protéines, France) used to manufacture functional products. The advantages of the hydrolisate developed include the increase in the content of peptide fraction and more pronounced antifungal activity towards A. niger .
883
Аннотация
This article provides data on correlation between functional technological properties of native and modified wheat gluten and its specific molecular weights, with an objective to develop control methods for adjustment of physical and chemical specifications of protein products. We used methods for chemical composition analysis in protein products, protein electrophoresis (PAGE), and DWG modifications. We used enzymatic preparations (EP) for DWG properties modification: endoprotease EP (Protamex®) and Flavourzyme 500 MG, which contains both endoprotease and endopeptidase simultaneously. It is shown that native DWG underperforms in its functional technological properties in comparison to sodium caseinate, soy flour, soy concentrate, and egg albumin, therefore its properties are modified by limited proteolysis with protein hydrolysis degree of 1.10-3.41%. Our findings indicate that hydrolysis duration might be used to control DWG properties: to increase solubility, foam forming capacity (FFS) up to the respective values demonstrated by egg albumin, and at the same time, to reduce water- and fat-binding capacity and fat emulsifying capacity. DWG with improved FFS contains single-chain polypeptides, both with low molecular weight (МE) (under 40 kDа), and with medium ME (40-60 kDа). Among multi-chain peptides with more pronounced foam-forming capacity, presence of single-chain peptides with low ME (12-16 kDа) seems more preferable than polypeptides with medium (27-39 kDа) and high ME (69-108 kDа). Revealed regularities in correlation of DWG functional properties and ME / composition specificity are intended to be used in DWG modification for further various applications in food industry, mostly for pastries production.
837
Аннотация
Due to the scarcity of natural rennet, in this study we have considered an option of using in cheesemaking a milk-clotting enzyme produced by the Irpex lacteus fungus. We describe main properties of I. lacteus coagulant: milk-clotting activity (МА), overall proteolytic activity (PA), thermal stability, MА dependence on рН level and calcium ions content. Partially purified preparations of I. lacteus milk-clotting enzyme was obtained by salting out and gel-filtration. Technological properties of the I. lacteus coagulant were compared to natural calf rennet and cow pepsin (CP). МА of I. lacteus enzyme amounted to 29.1 ± 0.7 RU/ml, with protein content of 23 mg/ml. The coagulant was completely inactivated at 60○С. Thermal stability of I. lacteus milk-clotting enzyme, MA sensitivity to pH variations and Ca2+ content were comparable to respective parameters of calf rennet and CP. Overall PA of the I. lacteus coagulant exceeded CP and calf rennet activity by 33 and 220 times, respectively. As for enzymatic specificity, the following order was observed: calf rennet (100%) > CP (14.9%) > I. lacteus coagulant (0.5%). These findings suggest that there is a need to increase the MA of I. lacteus coagulant in order to be able to use it in cheesemaking. We have considered chemical, biochemical, and genetic corrective actions applicable to technological properties of microfungal milk coagulants.
846
Аннотация
Specialized food products development, including biologically active additives (BAA), is one of the priority areas in the realization of the healthy eating program and the food and pharmaceutical industries development in the Russian Federation. A lot of attention is paid to the proof of effectiveness and functional orientation of the concerned foodstuff. Dietetic therapy with the use of BAA is considered to be the most available way to improve the modern man’s nutrition and health. The aim of this work was to develop and confirm specialized food products’ practical application through clinical trials and mass production organization. Specialized products for dietetic nutrition and protective diet such as BAA (“Energopan”, “Cleopanta”, “Green Star”) and the “Light mood” bar were developed. Methodological aspects of the new types of the specialized products’ creation were described. Prescription formulas with account taken of pharmacological characteristics of their active principles were scientifically proven. Regulated indices of nutrition value including recommended amount of consumption of the developed product and safety criteria that allowed establishing duration of realization were identified. Clinical trials of the specialized products were conducted: “Light mood” bar and the BAA “Green Star” were included in study groups’ ration and their biomedical measurements characterizing metabolic care were analyzed. Observational results allowed to recommend the “Light mood” bar for prophylaxis and treatment of the constipation in combination with other somatic diseases and the BAA “Green Star” for digestion health improvement in the function of energy absorbent and improvement of the overall level of metabolism. Developed products’ formulation and technology were tested under production conditions in the SPA “Yug” and the “Art-Life” company (Russia).
830
Аннотация
The formation of qualitative characteristics of sausages is significantly effected by the oxidizing processes of fatty and protein fraction of meat raw materials. The orientation and intensity of processes depends both on the type of used raw materials and nutritional supplements and the parameters of each stage of technological process. The decrease in intensity of processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids is aimed at the increase in safety of ready-made products and lengthening of terms of their storage. This article presents the results of researches of effect of composition of cures on the anti-oxidizing potential of meat raw materials at the stage of salting and on the dynamics of oxidizing processes in half-smoked sausages in the course of cold storage. The properties of source raw materials, pork and beef and the properties of the combined mincemeat subjected to salting by salt and cures consisting of 70% of chloride of sodium and 30% of the composition of KCl+CaCl2 in the ratio of 1 : 1 and also with the addition of yeast extract are studied. The effect of conditions of salting on the intensity of oxidizing changes of lipid fraction and haem pigments in half-smoked sausages within 20 days of storage at a temperature of (2-6)°C is established. It is established that the decrease in the amount of salt as part of cures provides an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes of meat raw materials and, as a result, a decrease in the intensity of processes of oxidation of lipids and haem pigments. The addition of yeast extract to the weight of raw materials in the amount of 2% provides the strengthening of inhibiting effect on oxidation processes.

Рубрика: BIOTECHNOLOGY

933
Аннотация
The article presents the results of studies of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of corn hybrids grain of different pigmentation, created in All Russian Research Scientific Institute of Corn (Pyatigorsk). We included kernels of yellow corn as control samples (Uralskiy 150 hybrid). Test kernel samples were differently pigmented: kernels of white color (White), of orange color with yellow tops (Orange), of brown color with yellow tops (Brown), with grey tops and light yellow sides (Grey), of purplish-red color (Rubin). Botanical studies of differently-colored corn kernels revealed that the kernel color depends on the outer layer (pericarp) pigmentation. It was shown that corn kernels Orange, Rubin, and Grey contained three groups of biologically active compounds: flavonoids: 80, 70, 73 mg/%, carotenoids: 2.40, 1.70, 1.60 mg/%, and anthocyanins: 30, 120, 30 mg/%, respectively. Corn kernel samples Orange and Rubin demonstrated high antioxidant activity (1.0 and 0.76 mg/l in gallic acid equivalents, respectively). Antioxidant activity of common yellow corn (Uralskiy 150 hybrid) amounted to 0.09 mg/l in gallic acid equivalent, which is about ten times less than in the test samples. Thus, presence of biologically active substances - carotenoids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins - in differently-pigmented corn kernels is correlated with high antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that corn kernels Orange and Rubin might be recommended for further use in food industry producing products with high content of biologically active compounds.
903
Аннотация
In recent years, we have witnessed a considerable growth in number of strains resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, research on new antimicrobial components that might be used for development of new-generation drugs is currently very important. We have studied antibiotic activity of Bacillus safensis , Bacillus endopheticus, Bacillus subtilis strains, isolated their bacteriocins, and evaluated their properties. The study was carried out in the scientific research institute for biotechnology, Kemerovo Institute of Food Science and Technology, in the city of Kemerovo. Strains of microorganisms were isolated from vegetables grown in Krasnodar region, namely, samples of Manas onions, Big Beef tomatoes, and Capia bell peppers. Antibiotic activity of the strains was evaluated in liquid nutrient medium. All test strains demonstrated some level of antimicrobial activity which varied from 18 to 91%. We established minimum inhibitory concentrations for the isolated strains based on measured optical density; MIC for Bacillus safensis was 1.5*106 CFU/сm3, for Bacillus endopheticus , 1.5*106 CFU/сm3, for Bacillus subtilis , 1.5*108 CFU/сm3. We then isolated respective bacteriocins and purified them by HPLC method. During disk diffusion tests, bacteriocin preparations proved active against Micrococcus luteus strain. Molecular weight was determined by PAGE electrophoresis. Molecular weight of bacteriocins varied from 3.6 through 4.21 kDа. Isolated bacteriocins were proved to belong to the lantibiotics class.

Рубрика: PROCESSES, EQUIPMENT, AND APPARATUS FOR FOOD PRODUCTION

788
Аннотация
The current trend of human community evolution comes to addressing two main tasks: to provide people with full-value food and environmental conservation. The tasks may be addressed only by the appropriate management of rational use of natural raw resources that cannot be disposed in full to practically limited models of food equipment of new generation manufactured with the use of latest scientific achievement. The activity to enhance the urban interference in the society development results in processes where the significance of mineral substances, vitamins and proteins is undervalued in production of purified food for human use that may be obtained by reprocessing of secondary dairy products during baromembrane separation. The study aimed to determine the best parameters of membrane-associated re-processing of the milk whey modified with plant extracts and validation of further use of retentate and permeate obtained. The milk whey was used obtained during production of the grained curd of the normalized cow milk. Employment of membrane methods in the milk whey re-processing may be useful to maintain the non-waste production and avoid ecological pollution. The use of these methods in modern food industry is the upcoming trend that allows opportunities to manufacture a wider range of dairy products, drinks, forage and other resource and energy saving solutions. This article describes the dependency of the membrane permeability and selectivity of type UAM-150 of the modified milk whey of the working pressure value and circulation rate of separated system in the feeder of the baromembrane machine. The impact of pH of the separated liquid polydisperse system on the value of this membrane rejection rate. The viability to use the permeate and retentate of the modified milk whey as the base for drinks manufacture.
770
Аннотация
Analysis of the existing oat groat and Hercules flakes production processes suggests that oat processing technology largely corresponds to the conventional technologies prescribed in the applicable regulatory documentation. This process only allows for processing oat grains which conform to standard specifications. Use of off-spec grain results in production of low grade or non-conformant products, which considerably reduces the profit margin of such processing. This paper presents results of studies on non-standard oat grains processing. This grain differs from standard type in moisture content, in mass fraction of double grains, in mass fraction of small grains, and in grain admixture content (grain mixtures). A distinctive feature of the technologies we propose is the lack of this grain preparation stage preceeding the processing part. Use of the proposed technologies allows to increase both utilization and profitability of oat processing and groat production facilities. Our findings suggest that the proposed technologies provide considerable advantages. We have calculated the economic effectiveness of processing grains with four types of non-conformity. We demonstrated that use of this technology allows to reduce production costs of non-standard grain processing in producing Hercules oat flakes by up to 17.8% and result in a fully conformant product.
733
Аннотация
One of the priority directions of state policy in the field of healthy food is the development and integration of enriched foodstuffs with an increased expiration date into production. The purpose of researches is the study of effect of bar processing on the periods of storage of boiled sausages enriched with vitamin premix. The test samples of boiled sausages were processed under the pressure of 800 MPa within 3 minutes at a temperature of 0 … +4°C by means of a hydrostat after the end of the technological process. The control samples of boiled sausages were not processed under pressure. The safety of boiled sausages was estimated by organoleptic and microbiological indicators and рН, the content of vitamins in the product was researched in 8 and 16 days of storage. It has been established that in 16 days of storage the control samples of sausages did not conform to the requirements of regulating documentation; the shift of рН to the alkaline side, the increase in the quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative and anaerobic microorganisms has been noted. After 16 days of storage the content of PP and C vitamins in the control samples of sausages authentically decreased by 17.6% and 93.4% while the decrease in the test samples was 4.1% and 12.0%. The antioxidant activity of test samples of sausages is authentically 71.3% higher than that of the control samples (0.12 ± 0.04 mol equiv/dm3). Against a background of use of vitaminized sausages an authentic increase in the antioxidant activity of catalase and ceruloplasmin is noted in the blood of students of the test group. Thus, it is established that the processing of boiled sausages enriched with vitamins, under high pressure has a bactericidal effect on microbic cells, prevents proteolysis, saves vitamins and, respectively, increases the expiration date of a foodstuff. The calculations for design of a high pressure hydrostat for foodstuff processing have been performed.

Рубрика: STANDARDIZATION, CERTIFICATION, QUALITY AND SAFETY

752
Аннотация
Enzyme inhibitors are widely used in experimental studies in various spheres to evaluate the mechanism of catalytic effect of enzymes, determine the nature of protein reactive groups, to identify the role of various enzymatic processes in metabolism. But inhibitors are not stable and thus, they need to be stabilized through immobilization on matrixes. The study of immobilization using the infrared spectroscopy ensures to prove the interaction between the inhibitor and polysaccharidic matrix. The results of infrared spectroscopy showed that the linking between the matrix and the inhibitor occurs by formation of intramolecular covalent linkings, electrostatic correlation between the charged groups of agar and inhibitor. The derived comparison curve VVOP shows the reduction in the intensity of the immobilized inhibitor (dietar y supplement) in the area of 3400 cm-1, that is consistent with the valent variations of the free group -ОН that indicates on strengthening of the immobilized specimen hydrogen binding. Comparative study of рН-optimum of pancreatic α-amylase, native and immobilized inhibitor made it possible to conclude that рН-optimum of pancreatic α-amylase isрН 6.0, that of the native inhibitor α-amylase equals to 5.5, and the рН-optimum in the immobilized inhibitor considerably varies from 5.0 to 6.8 at the physiologic temperature (37 ± 1)ºС. Linearization methods of Michaelis-Menten equation by Lineweaver-Burk and Hanes were used to determine kinetic parameters of the dietary supplement inhibition. The kinetics of enzyme inhibition was assessed using the immobilized form of the inhibitor that resulted in the enzyme activity decrease at zero variations Km at the decreasing V max values which makes it possible to classify the inhibition to the linear uncompetitive type (catalyzed inhibition).
724
Аннотация
Proteomic technologies in the modern laboratory practice proved to be very efficient to reveal biochemical changes in meat products, such as changes in heat-resistant and species-specific proteins that have the ability to become the relevant bio-markers. Several tissue-specific proteins were identified in the work under review using proteomic technologies in tested samples of meat and in specially manufactured sausage products that may be used as individual biomarkers to verify conformity of meat products to the alleged composition. Also, individual non-muscle proteins (soya and chicken protein) were determined in test samples of meat products apart from species-specific muscle proteins that may act as functional ingredients used in cooking process. Overall, total of more than 200 protein fractions were identified in the completed studies by the mass spectrometry method which are described in this review in part. The results obtained will be used to draft the procedure for quantitative evaluation of the meat component content in structureless cooked products (cooked sausages) as well as to draw proteomic protein charts of the native meat stock used to manufacture goods as per GOST (State Standard). Studies conducted in the range of this discipline will help to formulate and considerably develop approaches to identify and evaluate protein markers of quality, functionality and safety of meat for processing and processed meat products.

Рубрика: ECONOMICS

1209
Аннотация
Against the background of world economy globalization, the international trade, being the oldest form of international economic relations (IER), is the major decisive factor for the development and market environment of food and agricultural commodity. The hypothesis is suggested and proved in this study that the international trade may and should be considered not only as the driver for global and national economy, but also as the new effective tool to address numerous global problems as follow: sustainable development, environmental and comestibles problems. The results of the study to evaluate the impact of the current international trade on the growth of food product market of global and national level proved the crucial function of the international trade and its two-fold character to mitigate challenges of today as above. On the one hand, it was proved in terms of food and agricultural product market that the international trade is the reliable factor of global resource enhancement with regard to minimizing carbon dioxide emissions and cost-effective use of scarce water resources available. On the other hand, the negative impact of international trade results in the export growth that contributes to national resource depletion, flow of pollution-related industries to countries with milder environmental control and prevention to address environmental issues. When considered in view of national economy development and operation of national commodity markets, current trends in the movement of the Russian export of food products in the post-crisis period, established its role to support the import substitution policy and commodity self-sustainment in the Russian Federation have been highlighted. The practical value of identified consequences of the current international trade is the opportunity to minimize the negative global challenge consequences and to improve the strength of the import substitution policy in Russia.
907
Аннотация
Against the background of world economy globalization, the international trade, being the oldest form of international economic relations (IER), is the major decisive factor for the development and market environment of food and agricultural commodity. The hypothesis is suggested and proved in this study that the international trade may and should be considered not only as the driver for global and national economy, but also as the new effective tool to address numerous global problems as follow: sustainable development, environmental and comestibles problems. The results of the study to evaluate the impact of the current international trade on the growth of food product market of global and national level proved the crucial function of the international trade and its two-fold character to mitigate challenges of today as above. On the one hand, it was proved in terms of food and agricultural product market that the international trade is the reliable factor of global resource enhancement with regard to minimizing carbon dioxide emissions and cost-effective use of scarce water resources available. On the other hand, the negative impact of international trade results in the export growth that contributes to national resource depletion, flow of pollution-related industries to countries with milder environmental control and prevention to address environmental issues. When considered in view of national economy development and operation of national commodity markets, current trends in the movement of the Russian export of food products in the post-crisis period, established its role to support the import substitution policy and commodity self-sustainment in the Russian Federation have been highlighted. The practical value of identified consequences of the current international trade is the opportunity to minimize the negative global challenge consequences and to improve the strength of the import substitution policy in Russia.
1012
Аннотация
The agrarian sector plays an important role in ensuring the food security of the state and the improvement of quality of life of each person and all the society. The increase in the infrastructure, economic and social problems of development of rural territories against the background of the transition of Russia from the state planned economy to market relations caused the formation of migratory outflow and a decrease in the rural population, the reproduction of human capital of the individuals living in the rural area on a narrow basis. The problems and prospects of development of human capital acting as the main factor of sustainable development of social and economic systems in the rural territories are considered in the research.The paradigm reflecting new a vision of sustainable development of social and economic systems is proved: human capital is the quality of life the implementation of which will allow to provide the balance of social and economic processes of rural territories, and, therefore, their sustainable development. The trends of institutional transformations oriented to the provision of reproduction of human capital in the rural area on a wide basis are considered.
768
Аннотация
Currently, the clean potable water is globally the restricted economic benefit. In highly urbanized and environmentally unfavorable regions, including the Kemerovo region, development of food plants to fill drinking water is the most promising way to solve the problem of potable water availability. Factors and conditions of the drinking water market formation are studied by integral evaluation of drinking water availability in all municipal districts of the region, using the criteria of availability in terms of geographic location, management, technological process, economic value and quality. The volume of supply of bottled drinking water is also analyzed in view of its availability. As a result, the data on the level of availability of drinking water is first obtained for residents of all municipal districts of the Kemerovo region, on the potential of the population to pay for the pure water delivery and on prospects to expand the bottled water production market. The most population was identified to live in conditions with low technological, economic and environmental access to drinking water. The residents of big and medium-sized cities live in conditions of low environmental availability and high potential to pay for the drinking water delivery. The residents of peripheral municipalities live in conditions with low access to potable water due to management, technology and economic restriction but within the high geographic availability. Thus, the analysis of the drinking water availability and volume of its production suggest the possibility of the local market considerable capacity and its growth in future.
1482
Аннотация
The majority of food markets comes under the priority and socially important ones. Promptly growing global companies actively get on the Russian food markets under the conditions of globalization. The revelation of specifics of processes of strengthening the economic power of the dominating entities in the food industry is the base for the development of decisions on the state regulation of development of food production and food price formation. The article considers the essence of the concept of oligopolization that allows to prove the essence of strengthening the economic power in the market (in the industry) of several largest companies, to show the variability inherent for oligopoly, to uncover the reasons that cause these changes, to reveal the orientation of high-quality changes and to determine the historical regularity of development of oligopolistic markets on its basis; to analyse the consequences of this phenomenon for society. Within the research, the concept of oligopolization is applied to the problematics of development of the dominating entities that function in food markets. The work analyses the factors that influence the growth of intensity of processes of oligopolization (the change of scopes and structure of consumer demand; the discrepancy of investment policy of oligopolists; the advancing development of network of foreign subsidiaries, the acceleration of growth of transnational capital in the developed countries and the growth of activity of oligopolists from the developing countries) and designates the peculiarities of influence of these factors on the development of food markets. The peculiarities of activity of the factors functioning in the global food markets are considered in the aspects of sales revenues; the positions held by these companies in the top ratings; the investment and innovative activity of companies. Special attention is paid to the issues of penetration and functioning of foreign companies in the Russian food markets.
1285
Аннотация
Food security, namely, the stability in availability of food for the population is important for the wellbeing and health of all mankind. In the modern world the destabilization of food the basic reasons of which are population growth, poverty, lack of investments into the agricultural industry, climate and weather, wars and resettlement, etc., is noted. The existing forecasts of the dynamics of population growth till 2050 are limited to 8-11 billion. The most part of this growth will accrue to the developing countries of Africa and Asia while the population of the developed countries, on average, will remain unchanged (except the United States of America due to international migration). The geographical distribution of undernourished people looks similarly, less than 5% of the population accrue to the developed countries, more than 12% - to the developing ones, on average in the world - more than 10%, with the prediction of further decrease. In spite of the fact that the percentage of mankind of the general biomass of our planet is insignificant, its activity is comprehended and anthropogenous as it became one of the most important forces changing processes in the biosphere. The interrelation of population growth and the necessary dynamics of food using the example of the protein, carbohydrate and fatty components in the world and in the former Soviet Union is considered in the work. The average forecast of population is used for the analysis. In case of the realization of the corresponding biotechnologies, the opportunity, if not of providing food security, then that of reduction of the number of undernourished people in the world, of food and energy resource conservation and of negative effect on the environment is quite achievable.