АннотацияCheeses are analyzed as vacuum drying objects. An experimental vacuum drier and its elements are schematized. The operating principle of the experimental setup is described. Moisture is demonstrated to be among the most important components of cheese. The physicochemical composition of cheeses is considered. The forms and energy of moisture binding in cheese are discussed. The hygroscopic and thermophysical properties of cheeses are reported. The kinetics of the vacuum drying of cheeses has been investigated. The vacuum drying of cheeses includes two stages: the drying rate is constant at the first stage and decreases at the second stage. The temperature curves of cheeses have been plotted in the temperature–moisture weight fraction coordinates. Drying curves in the heat load–time, temperature–time, and moisture weight fraction–time coordinates have been obtained and analyzed for various cheeses. Cheese drying rate curves have been constructed by graphical differentiation. The maximum cheese drying rates have been determined. Equilibrium moisture content values for cheese drying have been found. The cheese shrinkage ratio has been correlated with the thickness of the cheese bed being dried and with the shape and size of cheese pieces. Cheese shrinkage at both stages of vacuum drying proceeds uniformly. Raising the drying temperature above the prescribed temperature reduces the shrinkage ratio.
Ключевые словаkinetics , vacuum drying , cheeses , temperature , shrinkage , moisture , dryers , heat , drying curves
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