АннотацияIntroduction. High fiber bakery products can be a healthy snack option for consumers. Our study focused on the effect of replacing wheat flour with okara flour on the physicochemical, nutritional, textural, and sensory attributes of biscuits.
Study objects and methods. We used 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w okara flour to prepare biscuits. Refined wheat flour (control), mixed flour (okara and wheat flour), dough, and biscuits were assessed for physicochemical, textural, and nutritional properties, as well as sensory characteristics. The volume of particles was higher in 8% okara flour (145 μm) compared to refined wheat flour (91 μm).
Results and discussion. 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/w okara flour biscuits showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower spread ratio and weight loss than biscuits from wheat flour. Hardness, stickiness, and cohesiveness of 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara flour dough were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower compared to the control, resulting in decreased cutting strength and increased hardness of okara flour biscuits. Moisture, protein, ash, fat, and crude fiber contents of 2, 4, 6, and 8% okara biscuits were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher compared to the control biscuits. The sensory evaluation suggested that 4% okara biscuits had higher consumer acceptability and were superior to the control and other okara biscuits.
Conclusion. Mixed flour biscuits made from okara and wheat flours were superior in physicochemical, nutritional, textural, and sensory attributes, which allows considering them as an alternative healthy snack.
Ключевые словаFlour , dough , particle size , texture , biscuits , nutrient content , sensory evaluation
- Nagi HPS, Kaur J, Dar BN, Sharma S. Effect of storage period and packaging on the shelf life of cereal bran incorporated biscuits. American Journal of Food Technology. 2012;7(5):301–310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2012.301.310.
- Park J, Choi I, Kim Y. Cookies formulated from fresh okara using starch, soy flour and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose have high quality and nutritional value. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2015;63(1):660–666. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.110.
- Karkliņa D, Gedrovica I, Reca M, Kronberga M. Production of biscuits with higher nutritional value. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. 2012;66(3):113–116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10046-012-0005-0.
- Nakornpanom NN, Hongsprabhas P, Hongsprabhas P. Effect of soy residue (okara) on in vitro protein digestibility and oil release in high-calorie emulsion stabilized by heated mixed proteins. Food Research International. 2010;43(1): 26–32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.08.002.
- Pan W-C, Liu Y-M, Shiau S-Y. Effect of okara and vital gluten on physico-chemical properties of noodle. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 2018;36(4):301–306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/329/2017-CJFS.
- Porcel O, Victori M, Campderrós ME, Rinaldoni AN. Effect of okara flour addition on the physical and sensory quality of wheat bread. MOJ Food Processing and Technology. 2017;4(6).
- Grizotto R, Aguirre JM, Andrade J, Miyagusku L, Yamada EA. A study of new soybean cultivars for the production of protein extract. Seminário de iniciação científica; 2006; Campinas. Campinas, 2006.
- Turhan S, Temiz H, Sagir I. Utilization of wet okara in low-fat beef patties. Journal of Muscle Foods. 2007;18(2): 226–235. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.2007.00081.x.
- Radočaj O, Dimić E. Valorization of wet okara, a value-added functional ingredient, in a coconut-based baked snack. Cereal Chemistry. 2013;90(3):256–262. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-11-12-0145-R.
- Waliszewski KN, Pardio V, Carreon E. Physicochemical and sensory properties of corn tortillas made from nixtamalized corn flour fortified with spent soymilk residue (okara). Journal of Food Science. 2002;67(8):3194–3197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb08881.x.
- Zinia SA, Rahim A, Jony MA, Begum AA, Mazumder MA. The roles of okara powder on the processing and nutrient content of roti and paratha. SSRG International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2019;6(2):18–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14445/23942568/IJAES-V6I2P104.
- Santos GC, Bedani R, Rossi EA. Utilization of soy residue (okara) in breakfast cereal development. Alimentos Nutrição. 2012;15(1):115–117.
- Nowshin H, Devnath K, Begum AA, Mazumder MA. Effects of soaking and grinding conditions on anti-nutrient and nutrient contents of soy milk. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2018;16(1):158–163.
- Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 18th ed. Washington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2010.
- Mazumder MAR. The roles of genistein as anti-browning agent in liquid and powdered emulsions. PhD diss. Bangkok: Kasetsart University; 2016.
- Agrahar-Murugkar D, Gulati P, Kotwaliwale N, Gupta C. Evaluation of nutritional, textural and particle size characteristics of dough and biscuits made from composite flours containing sprouted and malted ingredients. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(8):5129–5137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1597-y.
- Rodríguez-García J, Laguna L, Puig A, Salvador A, Hernando I. Effect of fat replacement by inulin on textural and structural properties of short dough biscuits. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2013;6(10):2739–2750. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-012-0919-1.
- Tyagi SK, Manikantan MR, Oberoi HS, Kaur G. Effect of mustard flour incorporation on nutritional, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits. Journal of Food Engineering. 2007;80(4):1043–1050. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.08.016.
- Raina CS, Singh S, Bawa AS, Saxena DC. Textural characteristics of pasta made from rice flour supplemented with proteins and hydrocolloids. Journal of Texture Studies. 2005;36(4):402–420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4603.2005.00024.x.
- Bourne M. Food texture and viscosity: concept and measurement. Elsevier; 2002. 416 p.
- Singh B, Bajaj M, Kaur A, Sharma S, Sidhu JS. Studies on the development of high-protein biscuits from composite flours. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1993;43(2):181–189. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01087922.
- Mamat H, Abu Hardan MO, Hill SE. Physicochemical properties of commercial semi-sweet biscuit. Food Chemistry. 2010;121(4):1029–1038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.043.
- Cohen IS, Day AS, Shaoul R. Gluten in celiac disease – More or less? Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal. 2019;10(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5041/RMMJ.10360.
- Wilson JD, Bechtel DB, Todd TC, Seib PA. Measurement of wheat starch granule size distribution using image analysis and laser diffraction technology. Cereal Chemistry. 2006;83(3):259–268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/CC-83-0259.
- Gaines CS, Donelson JR, Finney PL. Effects of damaged starch, chlorine gas, flour particle-size, and dough holding time and temperature on cookie dough handling properties and cookie size. Cereal Chemistry. 1988;65(5):384–389.
- Manley D. Technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies. Woodhead Publishing; 2000. 528 p.
- Bose D, Shams-Ud-Din M. The effect of chickpea (Cicer arietinim) husk on the properties of cracker biscuits. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2010;8(1):147–152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.208478.
- Hooda S, Jood S. Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat biscuits supplemented with untreated and treated fenugreek flour. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(3):427–435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.006.
- Zucco F, Borsuk Y, Arntfield SD. Physical and nutritional evaluation of wheat cookies supplemented with pulse flours of different particle sizes. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2011;44(10):2070–2076. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.06.007.
- O’Brien CM, Chapman D, Neville DP, Keogh MK, Arendt EK. Effect of varying the microencapsulation process on the functionality of hydrogenated vegetable fat in shortdough biscuits. Food Research International. 2003;36(3): 215–221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(02)00139-4.
- Tseng C-S, Lai H-M. Physicochemical properties of wheat flour dough modified by microbial transglutaminase. Journal of Food Science. 2002;67(2):750–755. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2002.tb10671.x.
- Mazumder MAR, Hongsprabhas P, Thottiam Vasudevan R. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of maillard reaction products using amino acids, modified proteins, vitamins, and genistein: A review. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2019;43(12). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13089.