Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016
Using of secondary raw material resources from the oil and fat industry enterprises for new foodstuff development is an important task giving the chance of products range expansion, which are enriched in many indispensable components. The compliance with quality analysis of oilcakes from several types of olive raw materials, traditional and non-traditional for Russia, to fundamental technical requirements of the normative documents of the Russian Federation, determination of the list of quality and safety indicators of the oilcakes and reasons for the ways of processing them into food became the research purposes. Objects of researches were the oilcakes received in the conditions of specialized enterprises of Altai Krai from the appropriate types of olive raw materials. They are oilcakes made from: Siberian cedar pine kernels, walnut kernels, seeds of Cucurbita pepo, sesame seeds, black cumin seeds, flax seeds, milk thistle seeds, amaranth seeds. By research results, the list and standards of the regulated organoleptic and physical and chemical quality indicator of olive cakes are set; the permissible level of safety indices are justified and the conditional gradation on the prevailing macrocomponents defining the oilcakes nutrition value, their technological properties and the food use potential areas is recommended: 1) the composition is dominated by “proteins and lipids” (oilcakes from sesame seeds and pine nuts kernel) - mayonnaise, dairy and vegetable products; 2) “proteins and carbohydrates” (oilcake from amaranth and pumpkin seeds and oilcake from walnuts kernel) - dairy, vegetable, meat and cereal products, sugary and flour confectionery, food concentrates; 3) “proteins and alimentary fiber” (oilcake from milk thistle and flax) - bakery and flour confectionery.
THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF WATER AND THE HYDRATION OF THE PROTEIN COMPLEX IN CHEESE DURING FREEZING
The use of low temperatures is one of the available factors to inhibit the over-ripening of cheeses and the preservation of their quality. This study reveals the patterns and physical and chemical nature of the phase transition of water into ice, and the state of bound water, when freezing semi-hard cheeses in the range of ultra-low temperatures (-20 ... -50°C). The authors research the cheese’s resistance to freezing based on the water retention capacity of the proteins. They study the factors of product stability during storage in the frozen state conditioned by a change in state of tightly bound water in the protein complex during freezing to different temperatures. The paper examines three main subclasses of semi-hard cheeses with a high, low temperature second heating which, based on fat content in dry matter, are considered fat and semi-fat cheeses. The research conducted tests to obtain the basic patterns of rapid freezing at different air conditions. The air velocity in the cooling zone was up to 10 m/s. Samples of the finely packaged cheeses weighing up to 0.2 kg were being frozen at a given volume-average temperature of -20°C. The tests allowed to obtain the data about water phase transformation into ice, depending on the values of the low temperature. The kinetics of the process has shown a gradual transition of heterogeneous water into ice in accordance with its binding energy in descending order. Based on the analysis of the experimental data, the phase diagram of water states, depending on the final volume-average temperature of frozen cheese, has been created, and the data on the degree of hydration of the protein complex in the temperature range of -20 to -70°C has been obtained.
The lack of data about the polydisperse nature of distillates and the impact of separate micro particles to recovery of the natural flavor in food still does not have a solution. Such properties of the distillates as dispersion and the size of the micro particles using a Zetasizer Software 7.11 are discussed at the article for the first time. It is established that the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles in the distillate values from 200 nm to 600 nm. Changes of the hydrodynamic particles size in distillate by water dilution confirms the assumptions about their hydrophobic nature and availability of results of such processes as coacervation, hydrophobic hydration, hydrophobic interaction. The differences in sensory characteristics to some extent is confirmed by the differences in the average hydrodynamic diameter of the sample: 150 nm and 190 nm, in the laboratory and industrial respectively. The interrelation between the sensory characteristics of fruit distillates, dispersion and method of heat treatment of fruits in the convective and microwave field is shown. The differences in the shades of the fruit flavours of melon and cucumber in the fruit distillates, manifested in the isomerization of the components of the flavour are given. It is shown that aroma restoration differs in different mediums by pH. In an acidic medium (pH = 3.0) converting of acetals of cucumber distillates to aldehydes leads to the full restoration of the fresh scent, because aldehydes are key components. In subacid medium (pH = 6.0), positive changes of an aroma are made to the components of melon distillate. These results contribute to the economic competitiveness of distillates compared with other types of flavouring materials.
The screening of 8 probiotic strains (Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) characterized by high cholesterol-lowering activity was carried out in the scientific research laboratory of East Siberia University of Technology and Management (Ulan-Ude, Russia). In order to research biotechnological potential of probiotic microorganisms and to conduct statistical analysis we used a mix of standard and modern physicochemical, biochemical and microbiological methods. The strains Lactobacillus helveticus 35-1, Propionibacterium shermanii AC-2503 and Bifidobacterium longum DK-100 were found out to have the highest cholesterol-lowering properties. It can be seen that cocultivation of Lactobacillus helveticus 35-1 and Propionibacterium shermanii AC-2503 strains shows high population density, cholesterol-metabolizing, antimutagenic, adhesive properties and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. It indicates stable symbiotic bonds between cultures, which served as the basis for making a combined ferment. The analysis of biotechnological potential of Lactobacillus helveticus 35-1 and Propionibacterium shermanii AC-2503 strains and the study of organoleptic, physicochemical, probiotic properties and cholesterol metabolizing activity of the combined ferment have allowed to establish an optimum culture ratio in the ferment - 5 : 95. Optimum cultivation conditions of the continuous culture Lactobacillus helveticus 35-1 and the combined ferment were selected, process parameter of biologically active supplement and frozen ferments of direct loading were substantiated.
This research explores feasibility of adsorption method used for regulating polypenols content in wort with a view of improving beer quality. It examines adsorption of polyphenols (quercetin, gallic acid, rutin) from pure substance solutions, their mixtures and beer wort treated by sorbents that differ by origin, making, structure and surface chemical composition. The work determines patterns and specific features of polyphenols adsorption with activated carbons. To describe adsorption mechanism more precisely, we specified structure, surface chemical condition, and calculated adsorption parameters using equations of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich, and the multilayer adsorption theory (BET model). It is demonstrated that polyphenols adsorption mechanism depends on carbon characteristics and is of physical nature that reveals itself in dispersion interaction in micropores and in specific one with oxygen-containing functional group (OFG) on carbon surface. Polyphenol competitive adsorption in mixture and wort recognized. At polyphenols adsorption from model solutions and wort, carbon sorbents are identified to share sufficiently close sorption characteristics. We performed comparative evaluation of quality characteristics of beer produced from activated carbons treated and untreated worts. It is shown that beer samples produced from unhopped wort filtered through semi-coke adsorption, meet regulatory standards requirements of safety by organoleptic, physical and chemical indicators. Moreover, beer obtained from semi-coke treated wort exceeds control sample in terms of organoleptic and stability ensuring indicators.
The article describes chemical and amino acid composition of feather-downy raw material. It determines the mass fraction of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, sodium in the samples of feather-downy raw material. It is stated that the waste from poultry processing obtained from hens of all the studied species are characterized by a high content of crude protein and low in crude fiber and ash. The most valuable feather-downy raw material regarding protein is waste containing keratin obtained from the Lohmann Brown hens. We have studied the composition of the peptide fractions of feather-downy raw materials by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis according to Laemmli in order to understand chemistry of feather-downy raw material better. The obtained results show the presence of a wide variety of protein fractions with different molecular weights in tested keratin raw material. Half of all the proteins are fractions with a molecular weight of 60.0-56.0 kDa. It is found that feather and downy raw material has a sufficient number of low-molecular peptides. It is proved that this fraction corresponds to alpha-keratin. An important indicator for animal feed is their amino acid content, so we studied the quantitative content of essential and nonessential amino acids in feather-downy raw materials. The results of research indicate that poultry processing waste is rich in sulfur-containing amino acids such as cysteine and methionine. It is proved that the data on the physical and chemical composition of feather-downy raw material obtained from three different breeds of chickens, allow recommending the processing of poultry waste as a promising object for high-protein feed for farm animals with a balanced content of macro and microelements.
Currently, there is deterioration of the quality of incoming buckwheat supply. Intensification of harvesting processes, due to application of new combine harvesters aimed at expanding the moisture range of harvested grain, leads to a grain increase at farms and this bulk is kept under unregulated conditions on large open areas. The lack of centralized storage, conditioning and grain drying leads to the fact that producers have to deal with post-harvest handling and storage, though they do not have grain drying units, cleaning equipment and the required number of granaries. In addition, grain storage requires considerable financial costs; therefore not every producer can meet the necessary technological requirements of grain receiving and post-harvest processing. The incoming grain has another moisture content, hard-separable impurities, filmness and content of germinated grains. Processing of such grains using standard practice is costly or this grain is used for feeding purposes. Off-grade grain batches (which don’t conform to the requirements of regulatory documents) collected in the foothills of the Altai Territory were chosen for research. The research was carried out for the most common grain parties: with moisture of 17.0-22.0%, with hard-separable impurities above 2.0%, with filmness not more than 19.0%, and buckwheat containing germinated grains. The results of the research allowed offering technology, the distinguishing feature of which is the absence of preparation grains phase before processing. The proposed technology allows to process off-grade buckwheat in order to produce peeled buckwheat and guarantee profitability. The obtained data prove significant advantage of the proposed technology. Economic efficiency of grain processing with four defects is calculated. It is stated that the cost of processing off-grade grain on the proposed technology is much lower than the standard technology of producing buckwheat according to the requirements.
TECHNOLOGY OF AFTERPURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER FROM ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN PRODUCTION OF FOODSTUFF
The technology of afterpurification of drinking water is developed for upgrading of foodstuff from organic contaminants periodically present at natural water or formed on a stage of disinfecting by ozonization. The adsorption research of phenol, formaldehyde and acetic aldehyde from individual water solutions and their mixes on active charcoals (AC) marks AG-3, ABG, KsAU, AG-OV-1, SKD-515 and BAU differing in contents, in the way of reception, structure and chemical state of a surface is carried out. The basic laws, features and the mechanism of adsorption organic contaminants on AC are established. The mechanism of mass carry is shown at adsorption of mixes of phenol and formaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetic aldehyde on AC of different marks. A method to optimise the parametres and modes of continuous absorption cleaning, based on the fundamental equation of external diffusion dynamics of absorption, using Dubinin-Radushkevich constants and kinetic dependences, is offered. The basic parametres of adsorption dynamics which allowed determining the operating period of the column, the quantity of refined water depending on the rate of transmission, height of fixed bed and sizes of a column are stated. According to the results of experimental researches and derivatographic analysis the technology of regeneration of active charcoals after adsorption of mixes by washing AC by water warmed up to 50°C with the subsequent warmup by a stream of air with temperature 200°C within 2 hours that allows to reduce sorptive capacity of sorbents on 95-98% is developed. The technology solution for afterpurification of drinking water from phenol, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, occasionally presenting in natural water or arising in the stage of ozonation in water processing, was recommended on the basis of the complex analysis of absorption (balance, kinetics and dynamics) of organic substances, optimization of purification modes and parametres of absorption column, using mathematical modelling.
Traditionally, plastics are made from artificial synthetic polymers. These polymers have an unnatural structure, that’s why they are not biodegradable. Based on the latest advances in polymers structure studies, the article sets forward new biodegradable materials highly competitive with base plastic. Biodegradable films were received by fill-and-drain method from agar-agar, carrageenan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with glycerol, used as a plasticizer. Various compositions of biodegradable films based on natural polysaccharides have been analyzed for their rheological behavior and stress-strain properties, as well as for their safety and ecotoxicity index. It is found that all compositions of received polymer films are biodegradable and relatively bio-safe (III-IV class of danger). The strength characteristics tests revealed that the compositions with carrageenan have higher strength (2.84 MPa) than polymers containing only agar-agar (1.64 MPa). Also biopolymers with the content of carrageenan have the elevated chemical resistance (prolonged time of dissolution in hydrochloric acid). The melting point of the samples narrowly varies from 35.3 to 35.9°C. The study of the received polymers showed no cracks and no serious heterogeneities of composition. According to the testing results the compounds have been selected, which have optimum characteristics for use of biodegradable polymers in various industries. The biopolymers obtained in the future will replace artificial polymers that can solve problems of non-biodegradable polymer systems waste.
The article considers post-genomic view on formation of scientific ideas about one of the major components of raw milk and products produced from it (for example, cheese). It is a lipid complex (milk fat) of the brand Lipidomics. The cluster structure of milk fat, its components and derivatives are described. The author shows the dynamics of milk fat transformation in the process of cheese production in logistic link to lipolytic activity of bacterial starters and enzyme preparations. The characteristic of lipid complex of milk whey is given. Information allows us to formulate Lipidomics positions of dairy products. The aim of the article is to attract researchers’ attention to the object, and practitioners to a rational and careful use of milk fat in food products.
Lactoferrin (LTF) is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family present in human and other mammals’ milk. Global demand for originated protein is currently much higher than the supply, and lactoferrin remains the one of the most expensive proteins. Therefore, the development of cost efficient methods to produce lactofferin is extremely important. In this study, human lactoferrin is obtained in bacterial system. ltf gene, coding sequence of protein - human lactoferrin (hLTF), was cloned into the expression vector pET28a+, modified signal sequence IMKKTAIAIAVALAGFATVAQA AS. E.coli BL21DE3 strain was selected for expression. Productivity of the producing strain in regard to recombinant human lactoferrin was 30-35% of the cellular protein. The strain produced the recombinant lactoferrin in the form of inclusion bodies. The maximum yield of the target protein (including in soluble form) was achieved by culturing of the recombinant strain at 25°C, induction by 1.1 mM concentration of IPTG and 8-h period after induction. Optimization of solubilization and renaturation conditions allowed once to recover lactoferrin in a concentration of 2.9 mg/ml by the pulsed system. The protein of high purity at least 90% was obtained by means of affinity chromatography on Ni+-agarose.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS FOR ENHANCEMENT OF DRY MILK DISSOLUTION PROCESS: MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE SYSTEM “SOLID PARTICLES - LIQUID”
The mathematical model of immersion of insoluble spherical particle with smooth surface under absolute statics (incl. assumption - its spontaneous formation on the surface) at the particle density ranging from 1.05 to 1.75 kg/m3 and contact angle of moistening from 0º to 180º was created for development of theoretical and practical backgrounds of the reconstitution process. This model was used as the base of model of immersion in water and drowning of cubic grid of spherical insoluble particles under full static condition. Regularities of layers’ drawning were established and an algorithm for calculating the missing force for full grid immersion was developed. It is possible to determine the coefficient of correlation between the calculated and actual data, taking into account the heat and mass transfer processes occurring during the dissolution of the dry products that will bring model to real systems and, in such a way, unify the process.
Low temperature preservation of perishable produce is a widespread technology of it's long-term conservation, at the same time freezing of foods being an extremely power-consuming process. When developing low temperature preservation technology it is important to aim both at retaining high quality of frozen food and improving the energy efficiency of the processes. This article presents the results of research that explores the energy efficiency when freezing the sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides ) fruits in a fluidized bed quick freezer. The study offers a method to calculate an amount of energy consumed in the freezing process of the sea buckthorn cultivars in an air-blast quick freezer. It also outlines geometrical and mass parameters of the cultivars. The study simultaneously demonstrates an air flow rates calculation for the sea buckthorn fruits fluidization to occur; defines the air circulation energy cost at a velocity necessary for fluidization to be accomplished at different air temperatures, and calculates the energy consumption to produce an artificial cold to ensure the required temperatures of heat transferring air. Further, the article conducts an analysis of the overall interconnected factors that impact the berries freezing energy consumption. Based on data obtained through research the authors reveal the energy efficient regimes of the sea buckthorn fruits low temperature treatment in an air-blast quick freezer; types of refrigerating machines and refrigerant that would ensure the less power consuming quick freezing of the sea buckthorn. The research used the species grown in Kemerovo region.
STUDY OF CALCIUM ROLE IN COLLOIDAL STABILITY OF RECONSTITUTED SKIM MILK UNDER RENNET COAGULATION CONDITIONS
The role of calcium in rennet coagulation of milk is unquestionable in production technology of many cheeses. Therefore, understanding the possible mechanism of calcium influence on the colloidal stability of casein micelles may be the key to control the process of milk coagulation. It is evident that calcium ions are involved in maintenanceof milk coagulation stability, but the molecular mechanism of how these ions influence micellar caseins system is not fully known. Thus, the role of calcium in maintenance of the colloidal stability of milk is quite an urgent problem. Methodologically, the research was based on analysis of coagulation process of reconstituted skim milk, enriched with ions of calcium, magnesium and sodium. Milk whey separated from the clot after coagulation was investigated for sodium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus. A simple quantitative model, which includes kinetic description of the proteolysis process and the thermodynamics of the dissociation process of the functional groups of micellar caseins, was worked out to analyze experimental results. Kinetic and thermodynamic methods of describing the process of stability loss in micellar system were combined in one model, using the concept of solvent quality which is defined by the second osmotic virial coefficient. The experiments showed that calcium and magnesium ions chemically connect to casein micelles. Using reasonable assessments for thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, we managed to get quite adequate description of the experimental data on the coagulation of reconstituted skimmed milk enriched with calcium and magnesium ions. It was stated that the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of magnesium and calcium caseinates should differ by more than two orders of magnitude. The authors demonstrated principal possibility of using the model to describe the rennet, acid and mixed acid-rennet clotting of milk.
The problem of production of functional products of the natural origin intended for daily regular consumption and having an effect on biochemical reactions and physiological functions through restoration of its microecological status is considered in this article. It is shown, that one of sources of the vital substances for an organism is berry cultures, which play an essential role in nutrition of population. Dry berries practically completely conserve all spectrum of vitamins and biologically active materials that makes them valuable raw materials in various food industry branches. The use of products on the basis of dry berries allows to compensate for the deficiency of some vitamins, edible filaments and other useful substances, and also to normalize an intestinal microflora of an organism. The research purpose consisted in selection of optimum physical and chemical and technological aspects of low-temperature vacuum drying of berries. At performance of tests both standard and original techniques of investigation of technological, physical and chemical, biochemical, microbiological and statistical methods of research of raw materials and finished products properties have been used. Physical and chemical aspects of vacuum drying of berry raw materials are studied. Optimum technological parametres of drying are picked up. It is stated, that drying at higher values of temperature (80°C) proceeds faster in the chamber, thus there is fuller moisture removal from a berry, which positively influences on product shelf life. However there is increasing of specific power inputs on drying of a product and decreasing of quality indicators.
The existing global approach to risk analysis takes into account risks to human health and veterinary risks. However, this approach does not consider and does not evaluate the technological process of food production as a significant stage for the identification and management of risks. In relation to meat foods, it is the technological process, which will be a key factor in management decisions in the identification, assessment, management and communication of risks. The proposed integrated model of risk analysis reflects the peculiarities of meat products production all across the chain ‘from field to consumer’. Described is the mechanism of implementation model with respect to chemical risks, because there are no stages to eliminate chemical risks in meat industry, and on the contrary, some stages contribute to the emergence and introduction of this type of risks (introduction of sodium nitrite, smoking, etc.). Focused is the peculiarity of identification, assessment, management and communication of chemical risks at the stages of the ‘raw meat - processing - ready-to-eat product’ process. An approach to scientifically based risk communication procedure for the Russian Federation is suggested. The use of the proposed model will improve confidence of producers, government agencies, and consumers in product safety both in respect with human health and veterinarian matters. This mechanism can be used as the legislative basis in the field of food production development, both for the Russian Federation and the Eurasian Economic Union.
DETERMINATION OF THE CARBON ISOTOPE 13C/12C IN ETHANOL OF FRUIT WINES IN ORDER TO DEFINE IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS
In recent times we can notice a large number of counterfeit fruit wines in the market as it is difficult to discover exogenous alcohols in them. This is due to the fact that while producing table fruit wines it is allowed to add cane or beet sugar during fermentation to provide necessary alcohol conditions. Our measurements were carried out with the help of the method “Détermination du rapport isotopique 13C/12C par spectrométrie de mass isotopique de l'éthanol du vin ou de l'éthanol obtenu par fermentation des moûts concentrés ou des moûts concentrés rectifies” OIV-MA-AS312-06. Analyzing Russian crops of fruit and berries in 2015, with the exception of pomegranate (Azerbaijan), we have obtained the following results: black currant - minus 25.75 ± 0.08‰, cherry - minus 25.62 ± 0.06‰, chokeberry - minus 26.13 ± 0.26‰, pear - minus 27.04 ± 0.06‰, plum - minus 26.24 ± 0.41‰, apple - minus 27.58 ± 0.54‰ and pomegranate - minus 28.21 ± 0.22‰. These results suggest the following conclusions: using exogenous alcohols derived from plants C3 - photosynthesis type leads to a slight change in isotopic characteristics of carbon ethanol in fruit wines, while adding sugars or alcohols from plants C4 - type leads to an increase of the isotope 13C, resulting in significant changes of the indicator δ13C . To establish significant differences of exogenous alcohols C3 - type introduced from the outside and obtained by fermentation of adding beet sugar, in some cases it is not enough to use the only one indicator δ13 C (‰). Therefore promising researches are connected with defining isotope ratios of other biophilic elements of fruit ethanol, namely, oxygen 18O/16O and hydrogen D/H.
EVALUATING AND IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY
Removing small amounts of organochlorine compounds from aqueous solutions is important for the water treatment and wastewater treatment. Sorption methods with the use of carbon sorbents proved to be very successful in some cases. The paper studies the adsorption equilibrium in the systems carbon sorbent (active carbons KAU, AG-OV-1, SKD-515, semi-coke) - aqueous solutions of chloroform, chlorophenol and carbon sorbent - aqueous solutions of mixtures of these organochlorines. The research holds that the known adsorption equations can be used to describe the adsorption equilibrium and to calculate the main parameters of sorption. The paper discusses the possible mechanisms of chloroform and chlorophenol sorption by active carbons from aqueous solutions. It identifies those brands of activated carbons, which most effectively extract chloroform and chlorophenol from the treated water. The authors examine the possibility of the reagent modification of the sorbents by acid and alkali solutions in order to increase the adsorption capacity.
In contemporary economic conditions, when enterprises function in the environment of uncertainty, the search of new approaches to strategic management of enterprises becomes the objective of the management level. The formation of the mechanism of enterprise management improvement, which allows adapting management system to the changes of external environment, providing their high performance and competitiveness, is a very topical objective. The article substantiates the advisability of applying the balanced scorecard (BSC) for strategic enterprise management. The paper determines the sequence of using the balanced scorecard to assess the effectiveness of the strategies implementation of agribusiness enterprises. The authors have designed the economic-mathematical model of activity of manufacturing enterprise in the form of a multi-parameter problem of linear optimum management. It allows evaluating the strategy of its development considering the peculiarities of the agribusiness enterprise and the concept of BSC. The specified model has been approved by the example of an operating enterprise. With the help of automated software product numeric experiments have been conducted, describing various scenarios of the development of the agribusiness enterprise on the basis of the multi-parameter analysis of a number of key components of BSC, with the aim to reveal their mutual connection in the optimum regime. The authors draw conclusions about the advisability of accounting revealed parameter correlations and regularities while making a strategic map of BSC. It is stated that the application of BSC may be the basis for methodology of development and administrative decision making both at the present moment, and in the strategy of agribusiness enterprises management taking into account the specificity of their development.
METHODOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TERRITORIAL COMPETITIVE POSITIONS: CONSUMER GOODS AND SERVICES INDUSTRIES AND MARKETS INFRASTRUCTURE IN KEMEROVO REGION CASE STUDY
The priority tasks of the modern times include challenges in assessment of the industrial competitiveness. Today the problem of assessing the competitiveness of regions is the main and the first. When competition for investments, innovations and new technologies between regions increases, the role of their key competitive positions start to go up too. A development of methodological approaches to assessment of territorial competitive positions of a region is a primary focus of the article. Consumer goods and services industries and markets infrastructure of Kemerovo region were selected to be an object of the current study. The results of our earlier works presented three groups of competitive positions to assess competitiveness of a given region: territorial competitive positions of a region (TCP), industrial competitive positions of a region (ICP), territorial and industrial competitive positions of a region (TICP). The object of more detailed research is some positions of the first group. The TCP has been divided into two subgroups: basic TCP (based on geographical location and general resource potential) and controllable TCP (built up by a region proactively in a targeted manner). Today the region market infrastructure becomes one of the most important controllable TCP. It is academic and practical interest to work out assessment methods to evaluate a rate of its development and contribution into economic performance of a region. Market infrastructure was classified by three characteristics: functional and industrial, services markets, hierarchical. To evaluate development rate of consumer goods and services markets infrastructure in Kemerovo region we defined its components and suggested three groups of indicators: absolute and relative, flow data, overall. Sets of additional indicators further determine each of the above groups. Through the detailed analysis, the overall indicators were used to assess Kemerovo region economic structure and how industries and consumer goods and services markets infrastructure contribute to its GRP. We analyzed changes that occurred in economic structure of the region during the last years and presented macroeconomic, aggregated, enlarged model of Kemerovo region. The study generally concludes that there is a need to further strengthening of territorial competitive position in service sector.
The quality of life, which is a complex characteristic of human existence, its level and conditions, in the research practice is measured by statistical and sociological methods. This characteristic reflects the degree of satisfaction with different needs and subjective perception of life and its individual aspects. In this work the statistical method is chosen to describe the quality of life. It aims to the indicators' analysis, which are connected with food consumption (using Kemerovo region since 2010 to 2014 as an example) and differentiated into two parts: standard of living and living conditions. The analyzed level (households' expenses share for food in overall consumer spending structure, food consumption structure, its nutrition and energy value) and conditions indicators (food prices, consumer price indexes, a minimum food set cost dynamics and its ratio with the average income, retail food trade turnover, its share in total turnover of the region, public catering turnover) have shown low life quality in the region in comparison with Russia in general, and also its decrease for the last one or two years, which is confirmed by traditional indicators of living standard and quality.
The ordered system of tax, measurement and information interpretation which is necessary for decision-making in the managerial account of organization, is the important constituent of a finance administration of organization. Budgeting is also a part of finance administration system, and it represents budgetary management along with planning on the centers of financial responsibility. The article gives information about the conducted research, determining interrelation between the system of budgets and managerial account in financial management. The budgeting includes the mechanism of incomes, costs, resources planning. In this case the managerial account is a data vendor. Managerial account uses the methods of system construction of plans (budgets). The authors study different approaches to budgets formation and system of the managerial account formation. The paper pays special attention to storekeeping as the basic property requiring updating and to problems of security substantiation, which many organizations give not enough attention to. The basic method used in the article is the method of scientific abstraction, and also monographic method. The authors come to the conclusions that use of budgeting principles focused on the result leads to the best finance results of the enterprise, to safe-keeping and integrity, and to the increase of staff responsibility.
THE PROBLEM OF PROVIDING FOOD RESOURCES IN URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS (THE CASE STUDY OF THE KUZBASS AGGLOMERATION)
Urban agglomerations are the result of a process of spatial competition for resources. To analyze the functioning of specific urban centers, it is necessary to make a distinction between the process of agglomeration and the state of agglomeration in the spatial structure. This paper shows the interrelation of the process of urban agglomeration and the agglomeration of the production activity as its economic foundation. The study reveals the connection between the urban agglomeration process and the agglomeration of the production activity with the purpose to ensure food supplies. The authors analyze the background, causes, opportunities, goals and challenges of the Kuzbass urban agglomeration. The specifics of the Kuzbass agglomeration lie in a significant level of urbanization and in having two core cities in the region. This gives grounds to describe the Kuzbass agglomeration as a conurbation. The relationship between the two centers within the conurbation is an under-researched problem. The specifics of the Kuzbass agglomeration (conurbation) also lie in its in-between location and close proximity to the neighboring agglomerations. On one hand, its location exacerbates a competition for resources, but on the other hand, it is the basis for the solution of certain internal problems, such as food supply security. Usually, an urban agglomeration is accompanied by a reduction of the rural population, and thus, by a decrease of the opportunities for agriculture. The Kuzbass agglomeration’s location allows for a solution to the problem of food security not only due to the development of its own agricultural sector, but also due to the agrarian sector in the neighboring agglomerations.