Copyright ©Egorova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 144-153
Despite a long study of main types of the herbs used in the Russian alcoholic beverage production, the structure of the components participating in the formation of "bouquet" of the alcoholic beverages obtained on their basis has not been studied yet. A study of content of aromatic aldehydes characteristic of distilled drinks in aqueous- alcoholic extracts of shell of pine nuts, common St. John's wort herb and wild camomile flowers, and also in the distilled drink simulated on the basis of these extracts became the purpose of this work. The raw materials obtained from the plants growing in the Altai Territory and the Altai Republic of the Russian Federation have been used for this work. The extracts were obtained by infusing the air and dry raw materials of the corresponding type in the 40% water solution of ethyl alcohol within 15 days at a temperature of 20 ± 2°C, with periodic agitation of extraction mixture, separation of extract by decantation and cleaning with filtering. The identification and quantitative determination of aromatic aldehydes were performed using the system of capillary electrophoresis "Kapel’-105M". By the results of studies it has been established that the extracts differ, as for the content of aromatic aldehydes, both from the freshly obtained oak extracts and from the aged cognac distillates. A content of aldehydes has been revealed in the extracts of wild camomile flowers and St. John's wort herb at a level equal and higher than in the extract of shell of pine nuts within the total limits for the three considered extracts of, mg/dm3: for vanillin - from18.5 to 96.4, for syringic aldehyde - from 8.5 to 19.4, for sinapic aldehyde - from 9.6 to 17.5, for coniferylic aldehyde - from 22.0 to 47.9. There is no direct correlation between the content of aromatic aldehydes in the imitated distilled drink and the content of these aldehydes in the initial extracts. The obtained data on the content of aromatic aldehydes in the nuts and herbs extracts are one of the evidence of similarity of the processes proceeding when obtaining these extracts and the processes that are the basis of technology of cognacs. In future, the obtained data can be put in a basis of techniques of express control of readiness of extracts and authenticity of new drinks in merchandising and technological practice.
Alcoholic beverage products
, extracts of vegetable raw materials
, pine (cedar) nuts
, wild camomile
, common St. John's wort
, aromatic aldehydes
, identification criteria
- Oseledtseva I.V., Guguchkina T.I., and Sobolev E.M. Practical realization of modern ways for determination authenticity of brandy production. News institutes of higher Education. Food technology, 2010, no. 2-3, pp. 104-107. (In Russian).
- Delgado R., Durán E., Castro R., et al. Development of a stir bar sorptive extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile compounds in Sherry brandy. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2010, no. 672 (1-2), pp. 130-136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.05.015.
- Cognac supplement. Essense of france. Drinks International (drinksint.com). Zurich House, 2011. 34 r.
- Von Gesche Wüpper. Die Furcht der Franzosen vor der russischen Cognac-Mafia. Welt-zeitung. 17.05.2009.
- Butskiy K.N. Vozmozhnost' kachestvennoy identifikatsii aromaticheskikh al'degidov metodom tonkosloynoy khromatografii [The possibility of quality identification of aromatic aldehydes using the method of thin-layer chromatography]. Kriminalistichniy visnik [Criminal bulletin], 2013, no. 1 (19), pp. 196-202.
- Kochetova M.V., Larionov O.G., and Ulyanova E.V. The investigation of qualytative composition of cognacs by HPLC. Sorption and chromatographic processes, 2008, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 658-667. (In Russian).
- Nezalzova E. High-performance liquid chromatography for determination of aromatic aldehydes in wine distillates. Chemistry Journal of Moldova. 2011, vol. 6, no. 1, rr. 81-85. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.19261/cjm.2011.06(1).06.
- Oseledtseva I.V. and Guguchkina T.I. Correlations between Levels of Characteristic Extractive Ingredients in Cognacs and Related Products. Winemaking and viticulture, 2011, no. 6, rr. 18-22. (In Russian).
- Ledauphin J., Le Milbeau S., Barillier D., and Hennequin D. Differences in the volatile compositions of french labeled brandies (Armagnac, Calvados, Cognac, and Mirabelle) using GC-MS and PLS-DA. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010, vol. 58, no. 13, rr. 7782-7793. DOI: 10.1021/jf9045667.
- Picque D., Lieben P., Corrieu G., et al. Discrimination of cognacs and other distilled drinks by mid-infrared spectropscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, vol. 54, no. 15, rr. 5220-5226. DOI: 10.1021/jf060465u.
- Sádecká J., Tóthová J., and Májek P. Classification of brandies and wine distillates using front face fluorescence spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 2009, vol. 117, no. 3, rr. 491-498. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.053.
- Ledauphin J., Saint-Clair J.F., Lablanquie O., et al. Identification of trace volatile compounds in freshly distilled Calvados and Cognac using preparative separations coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2004, vol. 52, no. 16, pp. 5124-5134. DOI: 10.1021/jf040052y.
- Sarvarova N.N., Cherkashina Yu.A., and Evgen′ev M.I. Application of chromatographic methods to the determination of cognac quality indicators. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2011, vo. 66, no.12, pp. 1190-1195. DOI: 10.1134/S1061934811120094.
- Zhao Y., Xu Y., Li J., et al. Profile of volatile compounds in 11 brandies by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Food Science, 2009, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 90-99. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.01029.x.
- Gun'kin I.N. Otsenka kachestva kon'yakov elektroforeticheskim i spektroskopicheskim metodami [Assessment of quality of cognacs using electrophoretic and spectroscopic methods]. Cand. chem. sci. thesis. Krasnodar, 2010. 23 p.
- Panossian A., Mamikonyan G., Torosyan M., et al. Analysis of aromatic aldehydes in brandy and wine by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. Analytical Chemistry, 2001, vol. 73, no. 17, rr. 4379-4383. DOI: 10.1021/ac0014818.
- Oseledzeva I.V. and Kirpicheva L.S. Assessment of the influence of long factor on variation of parameters of the factions volatile cognac wine materials and young brandy distillate. Agricultural Bulletin of Stavropol Region, 2015, no. 1 (17), pp. 246-252. (In Russian).
- Ferrari G., Lablanquie O., Cantagrel R., et al. Determination of key odorant compounds in freshly distilled cognac using GC-O, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2004, vol. 52 (18), rr. 5670-5676. DOI: 10.1021/jf049512d.
- Savchuk S.A. and Kolesov G.M. Chromatographic determination of fhthalic acid esters as an indicator of adulterated cognacs and cognac spirits. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2007, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 761-772. DOI: 10.1134/S1061934807080126.
- Malfondet N., Gourrat K., Le Quéré J.-L., Brunerie P. Aroma characterization of freshly-distilled french brandies; their specificity and variability within a limited geographic area. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2016, no. 31 (5), rr. 361-376.
- Rodríguez Dodero M.C., Guillén Sánchez D.A., Schwarz Rodríguez M., and García Barroso C. Phenolic compounds and furanic derivatives in the characterization and quality control of brandy de Jerez. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2010, vol. 58 (2), rr. 990-997. DOI: 10.1021/jf902965p.
- Mignani A.G., Ciaccheri L., Gordillo B., et al. Identifying the production region of single-malt Scotch whiskies using optical spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2012, vol. 171-172, pp. 458-462. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.05.011.
- Sádecká J., Uríčková V., Hroboňová K., and Májek P. Classification of juniper-flavoured spirit drinks by multivariate analysis of spectroscopic and chromatographic data. Food Analytical Methods, 2015, vol. 8, no. 1, rr. 58-69. DOI: 10.1007/s12161-014-9869-8.
- Magana A.A., Wrobel K., Elguera J.C.T. et al. Determination of small phenolic compounds in tequila by liquid chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometry detection. Food Analytical Methods, 2015, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 864-872. DOI: 10.1007/s12161-014-9967-7.
- Avila-Reyes J.A., Almaraz-Abarca N., Delgado-Alvarado E.A., et al. Phenol profile and antioxidant capacity of mescal aged in oak wood barrels. Food Research International, 2010, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 296-300. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.002.
- Wiśniewska P., Śliwińska M., Dymerski T., et al. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 2015, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 201-225. DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2014.904732.
- Krasnova T.A., Gora N.V., and Golubeva N.S. Beer quality assurance by controlling wort polyphenolic content with adsorption method. Foods and Raw materials, 2016, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 36-43. DOI: 10.21179/2308-4057-2016-1-36-43.
- Campo E., Cacho J., and Ferreira V. Solid phase extraction, multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of four novel aroma powerful ethyl esters: Assessment of their occurrence and importance in wine and other alcoholic beverages. Journal of Chromatography A, 2007, vol. 1140, no. 1-2, rr. 180-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2006.11.036.
- Egorova E.Yu. Nauchnoe obosnovanie i prakticheskaya realizatsiya razrabotki pishchevoy produktsii s ispol'zovaniem produktov pererabotki kedrovykh orekhov [Scientific substantiation and practical realization of the development of food production with the use of products of processing of cedar nuts]. Dr. eng. sci. diss. Kemerovo, 2012. 484 p.
- Lukanin A. and Sidorenko A. Kriterii opredeleniya vozrasta kon'yachnykh spirtov [Criteria for determination of age of cognac alcohols]. Visnyk agrarnoi' nauky [Bulletin of agricultural science], 2016, no. 10, rr. 51-60.
- Vivas N. Manuel de tonnellerie a l’usage des utilisateurs de futaille. Editions Feret, Bordeaux, 2002. 207 p.
- Egorova E.Yu., Budaeva V.V., Lobanova A.A., and Ilyasov S.G. Shell of a pine nut in manufacture of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Beer and Drinks. 2005, no. 5, rr. 44-46. (In Russian).
- Egorova E.Yu. Receiving extracts from an amniotic membrane of pine nuts. Alcoholic Beverage Production and Winemaking. 2012, no. 11-12, rr. 23-25. (In Russian).
- Pavlova L.V., Platonov I.A., Arkhipov V.G., et al. Gas-chromatographic analysis of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita R.). Analytics and Control, 2013, vol. 17, no. 1, rr. 66-75. DOI: 10.15826/analitika.2013.17.1.009. (In Russian).
- Bazarnova Yu.G. and Ivanchenko O.B. Investigation of the composition of biologically active substances in extracts of wild plants. Nutrition problems, 2016, vol. 85, no. 5, rr. 100-107. (In Russian).
- Temerdashev Z.A., Milevskaya V.V., Kiseleva N.V., et al. Sorption-chromatographic determination of gallic, caffeic acids, rutin and epicatechin in herbs. Analytics and control, 2013, vol. 17, no. 2, rr. 211-218. DOI: 10.15826/analitika.2013.17.2.012. (In Russian).
- Pravdivtseva O.E. and Kurkin V.A. Issledovaniya po obosnovaniyu novykh podkhodov k standartizatsii syr'ya i preparatov zveroboya prodyryavlennogo [Researches on justification of new approaches to standardization of raw materials and preparations of Hypéricum perforatum L]. Chemistry of plant raw material, 2008, no. 1, rr. 81-86.
- Skurikhin I.M. Khimiya kon'yaka i brendi [Chemistry of cognac and brandy]. Moscow: DeLi Print Publ., 2005. 296 p.
- Egorova E.Yu. and Morozhenko Yu.V. Methodological approaches to the development and quality assessment of new drinks of the group of Distillates. Part 1. Formulation of the new drink. Polzunovskii Herald, 2016, no. 3, pp. 4-8. (In Russian).
- M 04-53-2008. Kon'yaki, brendi i kon'yachnye spirty. Metodika vypolneniya izmereniy massovoy kontsentratsii vanilina, sinapovogo al'degida, koniferilovogo al'degida, sirenevogo al'degida metodom kapillyarnogo elektroforeza s ispol'zovanie sistem kapillyarnogo elektroforeza «Kapel'-105» i «Kapel'-105M» [Cognacs, brandy and cognac alcohols. Technique for mass concentration of vanillin, sinapic aldehyde, coniferylic aldehyde, syringic aldehyde using the method of capillary electrophoresis with the use of capillary electrophoresis systems «Kapel’-105» and «Kapel’-105M»]. St. Petersburg, 2008. n. p.
- Pochitskaya I. M., Kurchenko V. P., Ursul O. N. Issledovanie fiziko-khimicheskikh protsessov pri vyderzhke kon'yachnykh spirtov [The study of physical and chemical processes when aging cognac]. Pishchevaya promyshlennost': nauka i tekhnologii [Food processing industry: science and technology]. 2009, no. 2 (4), rr. 82-89.
- Koropachinskaya N.V. Kataliticheskoe okislenie ligninov v aromaticheskie al'degidy v prisutstvii oksida medi [Catalytic oxidation of lignins in aromatic aldehydes in the presence of copper oxide]. Cand. agr. sci. thesis. Krasnoyarsk, 2004. 18 p.
- Aksenov P.A. Otbor duba dlya ispol'zovaniya ego drevesiny v vinodelii [Selection of oak for the use of its wood in winemaking]. Cand. agr. sci. thesis. Moscow, 2012. 24 p.
- Oseledtseva I.V., Guguchkina T.I., Markosov V.A., and Prostak M.N. Osobennosti khimicheskogo sostava kon'yachnykh distillyatov, vyrabatyvaemykh v raznykh geograficheskikh zonakh [Peculiarities of the chemical composition of cognac distillates produced in different geographical zones]. Magarach. Vinogradarstvo i vinodelie [Grape growing and winemaking], 2013, no. 2, rr. 26-28.
- Iantto T.A., Dorman H.J.D., et al. Chemical composition, antioxidative activity and cell viability effects of a Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) extract. Food Chemistry, 2009, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 936-943. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.008.
- Shefer E.P. Sovremennye podkhody k izucheniyu khimicheskogo sostava semyan sosny kedrovoy sibirskoy i razrabotka metodov standartizatsii lekarstvennykh preparatov na ikh osnove [Modern approaches to the study of chemical composition of Pinus sibirica seeds and the development of methods for standardization of preparations on their basis]. Cand. pharm. sci. thesis. Moscow, 2000. 24 p.
- Pozharitskaya O.N., Shikov A.N., Laakso I., et al. Polifenol'nye soedineniya semyan Pinus sibirica (Pinaceae) [Polyphenolic compounds of Pinus sibirica (Pinaceae) seeds]. Rastitel'nye resursy [Vegetable resources]. 2007, Vol. 43, Iss. 2, pp. 39-46.
- Egorova E.Yu., Sysoeva D.Yu., Rozhnov E.D., and Morozhenko Yu.V. Aromatic aldehydes of plant product extracts that are used in liqueurs and spirits manufacture. Polzunovskii Herald. 2014, no. 4 (2), rr. 126-131. (In Russian).
How to quote?
Egorova E Yu, Morozhenko Yu V, Reznichenko I Yu IDENTIFICATION OF AROMATIC ALDEHYDES IN THE EXPRESS ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF HERBAL DISTILLED DRINKS. Foods and Raw Materials, 2017, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 144-153
Kemerovo State University
2308-4057 (Print) /