ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Vinegar extraction from unripe shikuwasa (Citrus depressa L.), an Okinawan citrus fruit

Introduction. Nakamoto Seedless, a variety of shikuwasa (Citrus depressa L.) in Okinawa, can be used to produce vinegar extracts because it has no seeds causing bitter taste. However, Nakamono Seedless is hardly cultivated commercially in Okinawa. This research was aimed to develop vinegar extract from Ogimi Kugani, another major variety of shikuwasa, and compare its characteristics with those of extracts from Nakamoto Seedless.
Study objects and methods. The study featured vinegar extracts from the whole shikuwasa of Nakamoto Seedless (20% fruit) and Ogimi Kunagi (5, 10, and 20% of fruit) varieties. The fruit was harvested in June, July, and August. We tested the samples for limonin and polymethoxyflavones content and sensory attributes, especially bitterness.
Results and discussion. Vinegar extracts with 20% of Ogimi Kugani harvested in June and July tasted bitter compared to those from Nakamoto Seedless harvested in August, but extracts from Ogimi Kugani harvested in August were not bitter. In addition, 5 and 10% vinegar extracts from Ogimi Kugani harvested in June had lower bitterness. The vinegar extracts from both shikuwasa varieties contained polymethoxyflavones ‒ bioactive compounds ‒ and similar flavor.
Conclusion. The whole shiluwasa fruit can be used to produce vinegar drinks, Ponzu soy sauce, salad dressings, etc.
Okinawan citrus, Ogimi Kugani, Nakamoto Seedless, vinegar extract, polymethoxyflavones, sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin
This research was conducted as a part of the project on climate-smart fruit farming, which is funded from Okinawa’s economic development budget.
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How to quote?
Hanagasaki T. Vinegar extraction from unripe shikuwasa (Citrus depressa L.), an Okinawan citrus fruit. Foods and Raw Materials. 2021;9(2):310–316.
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