AbstractIntroduction. Mead, one of the oldest alcoholic beverages that man consumed is obtained by fermentation of honey solution, and contains from 8 to 18% vol. ethanol. Honey can be considered as an excellent source of carbohydrates for the fermentation process, but low concentrations of other substances in the honey can slow down the process. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) contains dietary fibers, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin A, vitamin E, potassium and calcium, along with the phenolic metabolites that are a source of possible health benefits.
Study objects and methods. In this study was investigated the influence of blackberry juice addition on mead fermentation process, chemical composition and antioxidative activity. Dynamics of the fermentation process were controlled based on weighing the flasks in time on a scale every 24 h throughout the alcoholic fermentation. At the end of fermentations, oenological parameters of mead: dry matter content, pH, volatile acidity and ethanol content and reducing sugars. For the determination of antioxidative capacity the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and total flavonols were measured and two tests were performed: DPPH and ABTS.
Results and discussion. Addition of blackberry juice had a positive effect on fermentation dynamics (almost 25% higher rate of fermentation than in control samples), and improved all physicochemical characteristics and composition of resultant meads. Also, meads with the addition of blackberry juice had a significantly higher concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids and total flavonols and significantly stronger antioxidative properties compared to the control meads without juice addition. The highest total phenolics, total flavonoids and total flavonols content was determined in the mead with the maximum addition of blackberry juice (B20W): it reached 490.88, 50.34 and 62.57 μgQE.mL–1, respectively, and was 6-fold higher for total phenolics and total flavonoids content, and 10-fold higher for total flavonols content than in the mead without juice addition (CW). The strongest antioxidative activity was determined in the B10W mead; it accounted for 6.98 μgTE.mL–1 (DPPH assay) and 0.65 μgTE.mL–1 (ABTS assay), what was 1.5-fold and 3-fold higher, respectively, than in the mead without juice addition (CW).
KeywordsFruit, blackberry, beverages, fermentation rate, mead, antioxidant activity, kinetic model
FUNDINGThis study is a result of the research conducted within the Project (19/6-020/961-68/18) financially supported by the Ministry for Scientific and Technological Development, Higher Education and Information Society of the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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