ISSN 2308-4057 (Print),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Online)

Minced products from undersized sea fish: new industrial technology

Introduction. The ever-growing world population and protein deficiency increase the demand for products of animal origin, especially fish-based. However, canned foods and fillets, which are the most popular types of fish products, are made from medium-sized and large fish. In spite of the fact that undersized fish is cheap, it requires manual processing and remains so time and labour consuming that it is utilized for non-food purposes. The research objective was to develop a new technology for processing undersized sea fish into minced ready-to-eat products.
Study objects and methods. The study featured experimental samples of fish mince with texturing agents and food additives vs. control samples of pure fish mince. The experiment involved block-frozen Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens L.). The anchovy was minced without pre-defrosting, gutting, or beheading. The experimental and control samples underwent sensory evaluation and were tested for moisture content, water-binding capacity, and rheological properties using a PNDP-penetrometer.
Results and discussion. Adding 3.6% of wheat fiber, ≤ 15% of pea flour, ≤ 10% of textured soy, and 12% of onion improved the sensory and technological profiles of the finished product. The recommended mass fraction of fish in the finished product did not exceed 55%, as a higher amount deteriorated the sensory quality of the product. The textured soy provided the optimal texture. The fish balls were cooked from the fish mince, which were deep-fried in breadcrumbs, received a high score for sensory properties and could be recommended as basis for various formulations.
Conclusion. Minced undersized fish, traditionally used as fertilizers or crude product, proved to be an advantageous semi-finished and ready-to-eat product. The developed technology is relevant for most undersized block-frozen sea fish.
Seafood, anchovy, Engraulis ringens, processing, undersized fish, rheological properties, fish mince, semi-finished products, water-binding capacity
  1. Sánchez Durand N, Gallo Seminario M. Status of and trends in the use of small pelagic fish species for reduction fisheries and for human Consumption in Peru. In: Hasan MR, Halwart M, editors. Fish as feed inputs for aquaculture: practices, sustainability and implications. Rome: FAO; 2009. pp. 325–369.
  2. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Meeting the sustainable development goals. Rome: FAO; 2018. 225 p.
  3. Ghaly AE, Dave D, Budge S, Brooks M. Fish spoilage mechanisms and preservation techniques: review. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 2010;7(7):859–877.
  4. Simpson BK, Nollet LML, Toldra F, Benjakul S, Paliyath G, Hui YH. Food biochemistry and food processing. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. 912 p.
  5. Pham QT. Refrigeration in food preservation and processing. In: Bhattacharya S, editor. Conventional and advanced food processing technologies. John Wiley and Sons; 2015. pp. 357–386.
  6. Balachandran KK. Postharvest technology of fish and fish products. Delhi: Daya Publishing House; 2001. 440 p.
  7. Sen DP. Advances in fish processing technology. New Delhi: Allied Publishers; 2005. 805 p.
  8. Shahidi F, Li Q. Biologically active peptides from foods. In: Ustunol Z, editor. Applied food protein chemistry. John Wiley and Sons; 2015. pp. 75–98.
  9. Khoshnood Z, Jamili S. Marine microbiology. Taylor and Francis Routledge; 2017. 310 p.
  10. Yarochkin AP, Boitsova TM. Technology, processes, and technical devices to manufacture mince of small-sized fish and its using. Izvestiya TINRO. 2018;193:237–253. (In Russ.).
  11. Daniela B, Anca IN, Peter R. Trends in fish processing technologies. New York: CRC Press; 2018. 356 p.
  12. Boye JI, Arcand Y. Current trends in green technologies in food production and processing. Food Engineering Reviews. 2013;5(1):1–17.
  13. Kim S-K, Venkatesan J. Introduction to seafood processing by-products. In: Kim S-K, editor. Seafood processing byproducts. Trends and applications. New York: Springer; 2014. pp. 1–9.
  14. Mohan CO, Carvajal-Millan E, Ravishankar CN. Research methodology in food sciences: integrated theory and practice. New Jersey: Apple Academic Press; 2018. 394 p.
  15. Gorbatovskiy AA. Razrabotka retseptur i tekhnologii farshevykh izdeliy iz presnovodnykh ryb slozhnogo syrʹevogo sostava [Development of recipes and technologies for minced products from freshwater fish of complex raw material composition]. Cand. eng. sci. diss. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University of Low Temperatures and Food Technologies; 2006. 124 p.
  16. Bashir KMI, Kim J-S, An JH, Sohn JH, Choi J-S. Natural food additives and preservatives for fish-paste products: a review of the past, present, and future states of research. Journal of Food Quality. 2017;2017.
  17. Food colours: titanium dioxide marks reevaluation milestone [Internet]. [cited 2020 Feb 27] Available from:
  18. Tilami SK, Sampels S. Nutritional value of fish: lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture. 2018;26(2):243–253.
  19. Ananey-Obiri D, Matthews LG, Tahergorabi R. Proteins from fish processing by-products. In: Galanakis CM, editor. Proteins: Sustainable source, processing and applications. Academic Press; 2019. pp. 163–191.
  20. Codex Alimentarius. Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) Online Database [Internet]. [cited 2020 May 14]. Available from:
  21. Backi CJ. Methods for (industrial) thawing of fish blocks: A review. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 2018;41(1).
  22. Domiszewski Z. Effect of heating fatty fish: Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on lipid oxidation and contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013;48(4):786–793.
  23. Guldas M, Hecer C. Influences of the selected additives on the weight loss and organoleptic properties of marinated mussels and squids. Acta Veterinaria Brno. 2012;81(3):263–267.
  24. Benjakul S, Sae-leaw T, Simpson BK. Byproducts from fish harvesting and processing. In: Simpson BK. Aryee ANA, Toldrá F, editors. Byproducts from agriculture and fisheries: adding value for food, feed, pharma, and fuels. John Wiley and Sons; 2019. pp. 179–217.
  25. Peruvian Anchovy (Direct Human Consumption) [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 27]. Available from:
How to quote?
Gorbatovskiy AA, Rakityanskaya IL, Kaledina MV. Minced products from undersized sea fish: new industrial technology. Foods and Raw Materials. 2021;9(1):87–94.
About journal