ISSN 2308-4057 (Печать),
ISSN 2310-9599 (Онлайн)

Nutritional significance of finger millet and its potential for using in functional products

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.), ragi or mandua, is one of essential minor millets extensively grown in the Indian and African subcontinents. It is a staple food in India, particularly for people belonging to low-socioeconomic groups. Finger millet is highly valued for its content of macro- and micronutrients. It is rich in carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Its micronutrients include calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%), and phenolic compounds (0.3–3%), such as catechin, epicatechin, as well as ferulic, salicylic, protocatechuic, cinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. Finger millet is also recognized as a source of vital amino acids, including isoleucine, leucine, methionine, and phenylalanine, which are otherwise deficient in starchy meals. In addition, finger millet is well appreciated for its pharmacological properties such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumorigenic, anti-atherosclerogenic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. To improve its nutritional and sensory properties, this grain can be processed by various traditional and advanced methods (soaking, malting, cooking, fermentation, popping, and radiation). These processing techniques equally assist in the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (tannins, phytic acid, oxalic acid, protein inhibitors, glucans) and their inhibitory effects. In this review, we highlighted the nutritional composition, health attributes, and uses of finger millet for the development of functional food products. Researchers and producers can further explore the opportunities and scope for utilizing finger millet and develop more products in the same line to solve the current issues of food and nutrition security.
  1. Chandra D, Chandra S, Pallavi, Sharma AK. Review of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn): A power house of health benefiting nutrients. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2016;5(3):149–155.
  2. Abd Salem MH, Hippen AR, Salem MM, Assem FM, El-Aassar M. Survival of probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Enterococcus fecium in Domiati cheese of high conjugated linoleic acid content. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2012;2(24):98–104.
  3. Shobana S, Krishnaswamy K, Sudha V, Malleshi NG, Anjana RM, Palaniappan L, et al. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): A review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 2013;69:1–39.
  4. Sakamma S, Umesh KB, Girish MR, Ravi SC, Satishkumar M, Bellundagi V. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) production system: Status, potential, constraints and implications for improving small farmer’s welfare. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(1):162–179.
  5. Divya GM, Krishnamurthy KN, Gowda DM. Growth and instability analysis of finger millet crop in Karnataka. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;47(1):35–39.
  6. Mushtari Begum J, Begum S, Pandey A. Nutritional evaluation of finger millet malt. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 2016;5(6):4086–4096.
  7. Palanisamy BD, Rajendran V, Sathyaseelan S, Bhat R, Venkatesan BP. Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2011;63(1):5–15.
  8. Thapliyal V, Singh K. Finger millet: Potential millet for food security and power house of nutrients. International or Research in Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;2(2):22–33.
  9. Singh N, David J, Thompkinson DK, Seelam BS, Rajput H, Morya S. Effect of roasting on functional and phytochemical constituents of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2018;7(4):414–418.
  10. Zyaynitdinov DR, Ewteew AV, Bannikova AV. Properties of polyphenols and xylooligosaccharides obtained biotechnologically from processed millets. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology. 2021;51(3):538–548. (In Russ.).
  11. Soetan KO, Olaiya CO, Oyewole OE. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants – A review. African Journal of Food Science. 2010;4(5):200–222.
  12. Devi PB, Vijayabharathi R, Sathyabama S, Malleshi NG, Priyadarisini VB. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;51(6):1021–1040.
  13. Yang X, Wan Z, Perry L, Lu H, Wang Q, Zhao C, et al. Early millet use in northern China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2012;109(10):3726–3730.
  14. Gull A, Gulzar Ahmad N, Prasad K, Kumar P. Technological, Processing and nutritional approach of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) – A mini review. Journal of Food Processing and Technology. 2016;7.
  15. Shingare SP, Thorat BN. Effect of drying temperature and pretreatment on protein content and color changes during fluidized bed drying of finger millets (Ragi, Eleusine coracana) sprouts. Drying Technology. 2013;31(5):507–518.
  16. Ambre PK, Sawant AA, Sawant PS. Processing and value addition: A finger millet review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2020;9(2):375–380.
  17. Krishnan R, Dharmaraj U, Malleshi NG. Influence of decortication, popping and malting on bioaccessibility of calcium, iron and zinc in finger millet. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2012;48(2):169–174.
  18. Naushad Emmambux M, Taylor JRN. Morphology, physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches from cereals, legumes, and tubers cultivated in Africa: A review. Starch – Stärke. 2013;65(9–10):715–729.
  19. Dida MM, Devos KM. Finger millet. In: Kole C, editor. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin; 2006. pp. 333–343.
  20. Sood S, Joshi DC, Chandra AK, Kumar A. Phenomics and genomics of finger millet: current status and future prospects. Planta. 2019;250:731–751.
  21. Chandrashekar A. Finger millet: Eleusine coracana. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 2010;59:215–262.
  22. Dass A, Sudhishri S, Lenka NK. Integrated nutrient management to improve finger millet productivity and soil conditions in hilly region of Eastern India. Journal of Crop Improvement. 2013;27(5):528–546.
  23. Adhikari BN, Pokhrel BB, Shrestha J. Evaluation and development of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) genotypes for cultivation in high hills of Nepal. Farming and Management. 2018;3(1):37–46.
  24. Gull A, Jan R, Nayik GA, Prasad K, Kumar P. Significance of finger millet in nutrition, health and functional products: A review. Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology. 2014;3(3):1601–1608.
  25. Lata C. Advances in genomics for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in millets. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. 2015;81(2):397–417.
  26. Shukla A, Lalit A, Sharma V, Vats S, Alam A. Pearl and finger millets: The hope of food security. Applied Research Journal. 2015;1(2):59–66.
  27. Sood S, Gupta AK, Kant L, Pattanayak A. Assessment of parametric andnon-parametric methods for selecting stable and adapted fnger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) genotypes in sub-mountainous Himalayan region. International Journal of Basic and Applied Agricultural Research. 2015;13:283–288.
  28. Rurinda J, Mapfumo P, van Wijk MT, Mtambanengwe F, Rufino MC, Chikowo R, et al. Comparative assessment of maize, finger millet and sorghum for household food security in the face of increasing climatic risk. European Journal of Agronomy. 2014;55:29–41.
  29. Goron TL, Bhosekar VK, Shearer CR, Watts S, Raizada MN. Whole plant acclimation responses by finger millet to low nitrogen stress. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2015;6.
  30. Upadhyaya HD, Gowda CLL, Pundir RPS, Gopal Reddy V, Singh S. Development of core subset of finger millet germplasm using geographical origin and data on 14 quantitative traits. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 2006;53:679–685.
  31. Parashuram DP, Gowda J, Satish RG, Mallikarjun NM. Heterosis and combining ability studies for yield and yield attributing characters in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 2011;2:494–500.
  32. Samarajeewa KBDP, Horiuchi T, Oba S. Finger millet (Eleucine corocana L. Gaertn.) as a cover crop on weed control, growth and yield of soybean under different tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research. 2006;90(1–2):93–99.
  33. Neshamba SM. Variability for drought tolerance in finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) accessions from Zambia. Master of Science thesis. University of Zambia; 2010
  34. Khamgaonkar SG, Singh A, Chand K, Shahi NC, Lohani UC. Processing technologies of Uttarakhand for lesser known crops: An overview. Journal of Academic Industry Research. 2013;1(8):447–452.
  35. Shobana S. Investigations on the carbohydrate digestibility of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) with special reference to the influence of its seed coat constituents. Doctoral dissertation. University of Mysore; 2009. 283 p.
  36. Ramashia SE, Anyasi TA, Gwata ET, Meddows-Taylor S, Jideani AIO. Processing, nutritional composition and health benefits of finger millet in sub-saharan Africa. Food Science and Technology. 2019;39(2):253–266.
  37. Amadou I, Gounga ME, Le G-W. Millets: Nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing – A review. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2013;25(7):501–508.
  38. Kumar A, Tomer V, Kaur A, Kumar V, Gupta K. Millets: a solution to agrarian and nutritional challenges. Agriculture and Food Security. 2018;7.
  39. Ambati K, Sucharitha KV. Millets-review on nutritional profiles and health benefits. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2019;10(7):33943–33948.
  40. Singh E, Sarita. Potential functional implications of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) in nutritional benefits, processing, health and diseases: A review. International Journal of Home Science. 2016;2(21):151–155.
  41. Swami SB, Thakor NJ, Gurav HS. Effect of soaking and malting on finger millet (Eleusine coracana) grain. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal. 2013;15(1):194–200.
  42. Banusha S, Vasantharuba S. Effect of malting on nutritional contents of finger millet and mung bean. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2013;13(12):1642–1646.
  43. Shahidi F, Chandrasekara A. Millet grain phenolics and their role in disease risk reduction and health promotion: A review. Journal of Functional Foods. 2013;5(2):570–581.
  44. Lande SB, Thorats S, Kulthe AA. Production of nutrient rich vermicelli with malted finger millet (Ragi) flour. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017;6(4):702–710.
  45. Singh P, Raghuvanshi RS. Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Science. 2012;6(4):77–84.
  46. Nakarani UM, Singh D, Suthar KP, Karmakar N, Faldu P, Patil HE. Nutritional and phytochemical profiling of nutracereal finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) genotypes. Food Chemistry. 2021;341.
  47. Kumari D, Chandrasekara A, Shahidi F. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activities of finger millet food phenolics. Journal of Food Bioactives. 2019;6:100–109.
  48. Chethan S, Malleshi NG. Finger millet polyphenols: Characterization and their nutraceutical potential. American Journal of Food Technology. 2007;2(7):582–592.
  49. Tatala S, Ndossi G, Ash D, Mamiro P. Effect of germination of finger millet on nutritional value of foods and effect of food supplement on nutrition and anaemia status in Tanzania children. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2007;9(2):77–86.
  50. Lee SH, Chung I-M, Cha Y-S, Park Y. Millet consumption decreased serum concentration of triglyceride and C-reactive protein but not oxidative status in hyperlipidemic rats. Nutrition Research. 2010;30(4):290–296.
  51. Verma V, Patel S. Value added products from nutri-cereals: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2013;25(3):169–176.
  52. Sood S, Kumar A, Babu BK, Gaur VS, Pandey D, Kant L, et al. Gene discovery and advances in finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] genomics – An important nutri-cereal of future. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7.
  53. Hejazi SN, Orsat V. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016;53(4):1929–1938.
  54. Kakade SB, Hathan BS. Finger millet processing: Review. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2015;3(4):1003–1008.
  55. Gabaza M, Shumoy H, Louwagie L, Muchuweti M, Vandamme P, du Laing G, et al. Traditional fermentation and cooking of finger millet: Implications on mineral binders and subsequent bioaccessibility. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2018;68:87–94.
  56. Jaybhaye RV, Pardeshi IL, Vengaiah PC, Srivastav PP. Processing and technology for millet-based food products: A review. Journal of Ready to Eat Food. 2014;1(2):32–48.
  57. Tumuluru JS, Sokhansanj S, Bandyopadhyay S, Bawa AS. Changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of fish and rice flour coextrudates during single-screw extrusion cooking. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2012;6:403–415.
  58. Ushakumari SR. Technological and physico-chemical characteristics of hydrothermally treated finger millet. Doctoral dissertation. University of Mysore; 2009. 282 p.
  59. Shimray CA, Gupta S, Venkateswara Rao G. Effect of native and germinated finger millet flour on rheological and sensory characteristics of biscuits. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;47(11):2413–2420.
  60. Rajasekhar M, Edukondalu L, Smith DD, Veeraprasad G. Changes in engineering properties of finger millet (PPR-2700, Vakula) on hydrothermal treatment. The Andhra Agricutlural Journal. 2018;65(2):420–429.
  61. Ocheme OB, Chinma CE. Effects of soaking and germination on some physicochemical properties of millet flour for porridge production. Journal of Food Technology. 2008;6(5):185–188.
  62. Rasane P, Jha A, Sabikhi L, Kumar A, Unnikrishnan VS. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods – A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(2):662–675.
  63. Rathore S, Singh K, Kumar V. Millet grain processing, utilization and its role in health promotion: A review. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2016;5(5):318–329.
  64. Mishra G, Joshi DC, Panda BK. Popping and puffing of cereal grains: A review. Journal of Grain Processing and Storage. 2014;1(2):34–46.
  65. Chauhan ES, Sarita. Effects of processing (germination and popping) on the nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(2):566–572.
  66. Hithamani G, Srinivasan K. Effect of domestic processing on the polyphenol content and bioaccessibility in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Food Chemistry. 2014;164:55–62.
  67. Hübner F, Arendt EK. Germination of cereal grains as a way to improve the nutritional value: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2013;53(8):853–861.
  68. Pushparaj FS, Urooj A. Influence of Processing on dietary fiber, tannin and in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2011;2(8):895–900.
  69. Desai AD, Kulkarni SS, Sahoo AK, Ranveer RC, Dandge PB. Effect of supplementation of malted ragi flour on the nutritional and sensorial quality characteristics of cake. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2010;2(1):67–71.
  70. Ilango S, Antony U. Assessment of the microbiological quality of koozh, a fermented millet beverage. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2014;8(3):308–312.
  71. Makokha AO, Oniang’o RK, Njoroge SM, Kamar OK. Effect of traditional fermentation and malting on phytic acid and mineral availability from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) Grain varieties grown in Kenya. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2002;23(3):241–245.
  72. Usai T, Nyamunda BC, Mutonhodza B. Malt quality parameters of finger millet for brewing commercial opaque beer. International Journal of Science and Research. 2013;2(9):146–149.
  73. Roopa S, Premavalli K. Effect of processing on starch fractions in different varieties of finger millet. Food Chemistry. 2008;106(3):875–882.
  74. Chandrasekara A, Naczk M, Shahidi F. Effect of processing on the antioxidant activity of millet grains. Food Chemistry. 2012;133(1):1–9.
  75. Mahajan H, Gupta M. Nutritional, functional and rheological properties of processed sorghum and ragi grains. Cogent Food and Agriculture. 2015;1(1).
  76. Kora AJ. Applications of sand roasting and baking in the preparation of traditional Indian snacks: nutritional and antioxidant status. Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 2019;43.
  77. Brahma S, Martínez I, Walter J, Clarke J, Gonzalez T, Menon R, et al. Impact of dietary pattern of the fecal donor on in vitro fermentation properties of whole grains and brans. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017;29:281–289.
  78. Dharmaraj U, Malleshi NG. Changes in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of finger millet after hydrothermal processing. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2011;44(7):1636–1642.
  79. Kannan S. Finger millet in nutrition transition: an infant weaning food ingredient with chronic disease preventive potential. British Journal of Nutrition. 2010;104(12):1733–1734.
  80. Abioye VF, Olatunde SJ, Elias G. Quality attributes of cookies produced from composite flours of wheat, germinated finger millet flour and African yam bean. International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah. 2018;6(11):172–183.
  81. Handa C, Goomer S, Siddhu A. Effects of whole-multigrain and fructoligosaccharide incorporation on the quality and sensory attributes of cookies. Food Science and Technology Research. 2010;17(1):45–54.
  82. Sharma B, Gujral HS, Solah V. Effect of incorporating finger millet in wheat flour on mixolab behavior, chapatti quality and starch digestibility. Food Chemistry. 2017;231:156–164.
  83. Kazi T, Auti SG. Calcium and iron rich recipes of finger millet. IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2017;3(3):64–68.
  84. Rajiv J, Soumya C, Indrani D, Venkateswara Rao G. Effect of replacement of wheat flour with finger millet flour (Eleusine corcana) on the batter microscopy, rheology and quality characteristics of muffins. Journal of Texture Studies. 2011;42(6):478–489.
  85. Onyango C, Noetzold H, Bley T, Henle T. Proximate composition and digestibility of fermented and extruded uji from maize–finger millet blend. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2004;37(8):827–832.
  86. Kaur KD, Jha A, Sabikhi L, Singh AK. Significance of coarse cereals in health and nutrition: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;51(8):1429–1441.
  87. Bhol S, Bosco SJD. Influence of malted finger millet and red kidney bean flour on quality characteristics of developed bread. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2014;55(1):294–300.
  88. Saha S, Gupta A, Singh SRK, Bharti N, Singh KP, Mahajan V, et al. Compositional and varietal influence of finger millet flour on rheological properties of dough and quality of biscuit. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2011;44(3):616–621.
  89. Krishnan R, Dharmaraj U, Sai Manohar R, Malleshi NG. Quality characteristics of biscuits prepared from finger millet seed coat based composite flour. Food Chemistry. 2011;129(2):499–506.
  90. Mgonja MA, Lenné JM, Manyasa E, Sreenivasaprasad S. Finger millet blast management in East Africa. Creating opportunities for improving production and utilization of finger millet. Andhra Pradesh: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics; 2007. 196 pp.
  91. Bvochora JM, Zvauya R. Biochemical changes occurring during the application of high gravity fermentation technology to the brewing of Zimbabwean traditional opaque beer. Process Biochemistry. 2001;37(4):365–370.
  92. Shukla K, Srivastava S. Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;51(3):527–534.
  93. Dissanayake BDMPB, Jayawardena HS. Development of a method for manufacturing noodles from finger millet. Procedia Food Science. 2016;6:293–297.
  94. Vaishnavi Devi N, Sinthiya R. Development of functional product from finger millet (Eleusine coracana). International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah. 2018;6(2):109–119.
  95. Thirumangaimannan G, Gurumurthy K. A study on the fermentation pattern of common millets in Koozh preparation – A traditional South Indian food. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2013;12(3):512–517.
  96. Panghal A, Khatkar BS, Yadav DN, Chhikara N. Effect of finger millet on nutritional, rheological, and pasting profile of whole wheat flat bread (chapatti). Cereal Chemistry. 2019;96(1):86–94.
  97. Yemets AI, Blume RYa, Rakhmetov DB, Blume YaB. Finger millet as a sustainable feedstock for bioethanol production. The Open Agriculture Journal. 2020;14(1):257–272.
  98. Larson NI, Story M, Wall M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Calcium and dairy intakes of adolescents are associated with their home environment, taste preferences, personal health beliefs, and meal patterns. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2006;106(11):1816–1824.
  99. Arun PN, Chittaragi B, Prabhu TM, Siddalingamurthy HK, Suma N, Gouri MD, et al. Effect of replacing finger millet straw with jackfruit residue silage on growth performance and nutrient utilization in Mandya sheep. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology. 2020;20(1):103–109.
Как цитировать?
Gaikwad V, Kaur J, Rasane P, Kaur S, Singh J, Kumar A, et al. Nutritional significance of finger millet and its potential for using in functional products. Foods and Raw Materials. 2024;12(1):110–123.
О журнале

Список литературы