a Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait
b Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait City, Kuwait
Все права защищены ©Al-Hassawi и др. Это статья с открытым доступом, распространяемая на условиях международной лицензии Creative Commons Attribution 4.0. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
), позволяет другим распространять, перерабатывать, исправлять и развивать произведение, даже в коммерческих целях, при условии указания автора произведения.
Получена 08 Сентября, 2022 |
Принята в исправленном виде 06 Декабря, 2022 |
Опубликована 21 Апреля, 2023
Flaxseed is a useful source of omega-3 fatty acid and many health-promoting phytochemicals. Baked products are extensively consumed in the Arabic countries. This study mainly aimed to improve the nutritional quality of pan and Arabic flat breads by adding whole and crushed flaxseed.
The study objects were pan and Arabic flat breads wholegrain and white wheat flour with whole or crushed flaxseed at different amounts. The proximate composition, texture, color characteristics, and sensory analysis were evaluated by standard methods.
The fat content increased in both the white wheat flour and in the wholegrain wheat flour pan breads with 8% of crushed flaxseed. The addition of 8% of crushed flaxseed to the white wheat flour bread also increased its specific loaf volume, while the addition of 8% of whole flaxseed significantly decreased the specific loaf volume of the wholegrain wheat flour bread. Crushed flaxseed did not affect the L* values, but significantly increased the a* values in the white wheat flour pan bread. Supplementing the white wheat flour pan bread with 8% of whole flaxseed decreased the compression force, thus indicating a softer texture. 8% of whole flaxseed significantly increased fat and protein contents of the white wheat and wholegrain wheat flour pan breads. Similar trends were observed for the Arabic breads, thus proving the enhancing effect of flaxseed on the nutritional quality of these baked products. The addition of crushed flaxseed to white wheat flour Arabic bread adversely affected its appearance and crust color, as well as significantly increased its ash, fat, protein, and dietary fiber contents. However, it did not have any adverse effect on the texture, flexibility, and flavor.
Flaxseed grains in the amount of 8% can be recommended to produce baked products with good sensory and nutritional qualities.
Crushed and whole flaxseed
, dietary fiber
, Arabic bread
, pan bread
, nutritional quality
All the authors contributed to this research. Ms. Jameela conceived the research idea, guided the research team, and conducted the objective color measurement. Dr. Fatima wrote the first draft of the manuscript, as well as prepared the tables and figures. Mr. Mohammad conducted the baking studies, texture measurement, and the chemical analyses. Ms. Amani conducted the statistical analyses of research data. Dr. Jiwan guided the research team and refined the last version of the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript for submission to this journal.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest with regard to this research work.
The authors express their gratitude to the admini- stration of the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research for funding this study (FB041K). We also thank Kuwait Flour Mills & Bakeries Co. for the supply of wheat flour samples required for this work.
The research was performed on the premises of the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) (FB041K).
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