Том 9, №2 (2021)
Introduction. Fish can sometimes be contaminated with several highly toxic substances at once, e.g. heavy metals, pesticides, and preservatives. In this regard, it is essential to determine the presence of these harmful chemicals in fish products. The research objective was to analyze the level of organochlorine pesticide residues and other toxic substances in Tenualosa ilisha L.
Study objects and methods. The study featured organochlorine pesticide residues and other toxic substances in raw and cooked samples of fresh and salted T. ilisha, which is a popular dish in Northeast India, especially in the state of Tripura. The analysis involved tests for formaldehyde, pesticides, and heavy metals. Formaldehyde content was estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography, pesticides content – by low-pressure gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and heavy metals – by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.
Results and discussion. The salted samples had a high content of formaldehyde, though it remained within the normal range. Both fresh and salted samples demonstrated high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and selenium. The salted sample appeared to have a high content of toxic organochlorine pesticide residues. Frying and boiling of fresh and salted fish decreased formaldehyde and organochlorine pesticide residue contents but did not reduce heavy metal content.
Conclusion. T. ilisha was found to be quite safe for human health.
Introduction. Diabetes is a common disease all over the world that is often a cause of mortality. Ice cream is popular in many countries. However, sugar and fat in its composition makes ice cream a high-caloric product. Soursop (Annona muricata L.) and moringa (Moringa oleifera L.), African medicinal plants, contain natural sugars and are rich in phytochemicals. We aimed to produce ice cream with these plants and evaluate its remedial properties.
Study objects and methods. The study featured ice cream purchased in a local store (control sample) and soursop ice cream with moringa leaf powder (experimental samples). The experimental ice cream samples included ice cream with soursop, ice cream with soursop and 0.1 g of moringa, and ice cream with soursop and 1 g of moringa. The antioxidant properties, glycemic indices, amylose and amylopectin contents, as well as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of the samples were determined using the standard methods.
Results and discussion. Comparing with the other samples, ice cream with 1 g of moringa showed the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, ABTS scavenging ability, DPPH radical scavenging ability, hydroxyl scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant properties, and lowest glycemic index. Sensory evaluation revealed a lower overall acceptability of the experimental samples compared to the control ice cream. This could be due a peculiar taste of moringa (the formulation did not include sugar).
Conclusion. Ice cream based on soursop and moringa can be a good alternative to sugar-sweetened ice cream due to its antioxidant properties, low glycemic index, and acceptable sensory attributes.
Introduction. Grape pomace is the most important by-product of winemaking that can be used as an additional raw material. There is a need for an optimal storage technology so that pomace can be further processed to obtain new types of products. We aimed to study the effect of grape pomace treatment on its microflora.
Study objects and methods. We identified and quantified microflora on the fresh and one-month-stored pomace samples from white and red grape varieties. The samples were exposed to conventional drying at 60–65°C, infrared drying at 60–65°C, as well as sulfitation with sulfur dioxide and sodium metabisulfite.
Results and discussion. The pomace microflora can be considered a microbial community. Almost all the samples stored for one month in an open area contained Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, higher concentrations of filmy yeasts of the Candida, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera, and Torulaspora genera, as well as conidia of Mucor, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium molds. Prevalent bacteria included acetic acid (mainly Acetobacter aceti) and lactic acid (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc) bacteria. These microorganisms significantly changed concentrations of volatile and non-volatile components, decreasing total polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and anthocyanins 1.7–1.9, 3.7–4.0, and 4.0–4.5 times, respectively. The contents of micromycetes and bacteria in the one-month-stored samples were significantly higher than in the fresh pomace. Predrying and sulfitation decreased bacterial contamination, but to a lesser extent compared to micromycetes.
Conclusion. Long-term storage spoiled pomace, leading to significant changes in its chemical composition. Sulfitation reduced microorganism growth during storage, but did not provide long-term preservation (over a month), while pre-drying at 60–65°C promoted longer storage.
Introduction. There is still an urgent need in viticulture for studying the effect of tank mixtures of pesticides and bioactive substances on Vitis vinifera and, therefore, the quality and composition of wine. We aimed to study the effect of NanoKremny (silicon fertilizer) treatment of the grapevine on the productivity and quality of grape harvest, as well as the quality of dry wines.
Study objects and methods. Grape varieties from three vineyards in Crimea and the wines produced from them. We applied standard methods used in viticulture, plant protection, and oenological practice. Organic acids and volatile components in grapes and wines were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography.
Results and discussion. We found that the most effective use of NanoKremny was threefold at 0.15 L/ha during the periods of active growth and formation of vegetative and generative organs in grapevines. It had a positive effect on vegetative development, water balance, productivity of grape plants, as well as yield quality and quantity. Also, NanoKremny decreased the development of
mildew and oidium diseases, preserved the content of titratable acids in grapes during their ripening, as well as accumulated phenolic compounds, tartaric and malic acids in grape berries.
Conclusion. We found no negative effect of NanoKremny treatment of the grapevine on the physicochemical parameters and sensory characteristics of wines. Thus, this preparation can be used as a bioorganic additive in viticulture.
Introduction. Cantharellus cibarius L. is a wild mushroom that has been part of human diet for many centuries. However, there is little reliable information about its nutritional value, storage conditions, shelf life, and processing. The research objective was to study the nutritional value of C. cibarius growing in West Siberia, as well as to define its storage and processing conditions.
Study objects and methods. The research featured fresh and processed (boiled and salted) wild chanterelles (C. cibarius) obtained from the forests of the Novosibirsk region. The mushrooms were tested for amino acids, fatty acids, nutrients, reducing sugars, trehalose, mannit, glycogen, fiber, mucus, squalene, ash, minerals, vitamins, trypsin inhibitor, chlorides, mesophilic and facultative anaerobes, etc. The samples also underwent sensory evaluation.
Results and discussion. The samples of C. cibarius proved to have a high nutritional value. The samples contained 3.6% proteins, including essential amino acids; 3.9% carbohydrates, including sugars and dietary fiber; and 0.7% lipids, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated acids. In addition, C. cibarius appeared to be rich in biologically active substances. It contained trypsin inhibitors that reduce the absorption of protein compounds. Purchasing centers can be recommended to use 70–80% relative air humidity. At 0–2°C, the storage time was five days; at 5–10°C – three days; at 15–20°С – two days; at 20–30°C – one day. Before processing, the mushrooms were washed twice in non-flowing water. C. cibarius also proved to be a valuable raw material for boiled and salted semi-finished products. The optimal boiling time was 5–10 min. Lightly-, medium-, and strong-salted semi-finished mushrooms were ready for consumption after the fermentation was complete, i.e. after day 15, 10, and 3, respectively.
Conclusion. Boiled and salted semi-finished products from Siberian C. cibarius demonstrated excellent sensory qualities and can become part of various popular dishes.
Introduction. The present research featured the effect of carbonyls, phenols, furans, fatty alcohols, ethers, and other chemical compounds on the sensory properties of cognac distillates of different ages. The research objective was to identify additional criteria of sensory evaluation by measuring the effect of various compounds on perception intensity.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cognac samples of different ages. The experiment involved standard methods, including high-performance liquid and gas chromatography and a mathematical analysis based on Microsoft software.
Results and discussion. The content of fatty alcohols, ethers, and carbonyl compounds that formed as a result of fermentation demonstrated little change during the aging period in oak casks. A longer extraction increased the content of phenolic and furan compounds and sugars. The content of terpene compounds decreased due to their high lability. The study revealed the effect of organic compounds on taste descriptors. The article introduces multivariate equations that calculate the dependences of the descriptor intensity on the content of organic compounds. A correlation and regression analysis revealed that phenolic compounds had a significant effect on the taste formation of cognac samples, depending on the aging time.
Conclusion. Organic compounds proved to affect the taste profiles of cognac samples of different ages, as well as sensory evaluation descriptors.
Introduction. The functional basis of protopectin complex can be represented as a network of regions that consist of homogalacturonan sequences and a base of rhamnogalacturonans-I, i.e. rhamnosyl-containing branching sites. Enzymatic isolation of these regions is possible only at a certain minimal native degree of polymerization. The research objective was to develop a system of criteria for assessing the potential applicability of the enzymatic transformation of plant protopectin complex.
Study objects and methods. The research featured the polymerization degree of the homogalacturonan regions of the protopectin complex and produced a system of assessment criteria for the enzymatic fragmentation potential of the protopectin complex. The theoretical calculations were based on the values of the mass fractions of rhamnosyl and galacturonide residues in plant cell walls. The result was a new polymerization degree analytical function.
Results and discussion. The ratio of the mass fractions of rhamnosyl and galacturonide residues in the water-insoluble plant tissue served as a dimensionless criterion of applicability. The rational condition for the dimensionless criterion of applicability was based on the fundamental constraint for homogalacturonan regions in the protopectin complex. It was expressed by a fundamental inequation. The rational area for determining the numerical values of the applicability criterion was presented as . The functional dependence was reduced to a two-dimensional criteria space as “width of rhamnosyl branches vs. the criterion of applicability”, where each pectin-containing raw material was given a single uniquely defined position. The boundary conditions for the criteria space were determined analytically.
Conclusion. The new approach offers an assessment of the enzymatic fragmentation potential of the plant protopectin complex by homoenzyme preparations. The approach is in fact the second stage of the decision tree in the science-based technology for pectin and its products.
Introduction. The article provides a review of technologies for membrane fractionation of various hydrolyzed food substrates in membrane bioreactors (MBR). In food industry, MBRs are popular in functional food production, especially in the processing of whey, which is a very promising raw material due to its physicochemical composition.
Study objects and methods. The research was based on a direct validated analysis of scientific publications and featured domestic and foreign experience in MBR hydrolysis of protein raw material.
Results and discussion. The MBR hydrolysis of proteins combines various biocatalytic and membrane processes. This technology makes it possible to intensify the biocatalysis, optimize the use of the enzyme preparation, and regulate the molecular composition of hydrolysis products. The paper reviews MBRs based on batch or continuous stirring, gradient dilution, ceramic capillary, immobilized enzyme, etc. Immobilized enzymes reduce losses that occur during the production of fractionated peptides. Continuous MBRs are the most economically profitable type, as they are based on the difference in molecular weight between the enzyme and the hydrolysis products.
Conclusion. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactors have obvious advantages over other whey processing reactors. They provide prompt separation of hydrolysates with the required biological activity and make it possible to reuse enzymes.
Introduction. New natural antioxidants remain a relevant research task of food science. Natural antioxidants neutralize free radicals in food systems, as well as in human body. The antioxidant properties of seaweed have attracted scientific attention for many years. However, most experiments featured non-polar extracts while aqueous extracts still remain understudied. The present research objective was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of hydrothermal extracts of edible seaweed from the Northern Coast of the Sea of Japan.
Study objects and methods. The study featured hot-water and autoclave (30 and 60 min) extracts of three edible seaweed species from Russia’s Far East. The research focused on dry matter yield, total phenol content, phenolic profile, antiradical properties, hydroxylion (OH•) scavenging activity, and superoxide radical (O2•−) scavenging activity.
Results and discussion. The hot-water extracts appeared to have a higher yield than the autoclave extracts. The hot-water extract of red-purple seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa had the highest yield – 15.90%. The extract of brown seaweed Sargassum miyabei demonstrated the highest total phenol content. The phenolic profile of the extracts revealed 10 compounds, syringic acid and epicatechin being the major ones. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 48.2 to 88.9%, the highest value was observed in the hot-water extract of S. miyabei. The autoclave S. miyabei extracts also had a high radical scavenging activity, which exceeded other samples by 5.0–13.3%. The hot-water (30 min) extract of G. verrucosa had the lowest antiradical activity. Hot-water and autoclave extracts of S. miyabei showed the best OH• scavenging activity. Only the samples of G. verrucosa demonstrated signs of superoxide radical scavenging.
Conclusion. The extracts of brown seaweed S. miyabei proved to be the most active. The hot-water and autoclave extracts had the highest total phenol content and the strongest DPPH and OH• inhibitory activity.
Introduction. Nowadays, health-conscious consumers attend to nutritional, health, and easy-to-use products. Demand for healthy snacks is significantly increasing. Our study aimed to develop high protein nutrition bars by incorporating pumpkin seed flour and banana flour and assess their quality.
Study objects and methods. We analyzed three bar samples for nutritional, textural, and sensory quality. The bars contained banana flour, pumpkin seed flour, and the mixed flour. Proximate analysis was performed following the AOAC method. The mineral content and antioxidant properties of the bars were determined by using emission spectrophotometry and the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging modified method, respectively.
Results and discussion. The mixed flour nutrition bar had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the bar with banana flour and the bar with pumpkin seed flour. Textural analysis demonstrated that the mixed flour sample had significantly (P < 0.05) higher hardness and color parameters compared to the other bar samples. Nutritional analysis indicated that mixed flour bar contained significantly higher amounts of protein, fat, and calcium; while pumpkin seed flour bar had higher ash, iron, and magnesium contents. The mixed flour sample also had better sensory parameters.
Conclusion. The mixed flour demonstrated good quality. Hence, both banana and pumpkin seed flour have a potential to be used in bar formulations.
Introduction. A disadvantage of the ancestral method (la méthode ancestrale), which is widely used in the production of sparkling wine, is that it is difficult to control fermentation. We aimed to identify the optimal yeast race for obtaining high-quality young sparkling wines with varietal aroma without yeast tones.
Study objects and methods. Our study objects were base and young sparkling wines from Cabernet-Sauvignon prepared on various yeast races. Organic acids, sugars, and ethanol contents were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Phenolic and coloring substances were measured by colorimetric method. Foaming properties were determined by air barbotage of a wine sample in a measuring cylinder; sparkling properties, by measuring the СО2 desorption rate; СО2 content, by volumetric method; viscosity, with a viscometer. Sensory evaluation was carried out according to standard methods.
Results and discussion. The wines produced on the Odesskiy Chernyi-SD13 yeast race received the highest tasting scores of 7.82 and 9.05 points for base wine and young sparkling wines, respectively. They contained larger amounts of phenolic substances (1103 mg/dm3) and coloring agents (275 mg/dm3) and had higher color intensity (1.614). The panelists rated them highly on their complex varietal aroma and harmonious, velvety flavor, as well as their foaming and sparkling properties. This yeast race ensured intensive fermentation of sugars and a great amount of bound CO2 (up to 24.93%).
Conclusion. The Odesskiy Chernyi-SD13 yeast race is optimal for making base and young sparkling wines by the bottle method. This technology can be used to produce high-quality sparkling wines in the crop year by large and small enterprises.
Introduction. Residents of northern regions have a diet low in essential macro- and microelements. The Sea of Okhotsk is an enormous source of fish and non-fish products. We aimed to determine mineral contents in marine fish, shellfish, and algae in order to assess if they could satisfy the daily requirement for these elements through fish and non-fish consumption.
Study objects and methods. Our study objects were saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis L.), blue-headed halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides L.), commander squid (Berryteuthis magister L.), northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis L.), salted pink salmon caviar (Oncorhynchus gorbuscham L.), and kelp (Laminaria L.). The contents of 25 macro- and microelements were determined by atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma.
Results and discussion. The absolute contents of macro- and microelements in the marine species were used to assess the proportion of the recommended daily requirement that they account for. Also, we performed a thorough comparative analysis of mineral quantities in the studied species of marine fish, pink salmon caviar, shellfish, and algae from the Sea of Okhotsk. Finally, we examined the elemental status of the coastal residents belonging to the “northern type” and identified their deficiencies of vital chemical elements.
Conclusion. Some chemical elements in the studied marine species from the Sea of Okhotsk (Magadan Region) satisfy over 100% of the daily human requirement for these minerals. Therefore, their products can be recommended as part of a northern diet in order to compensate for the deficiencies of certain minerals.
Introduction. Nakamoto Seedless, a variety of shikuwasa (Citrus depressa L.) in Okinawa, can be used to produce vinegar extracts because it has no seeds causing bitter taste. However, Nakamono Seedless is hardly cultivated commercially in Okinawa. This research was aimed to develop vinegar extract from Ogimi Kugani, another major variety of shikuwasa, and compare its characteristics with those of extracts from Nakamoto Seedless.
Study objects and methods. The study featured vinegar extracts from the whole shikuwasa of Nakamoto Seedless (20% fruit) and Ogimi Kunagi (5, 10, and 20% of fruit) varieties. The fruit was harvested in June, July, and August. We tested the samples for limonin and polymethoxyflavones content and sensory attributes, especially bitterness.
Results and discussion. Vinegar extracts with 20% of Ogimi Kugani harvested in June and July tasted bitter compared to those from Nakamoto Seedless harvested in August, but extracts from Ogimi Kugani harvested in August were not bitter. In addition, 5 and 10% vinegar extracts from Ogimi Kugani harvested in June had lower bitterness. The vinegar extracts from both shikuwasa varieties contained polymethoxyflavones ‒ bioactive compounds ‒ and similar flavor.
Conclusion. The whole shiluwasa fruit can be used to produce vinegar drinks, Ponzu soy sauce, salad dressings, etc.
Introduction. Toxic metals in fish, even at low levels, have negative consequences for human health. Even essential metals pose a health threat if consumed in certain quantities. Mercury, cadmium, and lead are the most frequent metals containing in fish. The research objective was to inspect the quality of aquaculture fish found in most major grocery chains across Turkey.
Study objects and methods. The present research featured the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Hg, and Cd in Turkish salmon. The sampling took place between February and June 2019. The cumulative carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk for consumers was evaluated based on trace element levels in a prospective health risk assessment using the U.S. EPA model of lifetime exposure.
Results and discussion. Fe proved to be the most abundant element in fish fillets, followed by Zn and Cu. Other elements appeared to be far below the permissible values, namely Al ≤ 0.5, Cd ≤ 0.02, Pb, and Hg ≤ 0.05. All the trace elements detected in Turkish salmon were below the reference dose values. The percent contribution to total risk by Fe, Cu, and Zn were 34.20, 24.80, and 41.01%, respectively. The hazard index was ≤ 1. The contamination of aquaculture fish fillet proved insignificant, and the carcinogenic risk was entirely negligible.
Conclusion. The research revealed no hazardous trace elements, and their cumulative effects were not indicated in the hazardous index.
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Due to its health promoting properties owing to a high phenolic content and sensory acceptability, cocoa has gained interest as an additive of choice in many food products. The purpose of this study was to incorporate cocoa powder (CP) in vermicelli. Different proportions of cocoa powder (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were prepared by mixing it into a blend of wheat flour and rice flour (60:40) as base ingredients. The quality parameters, including nutritional characteristics, antioxidant activity, cooking and functional properties, and sensory acceptability, were studied. The nutritional profiling showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate alongside a significiant decrease in the moisture content. Similarly, an antioxidant activity increased significantly at p < 0.05, with the increase of cocoa powder concentration. It can be concluded that vermicelli with the 10% cocoa powder incorporated was the best treatment since it was rated as the highest in overall acceptability compared to the other formulations. The bulk density, cooked weight, cooking time, gruel solid loss, and water absorption capacity of samples with 10% cocoa powder were 0.714 g/cm3, 11.56 g, 7.21 min, 0.47 g/100 g, and 146%, respectively. The energy value of the optimised cocoa-based vermicelli was 375 kcal/100g of sample.
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Recently, there has been a very rapid accumulation of empirical data of economic indicators of the food crisis associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The purpose of this article was to develop a set of measures aimed at minimizing the negative economic impact of the coronavirus crisis (CVC) both at the national and international levels. All these presupposed solving the following tasks. Having studied the nature of the crisis, we found out that it had the greatest impact on such components of food sector as transport, logistic chains, and human resources. We revealed that, first of all, such areas of the economy as fisheries and agricultural production of fruits and vegetables were affected by the crisis. It is obvious that it will also adversely affect small farmers, seasonal and migrant workers, etc. The work proposes the most effective public measures against the negative impact of CVC on the global economy. In particular, we examined the scenario of (possibly temporary) nationalization of operators of critical infrastructure to produce planned critical goods or services. The developed set of measures included limitation of the workers’ rights and freedoms by imposing to them labor duties, or replacing them with military ones, limiting the price of strategic goods, and organizing their consumption and distribution. Possible triggers for the implementation of such a scenario in the agricultural sector are offered, as well as mechanisms of protecting and supporting groups of economic agents affected by CVC are proposed.
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Functional products are currently attracting a lot of research interest. Modern people’s diet does not satisfy their need for nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and functional products can make it more balanced. In particular, our diet is lacking in protein. This paper discusses the prospects for enriching dairy products with plant protein derived from pine nuts and their products. Pine nut paste, fat-free milk, and oil cake are a valuable source of fatty acids, vitamins, and microelements. The protein, lipid, vitamin, and mineral content of these products makes them suitable for combining with milk. Their water-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities allow their use as stabilizers and emulsifiers. Siberian pine nuts grow wild in the Kemerovo Region, which makes their use as a raw material economically feasible. The article introduces a number of functional dairy products enriched with pine nut products, such as cheese, ice cream, and cottage cheese. Further, it describes the production process and the products’ nutritional value. The chemical composition of new types of dairy products shows that using pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil enriches them with plant proteins, vegetable fats, vitamins as well as macro- and microelements. Replacing dairy raw materials with plants does not reduce the nutritional value of new dairy products. Dairy foods are rich in protein, fat, and minerals. The vitamin content of new dairy products with functional ingredients is similar to that of dairy-based products. Moreover, using functional products (pine nut oil cake, fat-free flour, paste, and oil) enriches new types of dairy products with tocopherols.
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Using sodium bicarbonate (SB) in cooking meat products is a controversial subject. The aim of this study was to estimate an effect of different SB concentrations on the quality characteristics and organoleptic properties of meat in Kubideh Kebab, an Iranian popular meat product. Ground meat was divided into four groups (a, b, c, and d). After that, SB was added in ratio 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 g/kg respectively. A sample without SB was considered as a blank sample. The Kebab samples were prepared and cooked properly at 350°C for 4–6 minutes and at 450°C for
2–4 minutes. A significant difference was observed in the pH values and the cooking loss between the blank sample and those Kebab samples that were cooked at 350°C and 450°C and pre-treated with SB in the amount of 0.25–2.00 g per
1 kg of meat (P < 0.05). The amount of residual bicarbonate ions increased significantly in the cooked Kebab samples at both treatment temperatures in the a-d group in comparison with the blank sample, as well as between the groups
(P = 0.00). The organoleptic properties did not change in the a-d groups in comparison with the blank sample.
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Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub, is the sweetest plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves are an excellent source of diterpene glycosides stevioside, rebaudioside A-F, dulcoside, and steviolbioside, which are responsible for sweetness and have been utilized commercially for sugar substitution in foods, beverages, and medicines. To the best of our knowledge, a large number of studies have been carried out on composition, health implications, and safety of steviol glycosides. However, commercial production of stevia-incorporated food products needs further research in order to meet the huge global demand. Stevia-incorporated products possess better sweetening potency and maximum consumer acceptability, when compared with other sugar substitutes. Hence, the current research attempts to review the health promoting effects of stevia with special emphasis on its application in the food system. The paper majorly features 1) the anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-caries, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer benefits of stevia, 2) value-added stevia-incorporated products, e.g. bakery, dairy, and beverages, 3) the effect of incorporation of stevia on physicochemical, rheological, and nutritional food properties, 4) the current status and regulatory perspective of utilizing stevia at national and international level. Due to legislative actions and growing consumer awareness, public interest in natural sweeteners has significantly increased. Since the use of artificial sweetener has recently been questioned, the data the present article provides will be useful for consumers and manufacturers that seek an alternative.
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